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Table of Contents Index

Troubleshooting IP Routing Protocols (CCIE Professional Development) By Faraz Shamim CCIE #4131, Zaheer Aziz CCIE #4127, Johnson Liu CCIE

#2637, Abe Martey CCIE #2373Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: May 07, 2002 ISBN: 1-58705-019-6 Pages: 912 Slots: 2

The comprehensive, hands-on guide for resolving IP routing problems:q

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Understand and overcome common routing problems associated with BGP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, multicasting, and RIP, such as route installation, route advertisement, route redistribution, route summarization, route flap, and neighbor relationships Solve complex IP routing problems through methodical, easy-to-follow flowcharts and step-bystep scenario instructions for troubleshooting Obtain essential troubleshooting skills from detailed case studies by experienced Cisco TAC team members Examine numerous protocol-specific debugging tricks that speed up problem resolution Gain valuable insight into the minds of CCIE enigineers as you prepare for the challenging CCIE exams

As the Internet continues to grow exponentially, the need for network engineers to build, maintain, and troubleshoot the growing number of component networks has also increased significantly. IP routing is at the core of Internet technology and expedient troubleshooting of IP routing failures is key to reducing network downtime and crucial for sustaining mission-critical applications carried over the Internet. Though troubleshooting skills are in great demand, few networking professionals possess the knowledge to identify and rectify networking problems quickly and efficiently. Troubleshooting IP Routing Protocols provides working solutions necessary for networking engineers who are pressured to acquire expert-level skills at a moment's notice. This book also serves as an additional study aid for Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) candidates. Authored by Cisco Systems engineers in the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) and the Internet Support Engineering Team who troubleshoot IP routing protocols on a daily basis, Troubleshooting IP Routing Protocols goes through a step-by-step process to solving real-world problems. Based on the authors' combined years of experience, this complete reference alternates between chapters that cover the key aspects of a given routing protocol and chapters that concentrate on the troubleshooting steps an engineer would take to resolve the most common routing problems related to a variety of routing protocols. The book provides extensive, practical coverage of BGP, IGRP,

EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, multicasting, and RIP as run on Cisco IOS Software network devices. Troubleshooting IP Routing Protocols offers you a full understanding of invaluable troubleshooting techniques that help keep your network operating at peak performance. Whether you are looking to hone your support skills or to prepare for the challenging CCIE exams, this essential reference shows you how to isolate and resolve common network failures and to sustain optimal network operation. This book is part of the Cisco CCIE Professional Development Series, which offers expert-level instruction on network design, deployment, and support methodologies to help networking professionals manage complex networks and prepare for CCIE exams.

Table of Contents Index

Troubleshooting IP Routing Protocols (CCIE Professional Development) By Faraz Shamim CCIE #4131, Zaheer Aziz CCIE #4127, Johnson Liu CCIE

#2637, Abe Martey CCIE #2373Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: May 07, 2002 ISBN: 1-58705-019-6 Pages: 912 Slots: 2

Copyright About the Authors About the Technical Reviewers Acknowledgments Preface Introduction Who Should Read This Book? How This Book Is Organized Icons Used in This Book Command Syntax Conventions Chapter 1. Understanding IP Routing IP Addressing Concepts Static and Dynamic Routes Dynamic Routing Routing Protocol Administrative Distance Fast Forwarding in Routers Summary Review Questions References Chapter 2. Understanding Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Metric Timers Split Horizon Split Horizon with Poison Reverse RIP-1 Packet Format RIP Behavior Why RIP Doesn't Support Discontiguous Networks Why RIP Doesn't Support Variable-Length Subnet Masking

Default Routes and RIP Protocol Extension to RIP Compatibility Issues Summary Review Questions Further Reading Chapter 3. Troubleshooting RIP Flowcharts to Solve Common RIP Problems Troubleshooting RIP Routes Installation Problem: RIP Routes Not in the Routing Table Problem: RIP Is Not Installing All Possible Equal-Cost PathsCause: maximum-path Command Restricts RIP from Installing More Than One Path Troubleshooting RIP Routes Advertisement Problem: Sender Is Not Advertising RIP Routes Problem: Subnetted Routes Missing from the Routing Table of R2Cause: Autosummarization Feature Is Enabled Troubleshooting Routes Summarization in RIP Problem: RIP-2 Routing Table Is Huge Cause: Autosummarization Is Off Problem: RIP-2 Routing Table Is Huge Cause: ip summary-address Is Not Used Troubleshooting RIP Redistribution Problems Troubleshooting Dial-on-Demand Routing Issues in RIP Problem: RIP Broadcast Is Keeping the ISDN Link UpCause: RIP Broadcasts Have Not Been Denied in the Interesting Traffic Definition Problem: RIP Updates Are Not Going Across the Dialer InterfaceCause: Missing broadcast Keyword in a dialer map Statement Troubleshooting Routes Flapping Problem in RIP Chapter 4. Understanding Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Metrics Timers Split Horizon Split Horizon with Poison Reverse IGRP Packet Format IGRP Behavior Default Route and IGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing in IGRP Summary Review Questions Chapter 5. Troubleshooting IGRP Flowcharts to Solve Common IGRP Problems Troubleshooting IGRP Route Installation Problem: IGRP Routes Not in the Routing Table Problem: IGRP Is Not Installing All Possible Equal-Cost PathsCause: maximum-paths Restricts IGRP to a Maximum of Four Paths by Default Troubleshooting IGRP Routes Advertisement Problem: Sender Is Not Advertising IGRP Routes Problem: Candidate Default Is Not Being AdvertisedCause: ip default-network Command Is Missing

