CognitionWhat is intelligence?What does thinking look like?
Luria and the Peasant, p. 39-40What is going on here? Why is there a disconnect?What is Luria after?What does the peasant think Luria is after? What kind of sociocultural activity is the conversation?Rogoff, p. 247
How might one measure cognition or intelligence?
Views on CognitionCommonsenseIntelligence looks the same everywhere; it can be tested.Intelligence is an individual capacity or ability, which can be used in all situations (Hes smart).Thinking occurs in an individuals mind, perhaps in solitude.
Cross-cultural psychologyIntelligence is culturally defined; test performance reflects many other things besides intelligence.Thinking depends on the use of cultural tools (language, number systems, counters) created by many people and learned in sociocultural activities. As a result, intelligence may not be general.The performance of tasks in the wild shows that thinking is distributed across individuals and occurs in conjunction with interpersonal processes
In Rogoffs formulation.We learn to think through our participation in sociocultural activities (just as we learn other things), p. 237.One of the things we learn through participation in sociocultural activities is how to use cultural tools to think.
Thinking depends on cultural tools developed by other people through time and learned through participation in sociocultural activities from othersLanguage, p. 264Number systemMethods for doing calculations (paper and pen, calculators, cellphones)Counters (digits)
Ed Hutchins Cognition in the Wild (1995)
In the wild, cognition is distributed across people and is generated collaborativelyPeople do tasks together in mature and complex activitiesPeople may come to new ideas collaborativelyThe accomplishment of the task depends as much on social intelligence (timing, coordination, knowledge of personalities and the task) as on verbal or logico-mathematical reasoning (Rogoff, p. 270).
Implication #1Because individual development constitutes and is constituted by social and cultural-historical activities and practices, it becomes difficult to separate out persons and activities.
That is, is it the individual thinking or the tools or the context that is enabling the thinking?
Hence, cognition as an individual, interpersonal, and community process.
Implication #2School is a particular kind of sociocultural activity in which people learn to think in particular ways.
American schools value certain kinds of intelligence over others:Linguistic and mathematical/logicalThose capacities are considered generalizable.American schools aim to isolate individual thinking:Individual workNo help from others on evaluations (considered cheating)
Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Frames of Mind (1983)LinguisticLogical-mathematicalMusicalBodily-KinestheticSpatialInterpersonalIntrapersonalWhat kinds of intelligences are waitresses using?Are there some forms of intelligence that waitresses use that are not on this list?
Other definitions of intelligenceNzelu p. 250: wisdom, cleverness, and responsibilityDoes intelligence mean being fast or being slow and careful? p. 249