Cloud Computing 101 (DHS Learning Session)

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Introduction to cloud computing, benefits, risks, challenges, definitions, models, technical concepts and details on how DHS is implementing cloud-based services.

Text of Cloud Computing 101 (DHS Learning Session)

Cloud Computing 101Syed AzeemFebruary 28, 2013

Welcome! The purpose of this learning session is to raise awareness about Cloud Computing Information gained from this session will be valuable in understanding business technology trends that re already affecting and will continue to affect all of us It is important to know about this topic because the Federal government, including DHS, is making a big push towards Cloud Computing initiatives Well try to keep this as interactive as possible, so please stop me when you have a question, or have something interesting to share2


Cloud ComputingWhat is it, and why should I care?

Value & Benefits Implications for DHS and the Federal government3

Agenda (continued)

More Cloud ComputingDefinitions, Models, Examples What does it mean to be in the cloudVideo & Demonstration4

A little bit of perspective and history



Source: The Singularity is Near (Ray Kurzweil)


Source: Hewlett Packard Federal Practice (Rick Fleming)

Perceptions, views, opinions and myths




Most Americans Confused By Cloud Computing According to National Survey







Survey Highlights 95% of those who think theyre not using the cloud, actually are 22% pretended to know how the cloud works 40% believe accessing work information at home in their birthday suit would be an advantage After being provided with the definition of the cloud, 68% recognized its economic benefits17

Overcoming confusion, gaining empowerment and professional development This knowledge will set you apart from most Youll know what the cloud is, how it works and what benefits it may provide your organization At the next job interview, social gathering, professional event or get together with friends, you wont have to fake it

Confusion because it an abstract concept and is not very intuitively understood, but can be easily grasped through gaining knowledge!18

Cloud isnt really the best term, so dont take it literally We are describing something abstract19

Ancient story about blind men and an elephant


Ancient story about blind men and an elephant


What is it all about?


What is Cloud Computing? A model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.


Source: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing defined in English The traditional and legacy IT model of separate IT infrastructures for each system, both within Federal government and industry, must evolve To meet the growing customer demands within a budget-constrained environment

A new service-based pattern of distributing computing power, not a new technology in itself It is supported by various technologies such as virtualization, serviceoriented architecture (SOA) and the Internet.

End user has much more control than he/she used to over a powerful, remote server owned by somebody else That control can extend up to the point where he/she achieves programmatic control over the server, if desired

The heart of cloud computing is gaining that control while engaging in one of the lowest-cost forms of computing24

Source: DHS CIO; InformationWeek

Why is traditional IT on its way out? Not well positioned to reduce time to market for new services or provide transparency for operational expenses Introduces higher risk due to up-front capital expenditures Customized applications hosted in traditional data center environments cannot scale fast enough to support urgent demand in real-time Potential security vulnerabilities are harder and costlier to fix25

Source: DHS CIO, Richard Spires (Congressional Testimony; October 2011)

Video: Federal CIO Council (



Sample uses of Cloud Computing Websites and web services,,,, Mobile services Google Mobile App engine Business & Productivity Applications Microsoft Office 365, Google Apps Quicken Online, Database & Storage Google Cloud storage, Google Cloud SQL (mySQL) Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Microsoft SQL Database/Reporting (Windows Azure) Scientific Uses Medical research (NIH) Space Missions (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab)

Traditional IT architecture


Traditional IT

SharePoint Server

Exchange Server (Email)

Project Server

Oracle Financials


Human Capital System

Contracts Management System

Exchange Email Service

SharePoint Service

Project Service

Oracle Financials Service Contracts Management Service

Human Capital Service



Source: Wikipedia

Total Cost Of Ownership (TCO) Gartner: total cost of ownership (TCO) is a comprehensive assessment of IT (or other) costs across enterprise boundaries over time For IT, it includes hardware and software acquisition management and support Communications end-user expenses opportunity cost of downtime, training and other productivity losses.


Considering TCO for IT


Another View: Cost Elements for IT


Benefit: Reduced Costs Ability to scale up and down Maximum Utilization Server loads approaching 100%

Pay for only what you use




Cloud computing suitability based on usage patterns

Patterns Benefiting Most from Cloud Deployment


Source: ELEKS R&D

Cloud computing suitability based on usage patterns

Will Not Benefit from Utilization Efficiencies of Cloud, but Potential to Still Enjoy other Cloud Benefits


Source: ELEKS R&D

Benefit: Agility With traditional IT model, time to market is usually years, if not many months Cloud computing provides agility by: Enabling significantly faster product launch cycles Allows agencies to adapt and react to changes with unprecedented speed Agencies can focus on their core mission with IT as an enabler and force multiplier40

Benefit: Innovation Cloud computing is spurring innovation within the private sector and Federal government DHS is a key player in Federal cloud computing initiatives If not for the cloud, many solutions would not be possible today due to the resources required (time, money and people) were usually owned by large governments or corporations The game has changed; Its a different paradigm; total shift in how IT serves business operations41

Benefit: Sustainability & Green Government

White House



Why is the cloud more energy efficient?



Knowledge Check #1 Cloud Computing = think of a SERVICE Its not a product Its not a system in the traditional sense We are not buying hardware or software licenses

Its not a network, its not pipes, or real clouds, or furry animals! If you are unsure whether something is or is not based in the cloud, just see if it possesses the characteristics44

Behind the scenes


Cloud model is composed of 5 essential characteristics 3 service delivery models 4 deployment models


Source: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

5 Cloud computing characteristics1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On-demand self-service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service


Source: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is defined by 5 characteristics


Sources: NIST; Forrester; A.T. Kearny analysis



3 Cloud service delivery modelsInfrastructure as a Service (IaaS)System administrator Provisions processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources Able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications

Platform as a Service (PaaS)Software developer: Deploys custom or acquired applications Has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the applicationhosting environment Does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage

Software as a Service (SaaS)End-user: Accesses and works on applications Able to configure application-specific settings Does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage


Source: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

3 Cloud service delivery models (by roles)


Level of control and responsibility by cloud service delivery models


Risk-based view of Control/Responsibility in Cloud service delivery models


Source: Enterprise Risk Management for Cloud Computing (COSO/Crowe Horwath LLP)

Knowledge Check #2: Identify cloud service delivery modelService Example Web applications such as: MyTSA, Gmail, Hotmail, Facebook, Google Maps, Bing, Yahoo! A Pentium Xeon processor, with 16 gigabyte RAM, 2 terabyte hard disk, connected to a fiber-optic network connection. A custom DHS online application and its data stored in a database. Full control of all IT resources including, servers, storage, networking, operating system, data and applications.54