Troubleshooting IGRP Redistribution Problems Problem: Redistributed Routes Are Not Getting Installed in the Routing TableCause: Metric Is Not Defined During Redistribution into IGRP Troubleshooting Dial-on-Demand Routing (DDR) Issues in IGRP Problem: IGRP Broadcast Is Keeping the ISDN Link UpCause: IGRP Broadcasts Have Not Been Denied in the Interesting Traffic Definition Problem: IGRP Updates Are Not Going Across the Dialer InterfaceCause: Missing Broadcast Keyword in a dialer map Statement Troubleshooting Route Flapping Problem in IGRP Problem: IGRP Routes Are FlappingCause: Packet Drops on Sender's or Receiver's Interface Troubleshooting Variance Problem Problem: IGRP Not Using Unequal-Cost Path for Load BalancingCause: variance Command Is Missing or Misconfigured Chapter 6. Understanding Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Metrics EIGRP Neighbor Relationships The Diffusing Update Algorithm DUAL Finite-State Machine EIGRP Reliable Transport Protocol EIGRP Packet Format EIGRP Behavior EIGRP Summarization EIGRP Query Process Default Routes and EIGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing in EIGRP Summary Review Questions Chapter 7. Troubleshooting EIGRP Troubleshooting EIGRP Neighbor Relationships Troubleshooting EIGRP Route Advertisement Troubleshooting EIGRP Route Installation Troubleshooting EIGRP Route Flapping Troubleshooting EIGRP Route Summarization Troubleshooting EIGRP Redistribution Problems Troubleshooting EIGRP Dial Backup Problem EIGRP Error Messages Summary Chapter 8. Understanding Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF Packet Details OSPF LSA Details OSPF Areas OSPF Media Types OSPF Adjacencies Summary Review Questions Chapter 9. Troubleshooting OSPF Flowcharts to Solve Common OSPF Problems

Troubleshooting OSPF Neighbor Relationships Problem: OSPF Neighbor List Is Empty Problem: OSPF Neighbor Stuck in INIT Problem: OSPF Neighbor Stuck in 2-WAYCause: Priority 0 Is Configured on All Routers Problem: OSPF Neighbor Stuck in EXSTART/EXCHANGE Problem: OSPF Neighbor Stuck in LOADING Troubleshooting OSPF Route Advertisement Problem: OSPF Neighbor Is Not Advertising Routes Problem: OSPF Neighbor (ABR) Not Advertising the Summary Route Problem: OSPF Neighbor Is Not Advertising External Routes Problem: OSPF Neighbor Not Advertising Default Routes Troubleshooting OSPF Route Installation Problem: OSPF Not Installing Any Routes in the Routing Table Problem: OSPF Not Installing External Routes in the Routing Table Troubleshooting Redistribution Problems in OSPF Problem: OSPF Neighbor Is Not Advertising External Routes Troubleshooting Route Summarization in OSPF Problem: Router Is Not Summarizing Interarea RoutesCause: area range Command Is Not Configured on ABR Problem: Router Is Not Summarizing External RoutesCause: summary-address Command Is Not Configured on ASBR Troubleshooting CPUHOG Problems Problem: CPUHOG Messages During Adjacency FormationCause: Router Is Not Running PacketPacing Code Problem: CPUHOG Messages During LSA Refresh PeriodCause: Router Is Not Running LSA Group-Pacing Code Troubleshooting Dial-on-Demand Routing Issues in OSPF Problem: OSPF Hellos Are Bringing Up the LinkCause: OSPF Hellos Are Permitted as Interesting Traffic Problem: Demand Circuit Keeps Bringing Up the Link Troubleshooting SPF Calculation and Route Flapping SPF Running ConstantlyCause: Interface Flap Within the Network SPF Running ConstantlyCause: Neighbor Flap Within the Network SPF Running ConstantlyCause: Duplicate Router ID Common OSPF Error Messages "Unknown routing protocol" Error Message OSPF: "Could not allocate router id" Error Message "%OSPF-4-BADLSATYPE: Invalid lsa: Bad LSA type" Type 6 Error Message "OSPF-4-ERRRCV" Error Message Chapter 10. Understanding Intermediate

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