Combining Behavior and Academic Instructional Support to Improve English Learners Reading Outcomes Jorge Preciado University of Oregon
OverviewApplied Behavior Analysis/Behavior Management PrinciplesFunction-based Behavior SupportInstructional Design VariablesReading Acquisition
Review of the ResearchThe two greatest risks for school failure are:(a) the display of a very challenging behavior pattern (i.e., antisocial behavior, aggression, opposition-defiance, bullying, etc.) and (b) early school failure, especially learning to read. (Walker & Shinn in Shinn, Walker & Stoner, 2002)
Students who cannot read are at risk for:having difficulty completing homework assignments in content areasreferrals for special education teen pregnancydrug and alcohol abuse dropping out of high school delinquencyunemploymenthomelessness (McGill and Franzen, 1987)
Three key elementsClassroom Behavior Principles/Function-based Behavior SupportPositive behavior support establishing conditions where behaviors are explicitly taught and reinforced to improve pro-social behaviorBehavior support is most effective when designed based on the function of a students behaviorInstructional Design VariablesCorrect academic placementTeaching explicitlyProviding multiple opportunities to respondReading AcquisitionBlending, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension Strategies
Ineffective Instructional Design and Delivery
Frustration-level task presentedIncorrect academic respondingPunishment/ extinction of academic respondingDecreased academic engagementFailure to acquire literacy skillsSanford, 2006
Ineffective Instructional Design and Delivery
Frustration-level task presentedMore severe problem behaviorEscape or avoid academic task
Decreased academic engagementInability to ReadSanford, 2006
Effective Instructional Design and Delivery:Explicit TeachingFrequent Opportunities to RespondAppropriate PlacementInstruction-level task presentedCorrect academic respondingReinforcement for academic responding
Increased academic engagementSuccessful acquisition of literacy skillsSanford, 2006
Statement of the ProblemLow income and Spanish speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) generally struggle academically (Goldenberg, 1996; Haager & Windmueller, 2001; Vaughn et al., 2005)85% of Latino ELLs in fourth through eighth read below grade level (Goldenberg, 1996; National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)Overrepresentation of Latino students in special education(Artiles et al., 2005; De Valenzuela et al., 2006)Most research conducted on Latino ELLs has focused on language development and not on reading (Anderson & Roit, 1998; Gunn et al., (in press); Linan-Thompson & Hickman-Davis, 2002; Weber, 1991)Literature regarding Latino ELLs and problem behaviors is sparse
ContinuedIf problem behaviors are related to escape or avoidance of grade level academic tasks, a negative reinforcement condition could be established.How?
How these word are used in this context:Negative means that something is taken away.Reinforcement means the behavior is more likely to happen again.
What is negative reinforcement?A consequence that makes a particular behavior more likely to happen again because the person avoids something aversive or unpleasant.
ScenarioMs. Kerns thought an easy way to get students to quit arguing about assignments would be to let the students who argued skip some of the questions or have more time to do assignments. However, over the next few weeks, that actually lead to more students coming up with arguments about assignments more often.
ScenarioJuan is in the first grade. Juan dislikes reading because he is a poor reader. During reading class, Juan hits his peers whenever his teacher Mr. Suarez asks him to read a passage. Immediately, Mr. Suarez sends Juan to the principal office for fighting.
ScenarioEsteban is in the second grade and he is reading below grade level. Esteban likes to sing songs in class and talk to his peers during reading class. Ms. Rivera scolds Esteban and then sends him to the back of the room to work. Esteban puts his head down and does not bother his peers for the rest of the period.
Applied Behavior Analysis: What is it?A way to understand and predict human behavior (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 2)Systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree . . . users of these principles [are able] to verify a functional relationship between a behavior and an intervention (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 531)
Can Applied Behavior Analysis Help?Applied behavior analysis . . . is probably the most widely used process for addressing a variety of learning and behavior problems. There is no doubt that more data are available to support behaviorally based interventions for ameliorating behavior problems than for all other models combined (Jackson & Panyan, 2002, p. 30).
