Chemistry Core Curriculum

Embed Size (px)

Text of Chemistry Core Curriculum

  • Physical Setting/Physical Setting/

    ChemistryChemistry Core Curriculum

    THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

    http://www.nysed.gov

    http:http://www.nysed.gov

  • THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK Regents of The University

    CARL T. HAYDEN, Chancellor, A.B., J.D. ............................................................................Elmira ADELAIDE L. SANFORD, Vice Chancellor, B.A., M.A., P.D. .................................................Hollis DIANE ONEILL MCGIVERN, B.S.N., M.A., Ph.D. . ..............................................................Staten Island SAUL B. COHEN, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. .....................................................................................New Rochelle JAMES C. DAWSON, A.A., B.A., M.S., Ph.D. .......................................................................Peru ROBERT M. BENNETT, B.A., M.S. ........................................................................................Tonawanda ROBERT M. JOHNSON, B.S., J.D. .........................................................................................Huntington ANTHONY S. BOTTAR, B.A., J.D. .........................................................................................North Syracuse MERRYL H. TISCH, B.A., M.A. ............................................................................................New York ENA L. FARLEY, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. .....................................................................................Brockport GERALDINE D. CHAPEY, B.A., M.A., Ed.D...........................................................................Belle Harbor ARNOLD B. GARDNER, B.A., LL.B........................................................................................Buffalo CHARLOTTE K. FRANK, B.B.A., M.S.Ed., Ph.D. ..................................................................New York HARRY PHILLIPS, 3rd, B.A., M.S.F.S. ...................................................................................Hartsdale JOSEPH E. BOWMAN, JR., B.A., M.L.S., M.A., M.Ed., Ed.D ...............................................Albany LORRAINE A. CORTS-VZQUEZ, B.A., M.P.A......................................................................Bronx

    President of The University and Commissioner of Education RICHARD P. MILLS

    Chief Operating Officer RICHARD H. CATE

    Deputy Commissioner for Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education JAMES A. KADAMUS

    Assistant Commissioner for Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment ROSEANNE DEFABIO

    Assistant Director for Curriculum and Instruction ANNE SCHIANO

    The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs, services, and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print or audio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Departments Office for Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 152, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.

  • CONTENTS

    Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv

    Core Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Process Skills Based on Standards 1, 2, 6, and 7 . . .5 Process Skills Based on Standard 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Standard 4:

    The Physical Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

    Appendix A: Chemistry Core Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

    Appendix B: Chemistry Content Connections Table . . . . . . . . . . . .34

    Chemistry iii

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The State Education Department acknowledges the assistance of teachers and school administrators from across New York State and the New York State Chemistry Mentors. In particular, the State Education Department would like to thank:

    Robert Dayton Rush-Henrietta High School, Henrietta Mary Dery Dutchess BOCES, Poughkeepsie David Hanson SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook Linda Hobart Finger Lakes Community College, Canandaigua Silvana Jaus Edgemont High School, Scarsdale Carol Jemmott Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, Brooklyn Elaine Jetty Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk Senior High School Patrick Kavanah (retired) Monroe Woodbury Senior High School, Central Valley David Kiefer Midwood High School, Brooklyn Elise Hilf Levine Scarsdale High School, Scarsdale Joan Laredo-Liddell St. Barnabas High School, Bronx June Kasuga Miller Queens College, Flushing Theresa Newkirk Saratoga Springs Sr. High School, Saratoga Springs Linda Padwa Port Jefferson High School, Port Jefferson Cynthia Partee Division High School, Levittown Diane Pillersdorf Richmond Hill High School, Richmond Hill Lee Roberts Wellsville High School, Wellsville Lance W. Rudiger Potsdam Senior High School, Potsdam David L. Shelc Portville Jr./Sr. High School, Portville Thomas Shiland Saratoga Springs Senior High School, Saratoga Springs Virginia M. Trombley AuSable Valley High School, Clintonville Alice Veyvoda Half Hollow Hills High School West, Dix Hills Beatrice G. Werden Bronx High School of Science, Bronx Harvey Weiner John F. Kennedy High School, Bellmore

    The project manager for the development of the Chemistry Core Curriculum was Diana Kefalas Harding, Associate in Science Education, with content and assessment support provided by Sharon Miller, Associate in Educational Testing, and Elise Russo, Associate in Science Education. Special thanks go to Jan Christman for technical expertise.

    Chemistry iv

  • Physical Setting/Physical Setting/

    ChemistryChemistry Core Curriculum

  • Chemistry 2

  • INTRODUCTION

    The Physical Setting/Chemistry Core Curriculum has been written to assist teachers and supervisors as they prepare curriculum, instruction, and assessment for the chemistry content and process skills in the New York State Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology. This core curriculum is an elaboration of the science content of that document and its key ideas and performance indicators. Key ideas are broad, unifying, general statements of what students need to know. The performance indicators for each key idea are statements of what students should be able to do to provide evidence that they understand the key idea.

    The Chemistry Core Curriculum presents major understandings that give more specific detail to the concepts underlying the performance indicators in Standard 4. In addition, portions of Standards 1, 2, 6, and 7 have been elaborated to highlight skills necessary to allow students to evaluate proposed explanations of natural phenomena. The concepts and skills identified in the introductions and the major understandings of each key idea in the core curriculum will provide the material from which Regents examination items will be developed. Occasionally, examples are given in an effort to clarify information. These examples are not inclusive lists. Therefore, teachers should not feel limited by them.

    This core is not a syllabus. This is a core for the preparation of high school curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The lack of detail in this core is not to be seen as a shortcoming. Rather, the focus on conceptual understanding in the core is consistent with the approaches recommended in the National Science Education Standard (National Research Council) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science). The local courses designed using this core curriculum are expected to prepare students to explain both accurately and with appropriate depth concepts and models relating to chemistry. The core addresses only the content and skills to be assessed at the commencement level by the Physical Setting/Chemistry Regents examination. The core curriculum has been prepared with the assumption that the content, skills, and vocabulary as outlined in the Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology at the elementary and intermediate levels have been taught previously. Work in grades 9-12 must build on the knowledge,

    understanding, and ability to do science that students have acquired in their earlier grades.

    It is essential that instruction focus on the understanding of concepts, relationships, processes, mechanisms, models, and applications. Less important is the memorization of specialized terminology and technical details. In attaining scientific literacy, students will be able to demonstrate these understandings, generate explanations, exhibit creative problem solving and reasoning, and make informed decisions. Future assessments will test students ability to explain, analyze, and interpret chemical processes and phenomena, and use models and scientific inquiry. The major understandings in this guide will also allow teachers more flexibility, making possible richer creativity in instruction and greater variation in assessment. The general nature of the major understandings in this core will encourage the teaching of science for understanding, rather than for memorization.

    The order of presentation and numbering of all statements in this guide are not meant to indicate any recommended sequence of instruction. Ideas have not been prioritized, nor have they been organized to indicate teaching time allotments or test weighting. Many of the major understandings in this document are stated in a general rather than specific manner. It is expected that teachers will provide examples and applications in their teaching/learning strategies to bring abou