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TABLE OF CONTENTS High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition Preface Memorandum List of Acronyms i List of Figures ii Foreword iii Introduction iv Chapter 1 HOV Planning 1.1 General 1-1 1.2 HOV Statutes and Policies 1-2 1.3 HOV Planning 1-3 Chapter 2 HOV Operations 2.1 General 2-1 2.2 Modes of Operation 2-1 2.3 Queue Bypasses 2-2 2.4 Hours of Operation 2-3 2.5 Vehicle Occupancy 2-4 2.6 Vehicle Types 2-4 2.7 Deadheading 2-5 2.8 Incident Handling/Special Events on HOV Lanes 2-5 2.9 Using HOV Lanes for Traffic Management Plans 2-6 2.10 Passing Lanes 2-6 2.11 Transit Stations 2-6 Chapter 3 HOV Geometric Design 3.1 General 3-1 3.2 General Design Criteria 3-2 3.3 Geometric Configurations 3-3 3.4 Barrier-Separated HOV Facilities 3-3 3.5 Buffer-Separated HOV Facilities 3-4 3.6 Contiguous HOV Facilities 3-4 3.7 HOV Direct Connectors 3-8 3.8 HOV Drop Ramps 3-9 3.9 Local Obstructions 3-9 3.10 Relative Priority of Cross-Sectional Elements 3-14 3.11 On-Line Bus Facilities 3-15 Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points 4-1 4.2 Ingress/Egress for Barrier- Separated HOV Facilities 4-2 4.3 Ingress/Egress for Buffer- Separated HOV Facilities 4-2 4.4 Ingress/Egress for Contiguous HOV Facilities 4-3 Chapter 5 HOV Signs and Markings 5.1 General 5-1 5.2 HOV Signs 5-2 5.3 HOV Markings 5-3 HOV Details M-1 to M-11 5-4 HOV Sign Specifications 5-15 CH-5 Appendix A: US Shields on Guide Signs 5A-1 Interstate Shields Used on Guide Signs 5A-3 State Route Shields Used on Guide Signs 5A-5 Standard Arrowhead for Warning & Regulatory Signs 5A-7 Standard Arrows for Directional Signs 5A-8 CH-5 Appendix B: HOV Sign Policy Statements 5B-1 Chapter 6 HOV Enforcement 6.1 General 6-1 6.2 Role of Enforcement 6-1 6.3 Violation Rates 6-1 6.4 Enforcement Alternatives 6-2 6.5 Other Enforcement Considerations 6-3 Appendix HOV Statutes and Policies Appendix A HOV Report Guidelines Appendix B

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Page 1: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

TABLE OF CONTENTS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

PrefaceMemorandumList of Acronyms iList of Figures iiForeword iiiIntroduction iv

Chapter 1 ♦ HOV Planning1.1 General 1-11.2 HOV Statutes and Policies 1-21.3 HOV Planning 1-3

Chapter 2 ♦ HOV Operations2.1 General 2-12.2 Modes of Operation 2-12.3 Queue Bypasses 2-22.4 Hours of Operation 2-32.5 Vehicle Occupancy 2-42.6 Vehicle Types 2-42.7 Deadheading 2-52.8 Incident Handling/Special Events

on HOV Lanes 2-52.9 Using HOV Lanes for Traffic

Management Plans 2-62.10 Passing Lanes 2-62.11 Transit Stations 2-6

Chapter 3 ♦ HOV Geometric Design3.1 General 3-13.2 General Design Criteria 3-23.3 Geometric Configurations 3-33.4 Barrier-Separated

HOV Facilities 3-33.5 Buffer-Separated

HOV Facilities 3-43.6 Contiguous HOV Facilities 3-43.7 HOV Direct Connectors 3-83.8 HOV Drop Ramps 3-93.9 Local Obstructions 3-93.10 Relative Priority of

Cross-Sectional Elements 3-143.11 On-Line Bus Facilities 3-15

Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress4.1 Beginning and Termination

Points 4-14.2 Ingress/Egress for Barrier-

Separated HOV Facilities 4-24.3 Ingress/Egress for Buffer-

Separated HOV Facilities 4-24.4 Ingress/Egress for Contiguous

HOV Facilities 4-3

Chapter 5 ♦ HOV Signs and Markings5.1 General 5-15.2 HOV Signs 5-25.3 HOV Markings 5-3HOV Details M-1 to M-11 5-4HOV Sign Specifications 5-15

CH-5 Appendix A:US Shields on Guide Signs 5A-1Interstate Shields Usedon Guide Signs 5A-3State Route Shields Usedon Guide Signs 5A-5Standard Arrowhead forWarning & Regulatory Signs 5A-7Standard Arrows forDirectional Signs 5A-8

CH-5 Appendix B:HOV Sign Policy Statements 5B-1

Chapter 6 ♦ HOV Enforcement6.1 General 6-16.2 Role of Enforcement 6-16.3 Violation Rates 6-16.4 Enforcement Alternatives 6-26.5 Other Enforcement

Considerations 6-3

AppendixHOV Statutes and Policies Appendix AHOV Report Guidelines Appendix B

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August 2003State of CaliforniaBusiness, Transportationand Housing Agency

Prepared by:Department of TransportationDivision of Traffic Operations

HIGH-OCCUPANCYVEHICLEGUIDELINES

for Planning, Designand Operations

HIGH-OCCUPANCYVEHICLEGUIDELINES

etric

Caltrans

web address: http://onramp/hq/trafops/otrafopr/hov/hov.html

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High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

This guidance was prepared by the California Department of Transportation(Caltrans) Headquarters, Division of Traffic Operations, High-OccupancyVehicle Systems Branch, 1120 N Street, Sacramento, California 95814.

This guidance is an update of the July 1991 Guidelines for Planning, Designand Operations of High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) facilities. It providesstatewide uniformity of the development of HOV facilities and details theareas of responsibility for implementation. All measures are expressed inmetric units.

Questions and comments regarding information contained in this guidancecan be directed to Antonette C. Clark, HOV Systems Branch Chiefat (916) 653-4552.

web address: http://onramp/hq/trafops/otrafopr/hov/hov.html

August 2003

State o

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

PrefaceMemorandumList of Acronyms iList of Figures iiForeword iiiIntroduction iv

Chapter 1 ♦ HOV Planning1.1 General 1-11.2 HOV Statutes and Policies 1-21.3 HOV Planning 1-3

Chapter 2 ♦ HOV Operations2.1 General 2-12.2 Modes of Operation 2-12.3 Queue Bypasses 2-22.4 Hours of Operation 2-32.5 Vehicle Occupancy 2-42.6 Vehicle Types 2-42.7 Deadheading 2-52.8 Incident Handling/Special Events

on HOV Lanes 2-52.9 Using HOV Lanes for Traffic

Management Plans 2-62.10 Passing Lanes 2-62.11 Transit Stations 2-6

Chapter 3 ♦ HOV Geometric Design3.1 General 3-13.2 General Design Criteria 3-23.3 Geometric Configurations 3-33.4 Barrier-Separated

HOV Facilities 3-33.5 Buffer-Separated

HOV Facilities 3-43.6 Contiguous HOV Facilities 3-43.7 HOV Direct Connectors 3-83.8 HOV Drop Ramps 3-93.9 Local Obstructions 3-93.10 Relative Priority of

Cross-Sectional Elements 3-143.11 On-Line Bus Facilities 3-15

Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress4.1 Beginning and Termination

Points 4-14.2 Ingress/Egress for Barrier-

Separated HOV Facilities 4-24.3 Ingress/Egress for Buffer-

Separated HOV Facilities 4-24.4 Ingress/Egress for Contiguous

HOV Facilities 4-3

Chapter 5 ♦ HOV Signs and Markings5.1 General 5-15.2 HOV Signs 5-25.3 HOV Markings 5-3HOV Details M-1 to M-11 5-4HOV Sign Specifications 5-15

CH-5 Appendix A:US Shields on Guide Signs 5A-1Interstate Shields Usedon Guide Signs 5A-3State Route Shields Usedon Guide Signs 5A-5Standard Arrowhead forWarning & Regulatory Signs 5A-7Standard Arrows forDirectional Signs 5A-8

CH-5 Appendix B:HOV Sign Policy Statements 5B-1

Chapter 6 ♦ HOV Enforcement6.1 General 6-16.2 Role of Enforcement 6-16.3 Violation Rates 6-16.4 Enforcement Alternatives 6-26.5 Other Enforcement

Considerations 6-3

AppendixHOV Statutes and Policies Appendix AHOV Report Guidelines Appendix B

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♦ i

LIST OF ACRONYMS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic MTDB Metropolitan Transit Development BoardAASHTO American Association of State Highway and

