I) Aero-aquatic Hyphomycetes
Genus: Helicomyces Link
Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, Mag. 3: 21 (1809).
The genus Helicomyces was introduced by Link (1809) with H. roseus Link
as its type species. The species of the genus are charecterised by having, Colonies:
effuse to arachnoid or tuberculate, white to pinkish, or becoming brownish in age.
Mycelium: immersed or superficial, composed of branched, septate, hyaline to
dilute fuscous hyphae. Conidiophores: lacking or formed as short, lateral branches
of the repent mycelium. Conidiogenous cells: mono- or polyblastic, producing
conidia from the apex, or synchronously and /or successively from short denticles.
Conidia: hyaline, dry, hygroscopic, frequently uncoiling in water. Conidial
filament: coiled 1-8 times, usually in one plane to form a disk-like body, but
sometimes in three planes and resembling a loosely coiled spring; basal cell
attached eccentrically; conidial secession schizolytic. The genus is represented by
12 species (Zhao et al., 2007).
Helicomyces colligatus R.T. Moore (Fig. 14; Plate fig. 37)
Mycologia, 46: 89 (1954).
Colonies: effuse, coraceous, coarsely flocculose or nearly crust-like, pale
rose when fresh; when old composed almost entirely of conidia. Mycelium and
conidiophores: not apparent, when young the whole stratum composed of
semiagglutinated mycelium, conidia and conidiophores; conidia arising directly
from the mycelium or else borne on robost conidiophores up to 45 um tall.
Conidia: loosely coiled 1-2 times, hygroscopic, multiseptate at maturity, each cell
containing one large vacuole or two smaller ones; filament tapering at both ends,
the basal end 3.5 um broad, filament enlarging to 8 um broad in the middle and
becoming slightly less at the distal end, easily broken into segments; diameter of
coils (32-) 50-60 um.
Habitat: Conidia in foam sample, Yashwant Lake 16 Aug. 2009, AFN-14A; Amlibari
dam, 29 August 2010, AFN-14B, Leg., S. N.Wagh.
Distribution:- Karnataka: Conidia in foam samples (Ramesh, 2002), conidia in
stem flow and through fall (Sridhar and Karamchand, 2009), on submerged wood
(Sudheep and Sridhar, 2011).
Remark: The present fungus is common in occurrence . The measurements of
conidial filament, conidia and descriptions are completely agree with that of
Helicomyces colligatus as described by Moore (1954). Therefore, it is assigned to
that species. This makes new addition to the aquatic fungi of Maharashtra.
Helicomyces roseus Link (Fig. 15; Plate fig. 38)
Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuestern Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk., 3:
Helicomyces albus Preuss, 1852 (fide Linder, 1929).
Helicomyces elegans Morgan, 1892 (fide Linder, 1929).
Helicomyces clarus, Morgan, 1892 (fide Linder, 1929).
Helicomyces fuscopes Linder, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 18: 15 (1931).
Colonies: effuse, forming a thin, flocculose, white to pinkish stratum.
Mycelium: immersed and superficial, hyaline to dilute fuscous, composed of
branched, septate, hyphae. Stalked sclerotia (sclerotes pedicelees) often present.
Conidiophores: short, hyaline to pale brown, mostly arising as lateral branches of
the repent mycelium. Conidiogenous cells: mono- or polyblastic, developing as
denticles on the repent hyphae, or as the terminal cell of the conidiophores.
Conidia: hyaline, white to pinkish in mass, attached eccentrically, frequently with
hyaline secondary conidia, 25-60 m in diam. Conidial filament: (2.5) 4-5(-6) m
in diam, multiseptate, tapering to an enlarged, obliquely flattened basal cell, coiled
2 -3 times.
Habitat: Conidia in foam samples, Rangawali river, 24 Aug. 2008, AFN-15A,
Ranipur dam, 13 Sep. 2009, AFN-15B, Leg., S. N. Wagh.
Distribution:- Karnataka: On Submerged leaves and in foam samples
(Rajashekhar and Kaveriappa, 2003), conidia in stem flow and through fall
(Sridhar and Karamchand, 2009), on submerged wood (Sridhar et al., 2010);
Uttarakhand: Conidia in water samples (Arya and Sati, 2012).
Remarks: The present fungus is frequent in occurrence . The measurements and
descriptions of conidia are completely agree with that of Helicomyces roseus as
described by Goos (1985). Therefore, it is assigned to that species. This makes
new addition to the aquatic fungal flora of Maharashtra.
Helicomyces torquatus Lane & Shearer (Fig. 16; Plate fig. 39)
Mycotaxon. 19: 291 (1984).
