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Classical solutions of open string field theory. Martin Schnabl Institute of Physics, Prague Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. ICHEP, July 22, 2010. What is String Field Theory?. Field theoretic description of all excitations of a string (open or closed) at once. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Martin SchnablInstitute of Physics, PragueAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicICHEP, July 22, 2010Field theoretic description of all excitations of a string (open or closed) at once. Useful especially for physics of backgrounds: tachyon condensation or instanton physicsSingle Lagrangian field theory which should around its various critical points describe physics of diverse D-brane backgrounds, possibly also gravitational backgrounds.Closed string field theory (Zwiebach 1990) presumably the fundamental theory of gravity is given by a technically ingenious construction, but it is hard to work with, and it also may be viewed as too perturbative and `effective.Open string field theory (Witten 1986, Berkovits 1995) might be more fundamental (Sen). Reminiscent of holography (Maldacena) and old 1960s ideas of Sacharov.Open string field theory uses the following data Let all the string degrees of freedom be assembled inWitten (1986) proposed the following actionThis action has a huge gauge symmetryprovided that the star product is associative, QB acts as agraded derivation and < . > has properties of integration.Note that there is a gauge symmetry for gauge symmetryso one expects infinite tower of ghosts indeed they canbe naturally incorporated by lifting the ghost number restriction on the string field.The elements of string field star algebra are states in the BCFT, they can be identified with a piece of a worldsheet.By performing the path integral on the glued surface in two steps, one sees that in fact: We have just seen that the star product obeys And therefore states obey The star product and operator multiplication are thus isomorphic! The star algebra is formed by vertex operators and the operator K. The simplest subalgebra relevant for tachyon condensation is therefore spanned by K and c. Let us be more generous and add an operator B such that QB=K.The building elements thus obeyThe derivative Q acts as This new understanding lets us construct solutions to OSFT equations of motion easily. More general solutions are of the form Here F=F(K) is arbitrary M.S. 2005, Okawa, Erler 2006The space of all such solutions has not been completely classified yet, although we are quite close (Rastelli; Erler; M.S., Murata). Let us restrict our attention to different choices of F(K) only.Let us call a state geometric if F(K) is of the form where f() is a tempered distribution. Restricting to absolutely integrable distributions one gets the notion of L0safe geometric states.Therefore F(K) must be holomorphic for Re(K)>0 and bounded by a polynomial there. Had we further demanded boundedness by a constant we would get the so called Hardy space H which is a Banach algebra. Since formally and the state is trivial if is well definedThere is another useful criterion. One can look at the cohomology of the theory around a given solution. It is given by an operator The cohomology is formally trivialized by an operator which obeysTherefore in this class of solutions, the trivial ones are those for which F2(0) 1.Tachyon vacuum solutions are those for which F2(0) = 1 but the zero of 1-F2 is first orderWhen the order of zero of 1-F2 at K=0 is of higher order the solution is not quite well defined, but it has been conjectured (Ellwood, M.S.) to correspond to multi-brane solutions. trivial solution. tachyon vacuum only c and K turned on. M.S. 05 Erler, M.S. 09 the simplest solution so farCan one compute an energy of the general solution as a function of F? The technology has been here for quite some time, but the task seemed daunting. Recently we addressed the problem with M. Murata.The basic ingredient is the correlatorNow insert the identity in the formAnd after some human-aided computer algebra we find very simple expressionOn the second line we have a total derivative which does not contribute. For a function of the formwe find To get further support let us look at the Ellwood invariant (or Hashimoto-Itzhaki-Gaiotto-Rastelli-Sen-Zwiebach invariant) . Ellwood proposed that for general OSFT solutions it would obey let us calculate the LHS: For we find !Given any exactly marginal matter operator J (with non-singular OPE with itself for simplicity) one can construct a solution (M.S.; Okawa, Kiermaier, Zwiebach; Erler) Particularly nice case is for the special case of J=eX0 the solution interpolates between the perturbative and tachyon vacua.We are still missing the ideas and tools for constructing nontrivial solutions describing general BCFTsMany things need to be done for the superstringsFind a physical applications (early universe, particle physics)Study closed strings**