Transportation Officials MTS Metropolitan Transit SystemAC Asphalt Concrete MUTCD Manual on Uniform Traffic Control DevicesAHS Advanced Highway Systems NEPA National Environmental Policy ActAQMP Air Quality Management Plan NHS National Highway SystemATMS Advanced Traffic Management System O&D Origin and DestinationATSD Advanced Transportation System Development OC OvercrossingAVR Average Vehicle Ridership OCTA Orange County Transportation AuthorityBT&H Business, Transportation and Housing Agency OCTC Orange County Transportation CommissionCARB California Air Resources Board PCC Portland Cement ConcreteCCAA California Clean Air Act PE Project EngineerCEQA California Environmental Quality Act PHV Peak Hour VolumeCFR Code of Federal Regulations PM Post-MileCHP California Highway Patrol PMS Pavement Management SystemCIP Capital Improvement Program PPH Persons Per HourCMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality PR Project ReportCMP Congestion Management Program PS&E Plans, Specifications and EstimateCMS Changeable Message Sign PSR Project Study ReportCTC California Transportation Commission PSSR Project Scope Summary ReportCTP California Transportation Plan PUC Public Utilities CommissionCVC California Vehicle Code RCR Route Concept ReportDOT Department of Transportation RFP Request for ProposalsEIR Environmental Impact Report RTIP Regional Transportation Improvement PlanEIS Environmental Impact Statement RTPA Regional Transportation Planning AgencyEPA Environmental Protection Agency RW Right of WayETC Electronic Toll Collection SACOG Sacramento Area Council of GovernmentsFCAA Federal Clean Air Act SANDAG San Diego Association of GovernmentsFCR Flexible Congestion Relief SCAG Southern California Association of GovernmentsFHWA Federal Highway Administration SHA State Highway AccountFSP Freeway Service Patrol SHOPP State Highway Operations and Protection ProgramFTA Federal Transit Administration SIP State Implementation PlanHCM Highway Capacity Manual SSD Stopping Sight DistanceHDM Highway Design Manual STAA Surface Transportation Assistance ActHNS Highways of National Significance STIP State Transportation Improvement ProgramHOT High-Occupancy Toll TASAS Traffic Accident Surveillance Analysis SystemHOV High-Occupancy Vehicle TCM Transportation Control MeasureHTF Highway Trust Fund TCR Transportation Concept ReportIC Interchange TDM Transportation Demand ManagementIGR Intergovernmental Review TDP Transportation Development PlanIRRS Interregional Road System TMA Transportation Management AssociationISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act TMC Transportation Management CenterITS Intelligent Transportation System TMP Transportation Management PlanITSP Interregional Transportation Strategic Plan TOS Traffic Operations SystemKP Kilometer-Post TRB Transportation Research BoardLOS Level of Service TSM Transportation Systems ManagementLRT Light Rail Transit UC UndercrossingLTC Local Transportation Commission VMT Vehicle Miles TraveledMPO Metropolitan Planning Organization VPH Vehicles Per HourMTC Metropolitan Transportation Commission VPHPL Vehicles Per Hour Per Lane

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♦ ii

LIST OF FIGURES

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Sign G20-9 Guide Sign 5-15Sign G83-3 Guide Sign 5-16Sign G84-1 Guide Sign 5-17Sign G85-7 Guide Sign 5-18Sign G85-8 Guide Sign 5-19Sign G85-9 Guide Sign 5-20Sign G86-8 Guide Sign 5-21Sign G86-9 Guide Sign 5-22Sign G86-10 Guide Sign 5-23Sign G92-1 Guide Sign 5-24Sign R82-1 Regulatory Sign 5-25Sign R82B Regulatory Sign 5-26Sign R84-1 Regulatory Sign 5-27Sign R84-2 Regulatory Sign 5-28Sign R86 Regulatory Sign 5-29Sign R86-2 Regulatory Sign 5-30Sign R86-3 Regulatory Sign 5-31Sign R87-1 Regulatory Sign 5-32Sign R87-2 Regulatory Sign 5-33Sign R91-2 Regulatory Sign 5-34Sign R93A Regulatory Sign 5-35Sign R93-2 Regulatory Sign 5-36Sign SR50-1 Regulatory Sign 5-37Sign SR50-2 Regulatory Sign 5-38Sign W11-1 Warning Sign 5-39Sign W59-1 Warning Sign 5-40Sign W72B Warning Sign 5-41Sign W74-1 Warning Sign 5-42Sign W75-1 Warning Sign 5-43

Chapter 6 ♦ HOV Enforcement

6.1 Bi-Directional Enforcement AreasFor 6.7m Medians 6-4

6.2 Directional Enforcement AreasFor 6.7m Medians 6-5

6.3 Enforcement AreasFor Medians Less than 6.7m 6-6

Chapter 3 ♦ HOV Geometric Design

3.1 Typical Cross SectionsBarrier-Separated HOV Facilities 3-5

3.2 Typical Cross SectionsBuffer-Separated and Contiguous HOV Facilities 3-6

3.3 Typical Cross SectionsHOV Direct Connector and Elevated HOV Facilities 3-7

3.4 Typical HOV Direct ConnectorEntrances and Exits 3-10

3.5 Typical Cross Sections HOV Drop Rampto Overcrossing and Undercrossing 3-11

3.6 Typical HOV Drop RampEntrances and Exits 3-12

3.7 Median Barrier Transitions 3-133.8 Typical Layout and Cross Section

HOV On-Line Bus Facilities 3-16

Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress

4.1 Ingress/Egress for Barrier-Separated HOV Facilities 4-44.2 Weave Distance at Buffer-Separated HOV Facilities 4-5

Chapter 5 ♦ HOV Signs and Markings

Detail M-1Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsBegin HOV Buffer-Separated Facility 5-4Detail M-2Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsBegin HOV Contiguous Facility, Full-Time Operation 5-5Detail M-3Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsBegin HOV Contiguous Facility, Part-Time Operation 5-6Detail M-4Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical Ingress/Egress for HOV FacilitiesWith Buffers 0.3m to 1.2m 5-7Detail M-5Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical Ingress/Egress for HOV FacilitiesWith Buffers 3.6m or Wider 5-8Detail M-6Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical End HOV Lane 5-9Detail M-7Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical HOV Lane Pavement Marking forBuffer-Separated (Ingress/Egress) HOV Facilities 5-10Detail M-8Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical HOV Lane Pavement Marking 5-11Detail M-9Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical Pavement Marking Detail ForBuffer-Separated HOV Facilities 5-12Detail M-10Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical Pavement Marking Detail for HOV Facilities 5-13Detail M-11Typical HOV Signs and Pavement MarkingsTypical HOV Drop Ramp Signs and Pavement Markings 5-14

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iii

FOREWORD

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Foreword

The High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane systemis used as a cost-effective operational strategy tomaximize the people-carrying capacity offreeways. HOV facilities are a proven multimodaloperational strategy supported by the FederalHighway Administration (FHWA), and local andregional agencies to improve both the current andfuture mobility, productivity, and quality of travelassociated with congested transportation corridorsin metropolitan areas. Lastly, HOV lanes havebeen used as a viable alternative, and in mostcases is the only alternative that meets the federalair quality conformity standards for capacity-increasing projects in metropolitan areas.

California’s HOV lanes were initially consideredas an innovative strategy, adding a bus-only laneduring the reconstruction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1962. As traffic demandcontinued to exceed the capacity of many of thestate’s metropolitan freeways, the CaliforniaDepartment of Transportation (Department) andits regional partners opened HOV lanes in themost heavily congested areas of the state; that is,where HOV lanes offered the greatest potentialbenefit. The statewide HOV system has grownfrom a segmented 260 lane-miles in 1990 to thecurrent (December 2003) comprehensive systemnetwork in excess of 1,100 lane-miles, wherelane-miles are directional miles.

For most situations, retrofitting an HOV lane onan existing freeway requires some compromisesin design standards. Back in 1987, FHWA’sProcedure Memorandum D6103 introduced,under certain conditions, exceptions to AASHTOdesign standards. But it offered little guidance onacceptable geometric reductions. This was notsurprising considering HOV facilities were still arelatively new development and few designguidelines were available at the time. In 1989, inresponse to District requests for guidelines toprovide statewide consistency and uniformity, theDivision of Traffic Operations began preparingthe initial guidelines. The Division stafforganized and chaired a committee ofrepresentatives from the metropolitan Districts,several Headquarters Divisions, the CHP, FHWAand private consultants. Without exception, thecontinued participation and cooperation receivedfrom the committee members was outstanding. Itis their contribution and dedication that made theupdate to these guidelines possible.

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iv

INTRODUCTION

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Introduction

These guidelines are not intended to supersede Caltrans’Transportation Planning Manual, Project DevelopmentProcedures Manual, Highway Design Manual, Manualon Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) andCalifornia Supplement to the MUTCD (which replacesthe Caltrans’ Traffic Manual), or other inter-Departmentmanuals, procedures or practices. These guidelines arenot, and should not be used as a set of standards. TheGuidelines are advisory in nature and are to be used onlywhen every effort to conform to established standardshas been exhausted. When conformance is not possible,the deviation must be documented by a sound anddefensible analysis and an approved design exceptionfact sheet.