Colonies: floccose, hyaline at first, turning light brown to dark blackish-
brwon on aging. Mycelium: mostly immersed, composed of branched, septate,
hyphae, hyaline at first, becoming subhyaline to light brown. Conidiophores:
micronematous, formed laterally on repent hyphae, 2-3-septate, 19.2 - 34.1- 56.4 x
3.6 - 4.5 - 4.8 m. Conidiogenous cells: monoblastic, hyaline, elongate, 12.0 17.8
- 24 x 3.6 4.7 - 4.8 m. Conidia produced holoblastically, terminally, and singly
at tips of conidiogenous cells, seceding schizolytically from conidiogenous cells.
Conidia: hyaline, multiseptate, dry, coiled 1.8 to 2.8 times, 52.8 104.4 132 m
diam, end cells broadly spathulate, end of basal cell bearing flattened attachment
scar. Conidia in water hydrophilic and floating or unwinding to assume a torque-
like or sigmoid form, 372 472 528 x 4.8 6.8 7.2 m.
Habitat: Conidia in foam Samples, Yashwant Lake, 2 Aug. 2009, AFN-16A; Tapi
river, 1 Aug. 2010, AFN-16B, Leg., S. N. Wagh.
Distribution:- Karnataka: Conidia in foam samples (Ramesh, 2002).
Remarks: The present fungus is rare in occurance. The measurement of conidia,
conidial filament and description completely agree with that of Helicomyces
torquatus Lane and Shearer (1984). Therefore, It is assigned to that species. This
makes new addition to the fungi of Maharashtra.
II) Ingoldian Hyphomycetes
Genus: Brachiosphaera Nawawi
In: Descals et al., Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 67: 213 (1976).
The genus Brachiosphaera was erected by Nawawi (In: Descals et al. 1976)
with B. tropicalis Nawawi as the type species. The genus is charecterised by
having, Mycelium: hyphae brown, septate, branched. Conidiophores: simple, rarely
branched, macronematous or semimacronematous, erect. Conidigenous cells:
terminal, holoblastic, proliferate sympodially or rarely precurrently. Conidia:
sphaerical, with radiating arms, arms septate and appear simultaneously. The genus
is represented by two species (Descals et al., 1976).
Brachiosphaera tropicalis Nawawi (Fig. 17; Plate fig. 40)
In: Descals et al., Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 67: 213 (1976).
Mycelium: The vegetative mycelium on culture medium (2% MA) is mostly
immersed, light brown at first, becoming dark brown to black with age. Hyphae:
septate, thick-walled, 6-12 m wide, pigmented to varying degree with age,
smooth to minutely tuberculate, the cells often becoming monilioid and filled with
numerous spherical, refractive globules. Conidiophores: erect, hyaline,
unbranched, septate. Conidiogenesis: As the conidiophore lengthens, the cell at the
distal portion becomes slightly constricted at their septa. The end cell gradually
becomes subglobose and finally spherical. When it reaches 30-40 m diam., 4-7
arms (usually 4) appear simultaneously as blown out buds, and elongate rapidly,
becoming 3-5 septate. The top arm always lies along the axis of the conidiophore
while the rest develop from around the circumference of the sphere equidistant
from one another. As the conidium mature, another ovoid conidiogenous cell
develops very close to the attachment point and very soon produces another
conidium. This process of sympodial proliferation is repeated until up to 10 or
more conidia are produced. Conidia: The mature conidia consist of a spherical
body, 46-58 m diam, and filled with numerous small spherical globules up to 6
m diam. The spherical body is yellowish brown and furnished with 4-7 radiating
arms, 95-180 m long, 9-11 m wide at the widest point, tapering to 4-5 m wide
at the rounded apex, constricted to 3-5 m at the point of origin and becoming 3-5
septate. The spherical body is multinucleate and each cell of the arms contain up to
Habitat: Conidia in foam samples, Yashwant Lake, 30 Aug. 2009, AFN- 17A; Tapi
river, 22 Aug. 2010, AFN-17B, Leg., S. N. Wagh.
Distribution:- Maharashtra: Conidia in foam samples (All examined conidia, both
in slides and illustrations from previous work of Patil and Kapadnis (1979) and
Patil (2003 a, b) from Maharshtra, referred to as Actinospora megalospora
correspond to B. tropicalis); Karnataka: Conidia in foam (as Actinospora
megalospora, Sridhar and Keveriappa, 1982a), conidia in foam samples (Sridhar
and Kaverappa, 1989b), conidia in water samples (Sridhar and Keveriappa, 1990).
Remarks: The present fungus is rare in occurance. The measurements and
descriptions of conidia are completely agree with that of Brachiosphaera
tropicalis as given in Descals et al., (1976). Therefore, it is assigned to that