Chinese dyslexic

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Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Reflective Paper


THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG FACULTY OF EDUCATION BEd and BEd(LangEd) Assignment Cover Sheet cum Assessment Feedback Proforma Programme: Stream: Year of Study: Course Code: Course Title: * BA&BEd(LangEd) * English *2 EDUC 2003 Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Course Teacher: Dr. P. S. Yeung Assignment Title: Reflective paper*please delete as appropriate

Student Name: Cheung Wing Yo Student No: 2010106008 Due Date: 9th May, 2012

Student Declaration:This assignment is entirely my own work except where I have duly acknowledged other sources in the text and listed those sources at the end of the assignment; I have not previously submitted this work to this University or any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification; I understand that I may be orally examined on my submission. I have read the booklet What is Plagiarism (available at which gives details of plagiarism, and I have observed all the requirements set out in the booklet. In addition (please tick all that apply): I have submitted this assignment to Turnitin, have reviewed the Originality Report, and revised my assignment as necessary to ensure that my work is free of plagiarism. This assignment includes data from my classroom, such as video and audio recordings of my lessons and copies of student work. The data is used solely for the purpose of completing this assignment. The school and the students are not identified in this assignment. Where necessary I have used pseudonyms. I will destroy the data upon formal assessment of my assignment and my course grade is endorsed by the Faculty of Education.


Cheung Wing Yi


9th May, 2012

Assessment Feedback (To be completed by Examiner):(NB The ticks in the various boxes are to provide guidance to students. They are not indicative of weightings towards the final grade. The final grade awarded does not necessarily reflect a simple summation of the ticks as examiner may emphasize one area more than another.)CONTENT Excellent, outstanding performance Question /Task very clearly understood Full coverage of topic All basic and higher order goals met Very high level of skills LOGIC & COHERENCE Concepts very clearly understood Argument always logical Highly logical structure & development READING & RESEARCH Wide reading of relevant literature Good critical understanding Referencing very clear & appropriate LANGUAGE CONTENT Unsatisfactory performance Question /Task misunderstood Key aspects of topic neglected Goals not met (basic or higher order) Basic skills not demonstrated LOGIC & COHERENCE Concepts not understood Illogical argument Assignment rambles & lacks structure READING & RESEARCH Little or no evidence of reading Uncritical acceptance of others views Referencing inadequate or inappropriate LANGUAGE


Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Reflective PaperExpresses meaning very clearly Fluent, accurate grammar and vocabulary use PRESENTATION Very high standard of presentation Format requirements fully met PRESENTATION Poor presentation Unacceptable format


Meaning often unclear Unacceptable grammar & vocabulary






Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Reflective PaperCheung Wing Yi,Wing


Systematic review on traditional Chinese developmental dyslexiaAbstract Collating with English counterparts, developmental dyslexia is a relatively new concept among Chinese (Ho, Chan, Tsang & Lee, 2002). During the past few years, there is an increasing referral numbers for assessment and support for dyslexia at both the Department of Health and Education and Manpower Bureau (Lam, 2005). It was estimated that the prevalence rate of dyslexic children in Hong Kong was 10 % (Chan, Ho, Tsang, Lee, & Chung, 2007 as cited in Zhang, Biggs & Watkins, 2010, p.149). It is definitely alarming and important for us, teachers, to delve deeper in this learning disability as well as to cater dyslexic students needs even though causes, solution and identification of Chinese reading failure is still unknown (Siok, 2011a). In this paper, traditional Chinese developmental dyslexia is investigated, possible teacher accommodations and interventions are elucidated and obstacles faced in Hong Kong context are also highlighted. At the end, areas for improvement are suggested accordingly. Definition of traditional Chinese developmental dyslexia In fact, it is difficult to define dyslexia (Csize, Kormos & Sarkadi, 2010) as it is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language (Orton Dyslexia Research Committee, 1994 as cited in Kirk et. al, 2008, p.114) due to differences in the phonological transparency of different languages (Ho, Chan, Tsang & Lee, 2002) and different in degree of severity from surface to deep (Wengang, Shengxi, & Weekes, 2005). The field has not yet reached a consensus on the definition of this disorder (Ho et. al, 2002). In this paper, this is defined as a severe reading disability without deficiency to intelligence, sensory ability, verbal skills, and motivation and education opportunities (Siok, 2012) which children encounter difficulties in three main areas: 1) word recognition; 2) word reading; 3) dictation (Child Assessment Service, 2008). Reading Acquisition of Chinese Chinese which is morpho-syllabic (Siok, 2011c) belongs to logographic writing system in which characters are based on meaning (Tan, Spinks, Eden, Perfetti & Siok, 2005) due to irregular syllable-phoneme-mapping (Siok, 2011c), therefore phonological short term memory is needed to learn new characters (Siok, 2011c). Instead of relying largely on phonological awareness in reading English, the ability to read Chinese depend on visual-orthographic awareness, writing skills, minor phonological awareness (Tan et. al, 2005; Ho et. al, 2002). Regarding writing skills, it is common for Hong Kong children to learn traditional Chinese by spending a lot of time in copying exercises to help memorize new words (Yang, 2009) and has been a practice used in schools (Siok, 2011c). On the other hand, Hong Kong children also learn through look-and-say method (Ho et. al, 2002) learning pronunciation along with the symbols of characters at the same time. McBride-Chang and Ho (2000, as cited in Ho et. al, 2002) have suggested3

Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Reflective Paperthat speeded naming skills become pivotal in this Chinese-reading-acquisition method.


Major characteristics and Educational implications of Chinese developmental dyslexia Ho et. al (2002) suggested that Chinese-dyslexic-children would suffer from the following multiple deficits. Reading-related cognitive skills Rapid automatized naming deficits (RAN) Although Ho et. al (2002) supported the multiple-deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia , they concluded that RAN is the most dominant and prevalent (Wong & Ho,2010) cognitive deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia. RAN are thought to index the ability to retrieve accurately and efficiently phonological information from the lexical store (Denckla & Rudel, 1976 as cited in Wong , Kidd, Ho & Au, 2010) but severity is manifested(Wong & Ho, 2010). Orthographic deficits Ho et al. (2002, 2004) indicated another prominent problem encountered by Chinese-dyslexic-children is orthographic deficit (as cited in Chung, Ho, Chan, Suk-Man & Suk-Han, 2010). Chinese-dyslexic-children performed less well than average reading counterparts of same chronological age in Ho (2002)s orthographic tasks which aimed at assessing their knowledge in Chinese character structure. Visual deficits Gardners (1996, as cited in Ho et. al, 2002) Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills was used to test childrens visual-perceptual and visual-memory-skill. Chinese-dyslexic-childrens performances in the subtests were relatively weaker than their non-dyslexic counterparts of same chronological age (Ho et. al, 2002). They are prone to encounter difculties in acquiring visual-orthographic knowledge and developing a strong orthographic representation of words in their mind (Chung, 2010). Owing to these cognitive deficits, Chinese-dyslexic-children will have the following major characteristics and educational implications, which divide into two aspects 1) word recognition and reading; 2) writing to dictation, based on Child Assessment Service (2008) and poor comprehenders (Yeung, 2012). Regarding word recognition and reading, recurrent errors are made by Chinese-dyslexic-children even after repetitive studies or practices (Child Assessment Service, 2008). Besides, they cannot read with fluency and tend to mispronounce words or forget the pronunciation (Education Bureau, 2010). They also incline to mix up characters of similar shapes like and (Child Assessment Service, 2008). Furthermore, they would read as or as since these words are with similar or4

Catering for Diverse Learning Needs Reflective Paper


related meaning (Child Assessment Service, 2008). Finally, they tire easily or even suffer from headache during reading (Child Assessment Service, 2008). Hence, they need greater efforts to finish reading and writing assignments (Education Bureau, 2010). Concerning writing to dictation, they fail to recall simple words accurately in dictation (Child Assessment Service, 2008) even after considerable efforts. Wrong patterns in words (Child Assessment Service, 2008) also exist, for example, they will omit or add unnecessary strokes to Chinese characters when copying (Education Bureau, 2010). Plus, they may have reversal errors and mirror writing (Siok, 2011b), such as reversal of