The goal of these guidelines is to provide a “how to”document for planners, designers and operators ofmainline HOV facilities. *Since individual sitecharacteristics vary, only typical, full standard designscenarios can be presented. For situations not discussed,Districts are advised to consult the appropriate Districtand Headquarters representatives for advice and consent.For a list of HOV persons and contacts, please visit thefollowing Intranet address at http://onramp/hq/trafops/otrafopr/hov/hov.html. This website is a valuableresource, updated regularly for the most current HOVProgram guidance, inventory, reports, and related links.

Thirty years have passed since the opening of the bypasslanes at the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge tollplaza. But it wasn’t until the mid-1980’s that operationaland research data on HOV facilities started toaccumulate. This means that guideline updates andrevisions will be necessary, as new data becomesavailable. Through the years much has been learned onthe subject although it is recommended that the Districtscontinue to conduct “before and after” operationalstudies for HOV projects implemented. Districts areencouraged to support continuous monitoring of theperformance of their specific HOV facilities. It is theperformance and evaluation of existing operationalstrategies; plans and services that provide the basis formaking revisions to this guide and improved operationsof the statewide HOV program. Headquarters’ Divisionof Traffic Operations will, simultaneously, be conductingstudies to resolve HOV issues, which are generic innature and applicable statewide. The results fromDistrict and Headquarters’ studies, with participationfrom outside agencies such as the Federal HighwayAdministration (FHWA), the California Highway Patrol(CHP) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB),will also continue to be used to update these HOVguidelines. A coordinated and cooperative effort is,therefore, needed to ensure these guidelines reflect thelatest experience and operational data for planning,designing and operating HOV facilities.

Further discussion on HOV facilities may be found inother publications such as AASHTO’s Guide for High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facilities, June 2003 andTexas Transportation Institute NCHRP Report 414:HOV Systems Manual. Should the District use

recommendations from other publications, which eitherdeviate from or are not contained in this document, it isrecommended that the District consult with the

appropriate Headquarters and District functional unitsfor concurrence.

*Refer to the Division of Traffic Operation’s “RampMeter Design Guidelines” for guidance on HOV bypasslanes on ramps. For the latest information regarding theRamp Metering Program, please visit the intranetwebsite address at http://onramp/hq/trafops/otrafopr/frwy_ops/frwy_ops.htm.

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CH-1♦ 1

CHAPTER 1♦ HOV PLANNING

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Congestion

Air Quality

Funding & ROW

Development

Section 1.1 General

California’s High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes wereinitially considered as an innovative traffic managementstrategy, adding capacity during the reconstruction of theSan Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1962 when anexclusive lane was provided for buses. The majority ofCalifornia’s HOV facilities were planned and built on a“route” or “corridor” basis. In some cases, HOV facilitieswere designed as “queue-jumpers” to give multiple-occupant vehicles a time advantage over single-occupantvehicles. This was understandable and appropriate, at thetime, considering HOV experience (both state andnationwide) was in a fluid state where operational datawas lacking and public acceptance of HOV facilitiesuncertain. Still, the overall performance of those HOVfacilities frequently exceeded expectations and, in somecases, projected HOV demands were met within a year ortwo of implementation. While a region-wide HOV systemis ideal, such a system requires a supporting cast of HOVfreeway-to-freeway connectors, direct access ramps tolocal cross streets, park and ride/transit facilities, andrideshare inducement and promotional programs. The

cost of providing these elements requires a high degreeof political and public commitment to the HOV

philosophy which, during the early years of HOVapplication, did not exist. However, as traffic demandcontinued to exceed the capacity of many of the state’smetropolitan freeways, and as existing HOV facilitieshave proven to be successful, the California Departmentof Transportation (Department) and its regional partnershave responded by jointly drafting HOV system plans forthe six major metropolitan areas of the state: Sacramento,San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles, San Bernardino,San Diego and Orange County. These system plans willbe revised periodically as appropriate.

Planning for HOV facilities is integrated into theDistrict’s system planning process through the DistrictSystem Management Plan (DSMP), TransportationConcept Reports (TCR), and Transportation

Development Plan (TDP). It also provides a linkagebetween system planning and the preparation of ProjectStudy Reports (PSRs). The appropriate level of planning,analysis and system development for HOV planning mustbe incorporated into these documents.

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CH-1♦ 2

CHAPTER 1♦ HOV PLANNING

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Procedurally, there is no difference between HOVprojects and other capital outlay projects as theyadvance from the planning phase into the projectdevelopment process. The PSR is one of the criticaldocuments as a HOV proposal advances from theplanning phase into the project development phase.During the development of a PSR, consideration shouldbe given to the type of HOV facility which bestbalances the traffic demands of the corridor with cost,right of way and environmental concerns. The next twochapters, “HOV Operations” and “HOV GeometricDesign,” should also be consulted when preparing thePSR and the project report.

Section 1.2 HOV Statutes and Policies

Numerous statutes and policy memoranda affect theplanning and implementation of HOV facilities. Someof these are summarized below. See Appendix A forcomplete text.

A. Caltrans - Policy and Procedures

Memorandum P89-01:

The Department will consider a HOV lane alternativefor all projects which add capacity to metropolitanfreeways or proposed new metropolitan freeways.

The Department will work with regional transportationplanning agencies in the conceptual planning phase todevelop regional HOV lane system plans in

metropolitan areas and to include these systems in theregional transportation plans.

B. Caltrans - Delegation of Authority for HOVOccupancy Determination:

Occupancy requirements for HOV facilities, as well asvehicle types allowed, need to be approved by theDistrict Director at least one month prior to the openingof the HOV lane to traffic. It is also encouraged thatDistricts include the California Highway Patrolconcerning occupancy requirements.

C. California Transportation Commission,

Resolution G-87-8:

“BE IT RESOLVED, that in the planning of any newfreeway facility or freeway capacity addition in andaround a metropolitan area, the Department ... shallexamine and report to the California TransportationCommission on the feasibility ... of designating bus andcarpool lane operation...”

“That such examination should consider the possibleextension of bus and carpool lane operation into existingadjacent facilities ... that the Commission shall also giveserious consideration to extending such a bus andcarpool facility to existing adjacent facilities when it isdemonstrated to be feasible and of likely benefit and tocontribute to the operation of the bus and carpoolfacility within the new project.” See Appendix A-6.

D. California Vehicle Code (CVC) 21655.5:

“The Department ... and local authorities ... mayauthorize or permit exclusive or preferential use ofhighway lanes for high-occupancy vehicles. Prior toestablishing the lanes, competent engineering estimatesshall be made of the effect of the lanes on safety,congestion, and highway capacity.” See Appendices

A-7 and A-8 for this and other HOV related CVC’s.

The Department has determined that a separate, detach-able report is required to consider the safety andcapacity aspects of HOV projects. If the project alreadyhas an approved project report, this separate reportshould be reviewed and concurred with by District Legaland, at a minimum, signed by the chief of the unitpreparing the report before the PS&E is sent to Head-quarters Office Engineers. For projects without anapproved project report, this report should be attachedto the project report and be part of the project reportapproval process. The development of the HOV reportis encouraged as early as possible prior to PS&E. SeeAppendix B for the recommended format of the report.

E. California Vehicle Code 21655.6:

“Whenever the Department of Transportation

authorizes ... preferential lanes ... the department shall

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CH-1♦ 3

CHAPTER 1♦ HOV PLANNING

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

obtain the approval of the transportation planningagency or county transportation commission prior toestablishing the exclusive use of the highway lanes.”See Appendix A-7.

F. Federal Highway Act, Title 23, Chapter 1:

Authority for Department of Transportation to approveHOV facilities on Federal Aid Systems to increase thecapacity for the movement of persons.

See Appendix A-11.

G. FHWA, California Division Office,

Procedure Memorandum D 6103:

Regional Transportation Planning Agencies shoulddevelop in concert with Caltrans and local agencies,route specific region-wide HOV system plans as a partof the regional transportation plan in metropolitanareas.

A HOV lane shall be an essential alternative forevaluation in the project development process whenconsidering an additional lane by re-striping and/orreconstruction or widening on freeways with three ormore lanes in one direction. See Appendix A-12.

H. Public Resources Code - Chapter 5.8,

Section 25485:

“The Department shall develop programs and

undertake any necessary construction to establish, forthe use of carpool vehicles carrying at least threepersons, preferential lanes on major freeways...”

I. Streets and Highways Code - Section 149:

“The department may construct exclusive or

preferential lanes for buses ... and other

high-occupancy vehicles...”

J. Surface Transportation Assistance Act -

Section 167:

Motorcycles are permitted in high-occupancy and otherexclusive vehicle lanes constructed with federal

participation unless such use would create a safetyhazard.

NOTE: The policies and statutes are intended for urbanfreeways and that FHWA, CTC, and Departmentpolicies do not expect rural freeways to have HOVfacilities.

Section 1.3 HOV Planning

The planning of HOV facilities should focus on thepeople carrying capacity of the system rather than onvehicle capacity. In accordance with the Department’smission as a multi-modal organization, HOV planningshould focus not only on multi-occupant cars and vansbut also on buses and other transit vehicles. Therefore,the planning process should consider complimentarysupport elements such as park and ride lots, bus/transitstations, and ingress/egress to them.