How Can We Help Mr. Suarez?Conventional wisdom is to get tough on the student as this will make Juan comply.If problem behavior is caused by escape of task, conventional wisdom will backfire, escalate the problem, and create animosity between Juan and Mr. Suarez (McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006: Patterson, 1982: Preciado et al., 2009; Sanford, 2006).
AntecedentGrade level reading taskDesired BehaviorPerform TaskConsequencePraise StudentMaintaining ConsequenceEscape from grade level reading taskAlternative Behavior
Student will receive reading academic support (e.g., Decoding skills, review/preview, vocabulary instruction, and task completion supportStudent will raise hand and ask for a break from task or seek peer and/or adult help to complete task
BehaviorProblem BehaviorCompeting Pathway Model
Function-Based Behavior SupportFour ways to quantify behaviors:A) EscapeB) AttentionC) Access to a tangibleD) Self-reinforcement
ABCs of Problem BehaviorAntecedentBehavior Consequences
AntecedentThe circumstances that exist in the environment before a behavior is exhibited (Maag, 2004, p. 402)Here are some examples of antecedents for common behaviors that you can probably guess:Phone ringingTeacher asks a question in classBilly calls Tara a name that is an ethnic slur
BehaviorWhat individuals do their observable actions . . . can be verbal or nonverbal. . . . [In classrooms] includes actions students undertake to indicate they have [gained] knowledge (Maag, 2004, p. 403).
ConsequencesCircumstances that change the environment shortly after a behavior is displayed and that affect the future performance of the behavior by serving to increase, decrease, or maintain it (Maag, 2004, p. 405)
Alternative BehaviorIn order for students to attain a more socially appropriate behavior, students need an alternative behavior that serves the same function as the problem behavior.What do you mean by same function?
Hypothesis StatementDetermine (hypothesis statement) which of the four behavioral functions does the student exhibit.Conduct Competing Pathway Model.Remember to make the problem behavior irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective.
Start with AntecedentHow can we manipulate the antecedent to make the problem behavior irrelevant?Problem Behavior: Julio makes noises during independent reading time. Hypothesis Statement: AttentionAntecedent Manipulation: Speak to Julio ahead of time and discuss possibility of Julio orally sharing an event with the class. This will allow Julio access to peer attention.
BehaviorMake the problem behavior inefficient!Access to attention is easier to obtain than engaging in problem behavior.Julio gets up in front of class and shares that he will go to his cousins house over the weekend to celebrate his birthday.
ConsequenceMake the problem behavior ineffective!Provide Alternative Behavior to support student with behavior problems during independent reading time.Alternative behavior must be the same function as the problem behavior.
ScenarioJuan is in the first grade. Juan dislikes reading because he is a poor reader. During reading class, Juan hits his peers whenever his teacher Mr. Suarez asks him to read a passage. Immediately, Mr. Suarez sends Juan to the principals office for fighting.Antecedents, behavior, consequences?
Competing Pathway ModelAntecedentBehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceAlternative Behavior(1. Same Function)(2. Academic and Behavior Intervention)Manipulate ManipulateDesirable BehaviorConsequence
Lets PracticeLook at the scenario and provide a competing pathway model.Lets reviewThink of one of your students and conduct a competing pathway model.
Teach Social Skills EverydayTeach expectations and routines explicitly, systematically, and directlyTeach maintenance and generalizationReinforce appropriate behaviorBe consistentProvide opportunities to practice appropriate behaviors/Role PlayProvide constructive feedback
Expectations and RoutinesExpectations are rules (e.g., Be safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful)Routines are procedures that occur in classrooms (e.g., passing out paper, lining up, sitting at the carpet, listening to peers)We must teach expectations and routines daily (Alberto & Troutman, 2009).Teaching social skills is the equivalent of teaching the five big ideas in reading!
ContinuedExpectations are rules:Positively state 3-5 classroom rulesPositively Stated: Be SafeNegatively Stated: Do not hit your peers.Avoid terms such as: Do not and/or NeverRoutines are behaviors:Passing out paper, w