Section 1.3.1 HOV Issues

Several specific planning issues are pertinent to HOVsystem planning. These issues are discussed below.

A. HOV Factors and Criteria

A HOV proposal must be:

1. Consistent-with district management strategiesas identified in the DSMP and the TCR.

2. Consistent with objectives and strategies of thecongestion management program.

3. Supportive of regionally adopted

Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) andwith the approved Air Quality ManagementPlan (AQMP).

4. Consistent with the short and long-termelements of the Regional Transportation Plan(RTP).

Assuming the above criteria are met, the HOV proposalshould be analyzed to respond to the following

questions:

1. Will geometric cross-sections conform to theHighway Design Manual? If not, will the designexception be approved?

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2. Will the project result in a deterioration of highwaysafety?

3. Will traffic forecasts for one year from openingindicate that a minimum of 800 vehicles per hourper lane (vphpl) or 1800 persons per hour per lane(pphpl) will be using the HOV facility during thepeak hour? FHWA, California Division Office,Procedure Memorandum D 6103, see Appendix

A-12, stipulates that an additional lane could be amixed-flow lane if five years after opening, theHOV option would be carrying fewer person-trips.However, experiences in California indicate thatadverse public reaction from perceivedunderutilization of the HOV facility is a significantfactor and that a one-year period may be anappropriate goal.

4. Will the HOV project be cost effective? Factors inbenefit/cost analysis should include delay savings(in vehicle-minutes and person-minutes), safetybenefits and construction, right of way,

maintenance and operation costs. Estimates fordelay should consider those incurred by the mixed-flow traffic due to HOV operations.

5. Will the project provide at least one minute oftimesavings per mile for an average commute trip?A total savings of five to ten minutes is desirable.

6. Can HOV violations be enforced easily and safely?See Chapter 6, HOV Enforcement.

7. Are HOV support facilities such as park and ridelots, transit facilities and public awareness

campaigns available to support the HOV proposal?Such support facilities should be considered for allHOV proposals and, if appropriate, be included inthe HOV project.

B. Multiple HOV Lanes

The planning for HOV facilities should consider theeventuality when the capacity of the HOV lane isreached. To maintain the necessary incentive to use thefacility, the level of service (LOS) for the HOV laneshould ideally be maintained at LOS-C. The HOVfacility should not be allowed to reach unstable flow(LOS-E) and certainly should not experience

congestion on a regular basis. Therefore, it is essential

that the planning process include options to

accommodate additional future HOV traffic. Theseoptions include increasing the required occupancy orproviding additional HOV lanes. An additional HOVlane to provide passing opportunities may be

appropriate when the facility is in mountainous orrolling terrain, particularly if high bus volumes areanticipated.

C. Modeling

Transportation modeling based on analytical tools isbeing developed through traffic microsimulation andmacrosimulation models to evaluate the effectiveness ofHOV facilities. Microsimulation is the dynamic andstochastic modeling of individual vehicle movementswithin a system of transportation facilities. Examples ofmicrosimulation software are: Aimsum, CORSIM,Paramics, Simtraffic, Transmodeller, VISSIM, andWATSIM.

FREQ, PASSER, and TRANSYT7F are examples ofsimulation software that are macroscopic. These toolsare also designed to simulate traffic operations but theydo it at the macroscopic level. They are deterministicmodels that model the movement of groups of vehiclesor the average behavior of all vehicles on a givensection of facility for a given time period.

In California, the Sacramento Area Council of

Governments (SACOG), the Southern CaliforniaAssociation of Governments (SCAG), the MetropolitanTransportation Commission (MTC), and the OrangeCounty Transportation Commission (OCTC) arecontinuing the development of models to forecast traveldemand. Each of these are looking at mode split, withemphasis on how many of the potential trips would becarpools, transit, recreational or other special attractiontrips.

D. Funding and Prioritization of HOV Facilities

Most funding of HOV projects will be through theFlexible Congestion Relief (FCR) Program. Currentefforts are underway to include re-striped HOV projects,which can be quickly implemented, into the TSM

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funding program. To be eligible for the RegionalTransportation Improvement Program (RTIP), theproject must be included in the county’s CongestionManagement Programs (CMPs). Together with projectsfrom the Commuter and Urban Rail Program and theFCR Program, the county prepares a prioritized list ofprojects for the RTIP. The Department’s Proposed StateTransportation Improvement Program (PSTIP) andRTIP are used by the California Transportation

Commission (CTC) as the basis for the State

Transportation Improvement Program (STIP).

The regions ultimately decide the prioritization of theHOV project within the FCR. However, it is essentialthat the Districts provide as much input to the regionsas necessary to ensure critically needed HOV projectsare prioritized accordingly.

E. Evaluation of Existing Facilities

While the operation of a facility normally includesmonitoring performance, this feedback loop must becompleted to ensure that appropriate models aredeveloped, and the experience of operating maturefacilities shapes planning for new facilities.

Section 1.3.2 Caltrans System Planning

System Planning is Caltrans’ long-range transportationplanning process and is conducted pursuant to

Government Code Section 65086(a) and Caltranspolicy, see Appendix A-3. The multi-jurisdictionalsystem planning process is multi-modal and considersthe entire transportation network, including rail, air,ferries, mass transit, state highways, and local streetsand roads. The process produces three interrelatedplanning documents, which provide guidance, evaluatetransportation corridors and develop system

improvements. The three planning documents are:

(1) the District System Management Plan (DSMP),

(2) the Transportation Concept Report (TCR), and

(3) the Transportation Development Plan (TDP).

The linkage of system planning with development of theHOV System Plan is through consistency in the imple-mentation of system management objectives andstrategies, the identification of corridor deficiencies andestablishment of transportation solutions, and therecommendations and prioritization of system

improvements.

A. District System Management Plan (DSMP)

The DSMP outlines the District’s strategies to maintain,manage and develop the transportation system over thenext twenty years and beyond. It is a multi-modalstrategy document describing the Department’s goalsand policies and the District’s objectives and strategies.In the DSMP, modal systems and existing and projectedconditions are analyzed, transportation issues areidentified and strategies to be implemented to overcomethe major issues or problems are established. The DSMPaddresses how statutes and policies affect HOV

facilities, whether current statutes need revision, thefactors that preclude or include HOV facilities from aregional perspective, and the appropriate managementtechniques to be applied in operating HOV lanes. Thedegree of detail in which specific HOV facilities arediscussed within the DSMP is by a reference to the HOVSystem Plan. The DSMP may identify specific HOVcandidate facility locations (as established within theHOV System Plan) by either a listing, or on a Districtmap. Coordination with other Districts will be necessarywhen routes cross District boundaries.

The HOV System Plan must be consistent with thesystem management strategies identified in the DSMP.

B. Transportation Concept Report (TCR)

The Transportation Concept Report identifies multi-modal transportation deficiencies and the improvementsnecessary to achieve the twenty-year planning concept.The concept considers three modal elements: (1) facilitytype, (2) level of service, and (3) vehicle occupancy.The TCR is prepared for one of three transportationservice areas: the route, corridor or area. Each corridoris evaluated as to how it can be expected to performover the next twenty years considering funding,

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environmental and political feasibility. Operatingconditions in each route, corridor or area is projectedfor the twenty-year planning period. Beyond thetwenty-year planning horizon the report identifies theultimate transportation corridor, corridor preservation

opportunities and the potential application of newtechnologies. The development of the route concept isguided by the management strategies and objectivesestablished in DSMP. The TCR considers HOVproposals identified in the HOV system plan in itsanalysis for specific alternatives for resolving

deficiencies. The HOV system plan must be consistentwith the planning concepts identified in the TCRs.

C. Transportation Development Plan (TDP)

The Transportation Development Plan identifies systemimprovements necessary to overcome transportationdeficiencies identified in the DSMP, TCR and regionalstudies. In recommending system improvements in theTDP, considerations must be made regarding corridordevelopment, funding, local, regional and state

priorities, and interregional travel and system

continuity. The TDP is developed using two alternativefunding scenarios to bracket low and high estimatedfunding projections. The TDP covers the five-yearplanning period following the seven-year STIP.Together, the seven-year STIP and the five-year TDPcover the first twelve years toward attainment of thetwenty year planning concept. The TDP includesimprovement alternatives identified in the TCR, whichare consistent with the strategies of the DSMP andregional studies. The TDP considers the HOV SystemPlan in recommending and prioritizing system

improvements.

The HOV System Plan identifies HOV facilities forconsideration and prioritization in the TDP.

Section 1.3.3 Regional Planning

The link between HOV system planning and regionalplanning is expressed through several regional plansand programs, including the Regional TransportationPlan (RTP), the Congestion Management Program

(CMP) and the Air Quality Plan (AQP). To be includedin the State Transportation Improvement Program(STIP) and receive funding from the Flexible Conges-tion Relief (FCR) Program, a HOV project must beincluded in the Capital Improvement Program (CIP) ofthe CMP and be submitted through the RegionalTransportation Improvement Program (RTIP). CMPs arerequired to be consistent with the RTP, which in turnmust conform to federally required AQPs. Any projecthaving federal-aid funds and/or approval requires aNational Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) document.The project is required to be fully funded and in thefinancially constrained RTP/RTIP for FHWA to giveNEPA approval.

A. Regional Transportation Plan (RTP)

The RTP is the document that the Regional

Transportation Planning Agency (RTPA) uses todescribe the existing system, discuss current trends, andexpress their intentions and needs for the transportationsystem within the region. It is prepared by the regionalCouncil of Governments (COG), Local TransportationCommission (LTC), or statutorily created RTPA.Updated every two years, the RTP is a twenty-year plancontaining maps, policies, and short-term (five to tenyear) and long-term projects for each mode of

transportation. For metropolitan areas, HOV facilitiesshould be consistent for both the short and long-termelements of the RTP. Short-term projects shouldconsider the easily implemented re-striped HOV lanes,which are normally retrofitted within the existing rightof way. Long-term HOV applications should includeconsiderations for facilities involving structures andmultiple HOV lanes.

B. Congestion Management Program (CMP)

Urbanized counties over 50,000 in population arerequired to develop CMPs. Two of the five elements ofthe CMP have linkage to the HOV program. These are:(1) the Transportation Demand Management (TDM) andtrip reduction element, and (2) the Capital ImprovementProgram (CIP). The TDM element involves HOVfacilities in that its purpose includes improving systemefficiency by increasing person throughput and reducingvehicle demand. In addition, the HOV project must be

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included in the Capital Improvement Program of theCongestion Management Program before it can beconsidered for the RTIP.

HOV projects may also be included as a part of adeficiency plan that is developed by the local

governments to ensure conformance with the CMP.Deficiency plans are developed to either mitigate aspecific instance of nonconformance or, if the instancecannot be mitigated, to measurably improve the overallperformance of the system and contribute to significantimprovements in air quality.

C. Air Quality Plans (AQP)

The California Clean Air Act requires that AQPs beprepared for non-attainment areas of the state that havenot met state air quality standards for ozone, carbonmonoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide. Theseplans must include a wide range of control measures,which, for most areas, include Transportation ControlMeasures (TCMs). HOV systems plans support andconform to these TCMs, which include the following:

1. Regulatory Measures

a. Employer based trip reduction rules

b. Trip reduction rules for other sources thatattract vehicle trips

c. Management of parking supply and pricing

2. Transportation System Improvements

a. HOV system plans and implementationprograms

b. Comprehensive transit improvement programsfor bus and rail

c. Land development policies for motor vehicletrip reduction

d. Development policies to strengthen on-sitetransit access for new and existing landdevelopments

Since regional transportation plans and congestionmanagement programs must conform to the Federallyrequired AQPs, which are focused on trip reductions, itis expected that HOV facilities could be a preferredalternative for most capacity-adding freeway projects in

urban areas. Since the CTC-adopted guidelines forFlexible Congestion Relief (FCR), which includefunding eligibility for rail systems, it may be that HOVprojects will not compete well for funding priority in theRTIP. Therefore, the possibility exists that HOV projectswill not be fundable in a timely fashion within theFlexible Congestion Relief (FCR) Program. Re-stripedHOV projects can be implemented within a year andrequire no right of way. In the future such projects maybe eligible for the Traffic System Management (TSM)program. However, current eligibility guidelines for theTSM program do not include re-striped mainline HOVfacilities since such projects create a through lane.

In November 1990, Congress adopted the Federal CleanAir Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The CAAArequires states that are not meeting federal standards forCarbon Monoxide (CO) and ozone to develop StateImplementation Plans (SIPs). SlPs are required to beable to reduce emissions to federal standards and areclosely linked to vehicle miles of travel (VMT). AllRTPs must conform to the SIP. The Federal Governmentmay impose sanctions for failure to comply with CAAASIP requirements. These sanctions include withholdingof approval of federal highway projects. However, HOVlanes may be exempt from such sanctions.

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Section 2.1 General

The operation of a High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)facility is closely linked to its design features and thetraffic demands on the freeway corridor. Therefore,operational characteristics must be considered not onlyduring the design process, but also for HOV systemplanning. As recommended for design features,

operational characteristics should also be uniform andconsistent within a region.

In areas where the central business district is less

identifiable and consists of pockets of intensive businessactivity distributed over a wide area, sometimes called a“suburban” geographical area, the commute pattern isless definitive and the directional traffic split is moreequal than that of the “radial” geographical area. For thesuburban geographical area, a two-way flow is preferableand reversible HOV operation would not be appropriate.

When a metropolitan area largely consists of a centralbusiness district with weekday commuter traffic fromoutlying areas, often referred to as a “radial”

geographical area, the traffic demands on each corridornormally would indicate definite directional peaks duringthe morning and afternoon commute periods. If traffic inthe off-peak direction is light (35% or less of the totalfreeway traffic during the peak periods) and is forecast toremain light during the design life of the project, then areversible HOV operation may be appropriate. Sincebarrier-separated facilities offer features suitable for areversible operation, it would be one of the logicalcandidates for initial consideration.

As discussed in Chapter 3, “HOV Geometric Design”facilities can be barrier-separated, buffer-separated orcontiguous. The different modes of operation and theirapplicability with each type of geometric configurationwill be addressed below.

Section 2.2 Modes of Operation

HOV facilities can be operated with two-way flow,reversible flow, or contraflow.

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Section 2.2.1 Two-Way Flow

Two-way flow HOV operation is appropriate when theexisting peak period directional traffic is 35/65 or moreevenly split and is expected to remain so during thedesign life of the project. It is the predominant mode ofoperation for the Department’s HOV facilities.

When right of way and cost constraints allow, a two-way barrier-separated HOV facility, with a physicalbarrier separating the HOV lanes from the mixed-flowlanes generally offers a higher level of service thanother geometric configurations (See Chapter 3). Aportion of the El Monte Busway (LA-10) near LosAngeles is one example of this type of facility.

Operating data indicates that busways experiencecongestion at about 1,500 vehicles per hour. Therefore,consideration has been given to using a three plus (3+)occupancy requirement or to having more than oneHOV lane in each direction when traffic exceeds thisnumber. Because of potential visibility problemsbetween buses and motorcycles, exclusion of

motorcycles on HOV facilities with high bus volumesmay be appropriate. However, such exclusions are onlyallowed if a documented study for that specific HOVfacility indicates that motorcycle use constitutes asafety hazard and the exclusion is approved by theFederal Highway Administration.

Section 2.2.2 Reversible Flow

Reversible flow is an operational mode where the HOVlanes operate in one direction during the AM peakperiod and change to the opposite direction during thePM peak period. This type of operation is feasible onlyif the existing and forecast peak period directionaltraffic split is 35% or less in one direction during thedesign life of the project. Other factors, which couldsupport the use of a reversible flow operation, are rightof way constraints and physical constraints, such asbridge columns, in retrofitting a reversible flowoperation into the median.

Reversible flow operation should only be used onbarrier-separated HOV facilities with limited ingress/

egress to the HOV lanes (See Chapter 3). Its operationcan be expensive in terms of equipment and manpower.Also, a reversible facility is functional only during peakperiods due to required preparations for each directionalchange.

Section 2.2.3 Contraflow

A contraflow HOV facility uses the excess freewaycapacity in the off-peak direction to relieve congestionin the direction of peak flow. With median crossovers,traffic is guided across the median to the inside lane inthe opposite direction. Typically, removable pylons,movable barriers or an additional lane is used toseparate the contraflow lane from the adjacent mixed-flow lanes. It should only be considered: (1) if the peakperiod directional traffic split is 35% or less during thedesign life of the project, and (2) if the speed of theopposing mixed-flow traffic is not reduced by

implementation of the contraflow lane.

Between 1974 and 1986, Caltrans operated a bus-onlycontraflow facility on 4 miles of Route 101 in MarinCounty, north of San Francisco. The facility, whichallowed buses with permits to bypass congestion and godirectly into a contiguous HOV lane, used two lanesfrom the southbound (off-peak) direction with one of thelanes acting as a buffer. The contraflow lane wasdiscontinued after freeway improvements reducedcongestion and speeds in the mixed-flow lanes increasedto match that of the contraflow lane.

It is unlikely that the contraflow operational mode willbe used extensively in California. In most of the State’smetropolitan areas, taking an additional lane for a buffercreates an unacceptable level of service for the opposingtraffic. Movable barriers or pylons eliminate the needfor a buffer lane but their use requires a set-up and take-down process which is costly and which causes potentialconflicts between motorists and the placement crew.

Section 2.3 Queue Bypasses

HOV queue bypasses are relatively short sections ofHOV lanes, which bypass congestion and provide

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significant timesavings for carpools, vanpools andbuses. Examples of queue bypasses in California arebridge toll plaza bypass lanes and ramp meter bypasslanes. They are not associated with any particulargeometric configuration and need to be designed forspecific sites. For ramp meter bypass lanes, refer to theDepartment’s “Ramp Meter Design Guidelines”prepared by Headquarters Division of Traffic

Operations.

Section 2.4 Hours of Operation

The determination of whether HOV lanes should beoperated part or full-time, from a traffic-operationalviewpoint, should be largely a matter of congestion andthe length of peak period and off-peak periods. Thedecision whether to operate on a part-time or on a full-time basis hinges on other factors as well. The factorsinclude traffic safety, political and publicconsiderations, air quality concerns, enforcementissues, and geographical dispersions of trip patterns(radial routes to or from a central business district or asuburban grid pattern with multiple business districts).Most of all, the need to maintain consistent and uniformHOV operation on a corridor by corridor basis isrequired as well as an ultimate region-wide basis toavoid motorist confusion.

Section 2.4.1 Peak Period Operation

Peak period operation has the following benefits:

A. Avoid the public perception that the HOV lane isunderutilized (the “empty lane syndrome”)during off-peak periods, particularly if publicsentiment is not totally receptive to the HOVproject.

B. Freeway lane densities are lower during off-peakperiods, thus providing a higher LOS.

C. Lane closures during the off-peak for maintenancecreates less congestion due to the availability ofthe additional lane.

Northern California commute patterns generally consistof two short definable peak commute periods (two tofour hours during the mornings and evenings) separatedby a long mid-day off-peak period. Traffic-flowcharacteristics in Northern California are conducive topart-time operation during peak hours with unrestrictedaccess. All part-time HOV facilities in the state arecontiguous, which means that the HOV lane is separatedfrom the adjacent mixed-flow lanes by the same brokenwhite line or reflective marker pattern used on themajority of mixed-flow lanes. The HOV lane traffic isfree to enter and exit the lane throughout the length ofthe facility. Part-time HOV facilities provide optimumuse of all lanes during off-peak periods, particularly forconstruction and maintenance purposes.

Section 2.4.2 Continuous HOV Operation

Compared to a peak period operation, continuous HOVoperation presents the following benefits:

A. Signing and delineation are simpler.

B. Violation rates tend to be lower and enforcement

is easier.

C. There is less motorist confusion concerningoperational hours.

D. Since continuous HOV operation occurs frequentlyon buffered or barrier-separated facilities,freeway incidents are less likely to affect HOVlane operation.

E. Since the ridesharing concept is encouraged at alltimes of the day, there could be a greater modeshift to ridesharing.

F. Continuous HOV operations can be applied on alltypes of geometric configurations.

The Southern California commute and peak hours, bothin the morning and the evening, (typically between six to

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eleven hours) are much longer and separated by a shortoff-peak period. All, with one exception, full-timeHOV facilities in the state are buffered, which meansthat the HOV lane is separated from the adjacentmixed-flow lanes by a combination of reflectivemarkers and solid yellow and white painted stripes perthe California Vehicle Code. These facilities offerrestricted access entrances and exits which are clearlydelineated with a broken white line. Only one full-timeHOV facility, the El Monte Busway on Interstate 10 inLos Angeles County, is barrier separated.

Section 2.5 Vehicle Occupancy

The occupancy requirements for HOV facilities shouldbe based on the following considerations:

A. Maximizing the person-per-hour throughput.

B. Allowing for HOV growth and increased usage ofthe HOV facility.

C. Maintaining a free-flow condition, preferably aLOS-C.

D. Conforming to the occupancy requirements of theregion, particularly connecting HOV routes.

E. Completion of a region’s HOV system or adjacentHOV facilities could redistribute the HOV traffic,thereby making occupancy adjustments unneces-sary.

F. Adjust occupancy requirements to avoid theperception of lane underutilization.

The predominant occupancy requirement for existingHOV facilities is two plus (2+) and it is expected thatmost new HOV facilities will be 2+ as well. However,as some existing HOV facilities have becomecongested, the District should initiate studies forsolutions to maintain a desirable level of service. Forbuffered or contiguous HOV facilities, Caltrans

considers LOS-C occurs at approximately 1,650vehicles per hour, less if there is significant bus volumeor if there are physicalconstraints.

Increasing the occupancy requirement may be thelogical solution if adding a second HOV lane isinappropriate. However, going from 2+ to 3+ mayreduce vehicular demand by 75% to 85%. Suchadjustments may be too severe if only a 10% to 20%reduction in demand is necessary to maintain free-flowconditions. Districts are strongly recommended toinvolve the FHWA Transportation Engineer andHeadquarters HOV Coordinator if a significant changein existing HOV operations is considered. See FHWAProgram Guidance at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/policy/hovmemgd.htm.

Varying occupancy requirements, such as the El MonteBusway on Interstate 10 in Los Angeles County, by timeof day is a useful option and could be used inconjunction with computer traffic surveillance andtechnology currently being implemented by the urbanDistricts. To avoid public confusion over varyingoccupancy requirements, it is essential that signs andother motorist information devices clearly relate thenecessary message. Changing occupancy requirements,whether permanently or by time of day, is enforcementsensitive and should be coordinated with the CaliforniaHighway Patrol.

Once a decision has been made to change the occupancyrequirement, an intense public information andeducation effort should precede actual implementation.An adequate period should be allowed for publiccomment and response.

Section 2.6 Vehicle Types

The Federal Surface Transportation Assistance Act of1982, in part, permits motorcycles in HOV facilitiesunless their presence creates a safety hazard. If adocumented engineering analysis indicates thatmotorcycles present more of a safety problem in theHOV facility than in the mixed-flow lanes, thenconsideration should be given to restricting motorcyclesfrom the HOV facility. Prohibition of motorcycles

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requires approval by the U.S. Secretary ofTransportation through the Federal HighwayAdministration, see Appendix A-11. The Districts areadvised to consult with Headquarters Traffic Opera-tions when such prohibitions are being considered.Exclusions and changes concerning vehicle types inHOV facilities must be approved by the Director per aDecember 4, 1989 internal memorandum signed byDirector, Robert K. Best.

Section 2.7 Deadheading

The term “deadheading” refers to the use of a HOVfacility by transit vehicles occupied only by the driver.Per state legislation, mass transit vehicles were allowedto deadhead effective January 1, 1998 and clearlymarked paratransit vehicles were allowed effectiveJanuary 1, 2003, see Appendix A-7.

Section 2.8 Incident Handling/SpecialEvents on HOV Lanes

Section 2.8.1 Incident Handling

Since the HOV facility is designed to operate at ahigher level of service (LOS) than adjacent mixed-flowlanes during commute periods, it is important to isolatethe performance patterns of the system. As trafficoperations systems (TOS) elements are developed orupgraded in the metropolitan areas, it is essential thatsuch systems provide discrete HOV performance data,e.g. speeds, volumes and lane occupancies so thatadjustments can be made to maintain the desirableLOS.

The TOS design should include incident detectionverification and handling capabilities for the HOVfacility. Frequently, incidents in the HOV lane willresult in HOV traffic merging into the adjacent mixed-flow lane. In most cases, the mixed-flow lane shouldnot be closed to mixed-flow traffic and designated atemporary HOV lane. For major incidents in the mixed-flow lanes, Caltrans and the CHP should jointly decidewhether to open the HOV facility to mixed-flow traffic.

Freeway Service Patrol (FSP) considerations for HOVfacilities should also be an integral element of incidentmanagement. This need is particularly acute for barrier-separated HOV facilities, and service patrol activitiesfor the mixed-flow traffic, which do not extend into theHOV facility.

Barrier-separated facilities present different operationalproblems and possibilities from other types of HOVfacilities for handling incidents both in the HOV laneand in the mixed-flow lanes. Incidents in the HOV lanefrequently close the lane and require the re-routing ofHOV traffic into the mixed-flow lanes. A major incidentin the mixed-flow lanes, with multiple lane blockage,may result in utilization of the HOV lane by non-eligiblevehicles. Such use of a barrier-separated HOV facilityby mixed-flow traffic, particularly for a reversible HOVoperation, should be approached with caution. Barrier-separated HOV facilities have very restrictive accesspoints and generally should not be used for incidentmanagement unless the incident is of extended durationand where traffic diversion is not possible. If suchfacilities are to be used, the decision should be madejointly by CHP and Caltrans, who must ensure that alldisabled vehicles are removed prior to resuming HOVoperation.

Section 2.8.2 Special Events

Special events and weekend traffic normally consist ofvehicles with higher occupancy levels than recurrentweekday traffic. Therefore, there should be no need toallow mixed-flow traffic to use a 24-hour HOV facility.For those HOV facilities operating on a part-time basis,consideration should be given to operating the facility asHOV during special events. This would require carefuljoint planning with the CHP, including the routing oftraffic and the use of temporary signing.

Section 2.8.3 Agency Responsibilities

CHP and Caltrans responsibilities regarding incidenthandling and special events shall adhere to all of thepolicies contained in the joint operational policystatements.

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Section 2.9 Using HOV Lanes For TrafficManagement Plans

Traffic Management Plans (TMPs) are required for allhighway activities and in particular for major rehabilita-tion projects where significant delays are anticipateddue to construction. One of the possible TMP elementsis the use of an interim HOV lane during reconstruc-tion. The interim lane can be achieved by re-striping orby reconstructing the existing median or shoulder.

There have been several projects nationwide whichhave included the use of interim HOV lanes as a TMPelement including the following:

A. I-376 in Pittsburgh (Parkway East) - Interim HOVlanes for on-ramps resulted in a 21% increase inthe passenger occupancy rate with a 66% reduc-tion in the number of vehicles using the corridor.

B. I-394 in Minneapolis (US 12) - The installation ofthe interim HOV lane (“Sane Lane”) coupled withfree carpool parking in downtown Minneapolisled to a 35% increase in peak hour person-trips.

C. I-395 in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan area(The Shirley Highway) - During the morning peakperiods the HOV lane saved 12 to 18 minutes ofcommute time when compared to mixed-flowlanes. Within two months, the bus ridershipincreased by 20%.

Section 2.10 Passing Lanes

Operational experience in California indicates thatvehicular speeds in HOV lanes vary to the extent thatpassing lanes may be justified. Although trucks arenormally excluded from the facility, variations invehicular speed are such that tailgating occurs withregularity. For those situations, passing lanes should beconsidered where right of way is not a constraint. Suchlanes are particularly appropriate for lengthy bufferedor barrier facilities in hilly or mountainous terrain withhigh bus volumes.

Section 2.11 Transit Stations

A viable strategy to increase person trips on a HOVfacility is to provide express bus service. When planningthis service it is often necessary to provide intermediatepassenger access when a high level of transit service isdesired. Two types of facilities show the most promise inproviding access. They are On-Line Transit Stations andOff-Line Transit Stations.

Section 2.11.1 On-Line Transit Stations

On-Line transit stations are bus transfer facilities locatedcontiguous to the HOV facility. They may serve walk-inpassengers from nearby residences or park and ride lots,feeder transit lines or nearby activity centers. Transfersbetween other express buses operating on the HOVfacility can also be accommodated. Stations can bedesigned to serve either two-way or reversible HOVlanes.

On-Line stations may produce right of way savings,eliminate costly ramp construction that is necessary foroff-line stations and provide maximum timesavings.Negative aspects include added noise and air pollutionto the users, long walking distances, an increase intransfers between vehicles, and expensive handicapaccess.

Platform loading facilities may be located in the centerof the HOV lanes or on the sides. Center platformsusually require less width, provide for easy transfers,and are less expensive to construct. A major drawbackoccurs because buses are built to load on the right sideof the vehicle. This requires that buses crossover insome manner to orientate themselves for loading. It isnecessary for both types that bypass lanes be providedthrough the platform location to allow other HOVs toproceed without delay.

Section 2.11.2 Off-Line Transit Stations

Off-Line transit stations are bus facilities, which are notcontiguous to the HOV facility, but are close enough toreceive direct bus service. They could be located at

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nearby park and ride lots, at large employment centers,or be a major transit center.

A major cost in providing service to an off-line station isthe necessity of constructing either direct connectorramps or a drop-ramp facility. There could also be aconsiderable time penalty involved in serving this typeof facility when compared to an on-line station. Many ofthe problems involving on-line stations such as pedes-trian access, platform location, and other amenities canmore easily be resolved with off-line stations.

Each corridor will require detailed studies to determinewhich type of station should be constructed to providethe desired transit service. Early consultation with theProject Development Coordinator and HeadquartersTraffic Reviewer is recommended when transit stationsare being considered.

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Section 3.1 General

High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) projects can bedeveloped as part of new freeway construction, freewayreconstruction, restriping existing freeways, or acombination of these. Since the majority of HOV projectsin California involve some form of retrofitting within theexisting freeway right of way, this chapter will focus on aset of guidelines for the typical geometric configurationsand procedures for reducing the geometric cross sectionsfor HOV facilities.

In general, typical geometric design of HOV facilitiesconforms to the Highway Design Manual (HDM).Reducing the typical geometrics may be pursued onlyafter every effort to conform to the HDM is unsuccessfuland must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, withsafety the primary consideration. District designers arestrongly encouraged to seek the advice and input fromHeadquarters’ Traffic Liaisons and Headquarters’ DesignCoordinators as early as possible. This is encouragedparticularly when the project proposes not to conform toHDM standards or this guide.

Justification for the use of anything less than typicalgeometrics must be well documented by a soundengineering analysis. Any deviation from these

recommendations should be discussed with the FHWATransportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel,from the District and Headquarters, Headquarters’ TrafficLiaisons and Headquarters’ Design Coordinators. SeeTopic 82, Chapter 80 of the HDM.

HOV facilities separated by barriers or buffers cantypically be applied on all types of geometricconfigurations. Right of way constraints, and otherfactors, however, sometimes preclude the separatedoption. Whether separated or contiguous, the operationaldifferences among the various HOV geometric optionsare minor when they are compared to the differencesbetween any HOV lane and a mixed-flow lane.

The operation of a HOV facility is closely linked to itsdesign features and the traffic demands on the freewaycorridor. Typical geometric configurations are shown inthe following sections to illustrate situations most oftenencountered in California. Because existing freewaygeometric sections and right of way availability varyfrom one location to the next, situations will arise forwhich none of the scenarios will apply. For thosesituations, the District designer should consult withTraffic Operations personnel, from the District andHeadquarters, Headquarters’ Traffic Liaisons andHeadquarters’ Design Coordinators for advice.

*

* This data is updated twice per year and available on the followingintranet page: http://onramp/hq/trafops/otrafopr/hov/hov.html.

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Designers are encouraged to review Deputy DirectiveDD-43, Appendix A-3, for the policy on HOV Systemsand relevant responsibilities. Also, review internalDepartmental Memorandum, dated December 11, 1995,Appendices A-4 and A-5, regarding the termination ofthe HOV lane into its own mixed-flow lane.

This chapter is intended to describe various HOVgeometric configurations and the associated trafficcharacteristics experienced with each option. Existingconditions routinely challenge geometric uniformity;however, every effort should be made to provideconsistency in geometrics, signs and markings within acontiguous region, particularly for the same route or forconnecting routes.

Section 3.2 General Design Criteria

1. Horizontal Stopping Sight DistanceStopping sight distance (SSD) shall conform to theHDM standards. Where conformance is not feasibledue to median barriers, the height of the taillights of avehicle can be used as one reason to justify approval ofa design exception fact sheet to the standard SSD. Anengineering analysis and an approved design exceptionfact sheet shall document use of anything less than thestandard SSD detailed in the HDM. Increasing theheight of an object may provide taillight SSD in allsituations except crest vertical curves. However, anengineering analysis and an approved design exceptionfact sheet must document its use.

2. Decision Stopping Sight DistanceDecision stopping sight distance should be provided tothe nose of all HOV drop ramps, flyovers, and freeway-to-freeway HOV direct connectors. See the HDM,Section 201.7.

3. Vertical ClearanceThe required minimum vertical clearance for majorstructures on freeways and expressways is 5.1m. Anengineering analysis and an approved design exceptionfact sheet must justify any reduction from 5.1m.

Sign structures shall have a vertical minimum clearanceof 5.5m. See the HDM, Section 309.2.

4. DrainageThe drainage of narrow median widths on retrofit HOVfacilities should be carefully evaluated in superelevatedareas or where the pavement slopes toward the median.A water-carrying barrier, a slotted pipe or an approvedalternate must be provided in these areas. The HOVlane should be designed to meet the drainagerequirements for a 25-year design storm.

5. Structural SectionThe structural section of HOV lanes on new facilitiesshould be equal to that of the adjacent mixed-flow laneunless a greater thickness is required due to anticipatedhigh bus usage.

The structural section for retrofit HOV lanes should bestructurally adequate for ten years after constructionwhen reconstruction is warranted. The surface materialand cross slope should be the same as the existing lanes.However, when the widening is contiguous to Portlandcement concrete (PCC) pavement, and a PavementManagement System (PMS) survey and field reviewindicate that PCC pavement will need rehabilitation inless than ten years, the widening should be done withasphalt concrete (AC). If the existing pavement requiresimmediate rehabilitation, the work should be included inthe HOV facility project.

6. Lane WidthThree and six tenths meter (3.6m) lanes are typical. Seethe HDM, Section 301.1. Three and three tenths meter(3.3m) lanes may be acceptable if justified by anengineering analysis and an approved design exceptionfact sheet. However, the outside mixed-flow lane shouldremain at 3.6m unless truck volume is less than 3%.When adjacent to a wall or barrier, shoulder widthsbetween 1.5m and 2.4m on mainline HOV facilitiesshould be avoided except as spot locations.

7. Shoulder Width/Horizontal ClearanceShoulder width shall conform to the standards specifiedin the HDM, Section 309.1 for compliance withhorizontal clearance standards to fixed objects. Lessthan standard shoulder and horizontal clearance widthsmust be justified by an engineering analysis and anapproved design exception fact sheet.

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Section 3.3 Geometric Configurations

Geometrics for mainline HOV facility configurationscan be divided into these categories:

A. Barrier-SeparatedB. Buffer-SeparatedC. Contiguous

The following factors should be considered whendetermining which configuration is appropriate:

1. Existing Geometric Cross-SectionThe majority of HOV projects are retrofitted within theexisting right of way by re-striping or reconstruction.However, if right of way is economically andenvironmentally feasible and the project is not interimin nature, the HOV project should conform to the HDMstandards.

2. OperationsOperational characteristics such as part-time versusfull-time operation, reversible HOV lanes, contra-flowlanes and continuous or restricted ingress/egress areessential considerations in determining a suitablegeometric configuration.

3. EnforcementHOV-related violations such as occupancy and crossingbuffers must be enforced to maintain the integrity of thelanes. The designer should consider providingenforcement opportunities as discussed in Chapter 6,“HOV Enforcement.”

Section 3.4 Barrier-Separated HOVFacilities

Barrier-Separated HOV facilities can be used forreversible or two-way operation. Two-way operation isthe most desirable when space and cost considerationsare not major concerns. Barrier-separated HOVfacilities, whether two-way or reversible, offeroperational advantages such as:

1. Ease of enforcement (violations can be enforced atthe ingress/egress locations).

2. Ease of incident management.3. Unimpeded HOV operation without interference

from the mixed-flow lanes.4. Lower violation rates.5. High level of driver comfort.

A. Two-Way Barrier-Separated HOV FacilitiesGeometric cross-sections for a two-way barrierseparated HOV facility are shown in Figure 3.1 and anelevated HOV facility shown in Figure 3.3. The elevatedoption can be used when right of way is limited.

Elevated HOV facilities should be 7.8m or widerbetween barriers. The 7.8m width between barriersprovides flexibility for future conversion to two 3.3mlanes with 0.6m shoulders.

B. Reversible Barrier-Separated HOV FacilitiesA reversible barrier-separated HOV facility should beconsidered when the project is severely constrained byright of way and environmental considerations. Inaddition, it is essential that the traffic directional split(after allowing for traffic growth) be 65% or more in the

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heavier direction of flow. Once implemented,conversion of a reversible operation to other modes canbe extremely difficult. However, if the appropriatedirectional splits can be maintained, this optionprovides capacity in the needed direction with far lessright of way than otherwise required by permanent two-way HOV configurations. A typical geometric cross-section for a barrier-separated, reversible HOV facilityis shown in Figure 3.1.

Section 3.5 Buffer-Separated HOVFacilities

The Buffer-Separated HOV facility is set apart orseparated from the mixed-flow lanes by a buffer ofvariable widths, generally 1.2m or less. Buffers 3.6mto 4.8m are occasionally used, particularly if used inconjunction with ingress/egress acceleration anddeceleration lanes with potential conversion toadditional traffic lanes. However, such wide buffersshould only be used when there is adequate width toprovide 3.0m or wider shoulders left of the HOV lane.Buffer widths between 1.2m to 3.6m should not beused. This will discourage the use of buffers as a refugearea. Compared to contiguous HOV facilities, bufferedHOV facilities generally provide the motorists with abetter level of service. This includes higher drivercomfort, extra margin of safety through providing extramaneuvering room, and a lessening of the impact fromincidents on adjoining HOV and mixed-flow lanes. Thetypical geometric cross-section for buffer-separatedHOV facilities is shown in Figure 3.2.

Section 3.6 Contiguous HOV Facilities

Contiguous HOV facilities are normally associated inareas with short duration, high volume peak commutetraffic periods. Also, contiguous HOV facilities may beused when right of way limitations preclude bufferseparation of the HOV lane from the mixed-flow traffic.Since the HOV traffic is free to enter and exit the lanethroughout its length, no design details are required foringress/egress except at the ends of the HOV facility.

Part-time contiguous HOV facilities allow the use of alllanes during off-peak periods, particularly forconstruction and maintenance purposes. Additionally,part-time operation may be more acceptable to themotorist not totally convinced of the need for the HOVfacility. Because the lane reverts to mixed-flowoperation after the peak period, reductions from thetypical geometrics need to be carefully analyzed. Thetypical geometric cross-section for a contiguous HOVfacility is shown in Figure 3.2.

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ShoulderReversible Lane(s) Shoulder

CL

REVERSIBLE BARRIER-SEPARATED

HOV FACILITY

ShoulderMixed Flow

Lanes ShoulderMixed Flow

Lanes

3.6m3.6m 3.0m3.0m 3.6m 3.0m3.6m3.0m

HOV Lane Shoulder ShoulderHOV LaneShoulderMixed Flow

LanesShoulder

CL

TWO-WAY BARRIER-SEPARATED

HOV FACILITY

Shoulder ShoulderMixed Flow

Lanes

1.5m 1.5m 3.0m 3.6m3.0m 3.0m3.6m3.0m 3.6m3.0m 3.6m 3.0m

FIGURE 3.1

TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS

BARRIER-SEPARATED HOV FACILITIES

NOT TO SCALE

Shoulder

1.5m

0.6m (typ)

3.0m

0.6m (typ)

0.6m (typ)

Shoulder

0.6m (typ)

NOTE: Justification for the use of anything less than typical geometrics must be well documented by a sound engineering analysis. Any deviation from these recommendations should be discussed with the FHWA Transportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel, from the District and Headquarters, Headquarters' Traffic Liaisons and Headquarters' Design Coordinators.

See Topic 82, Chapter 80 of the HDM.

etric

Caltrans

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Shoulder

CL

Shoulder Mixed FlowLanes

Buffer HOV Lane

3.0m(see note 2)

3.6m3.6m 3.0m 3.6m3.6m 3.0m

Shoulder HOV Lane

CL

HOV Lane

3.6m 3.6m

Mixed FlowLanes

Shoulder

3.6m 3.0m

Shoulder Mixed FlowLanes

3.6m3.0m

Shoulder

3.0m(see note 2)

1.2m

ShoulderMixed FlowLanes

HOV Lane

1.2m

Shoulder

FIGURE 3.2

TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS

BUFFER-SEPARATED AND CONTIGUOUS

HOV FACILITIES

NOT TO SCALE

BUFFER-SEPARATED

HOV FACILITY

CONTIGUOUS HOV FACILITY

0.6m (typ)

Buffer

3.0m(see note 2)

0.6m (typ)

3.0m(see note 2)

NOTE: 1. Justification for the use of anything less than typical geometrics must be well documented by a sound engineering analysis. Any deviation from these recommendations should be discussed with the FHWA Transportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel, from the District and Headquarters, Headquarters' Traffic Liaisons and Headquarters' Design Coordinators. See Topic 82, Chapter 80 of the HDM.

2. Requires enforcement areas. See Section 6.4, Chapter 6, Enforcement Alternatives.

etric

Caltrans

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7.8m or Wider

Mixed-FlowTraveled Way

1.5m1.5m 3.6m

3.6

CL

HOV Lane ShoulderHOV LaneShoulder

1.5m 1.5m 3.6m 3.0m3.6m3.0m

3.0m 3.6m 3.0m

FIGURE 3.3

TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS

HOV DIRECT CONNECTOR

AND ELEVATED HOV FACILITIES

NOT TO SCALE

HOV DIRECT CONNECTOR

ELEVATED HOV FACILITY

0.6m (typ)

Shoulder

Mixed-FlowTraveled Way

NOTE: 1. Justification for the use of anything less than typical geometrics must be well documented by a sound engineering analysis. Any deviation from these recommendations should be discussed with the FHWA Transportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel, from the District and Headquarters, Headquarters' Traffic Liaisons and Headquarters' Design Coordinators. See Topic 82, Chapter 80 of the HDM.

2. All structure design details to be provided by the Engineering Service Center, Division of Structures, corresponding to Caltrans Standard Plans.

etric

Caltrans

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Section 3.7 HOV Direct Connectors

Continuing development in HOV design involves HOVdirect connectors at intersecting freeways for seamlessfreeway to freeway movements. As this section isrelatively new, operational and support data arebecoming available for planning and designing HOVdirect connectors. These guidelines will become moredefinitive as operational experiences accumulate.

The following factors, listed in random order, should beanalyzed when HOV direct connectors are beingconsidered. These factors are goals when planning anddesigning HOV direct connectors.

A. Will the HOV direct connector provide HOVsystem continuity and will it be an integralelement of the overall HOV system?

B. Is forecasted HOV peak hour volume for theconnector greater than 500 vehicles per hourper lane (vphpl) or 1100 persons per hour perlane (pphpl) within five years from opening? Ifnot, will space be provided in the interchangeto accommodate the eventual construction ofHOV direct connectors?

C. If the alternative to HOV direct connectors areweaving movements across mixed-flow traffic,will a weaving analysis show the developmentof a significant bottleneck, resulting in a netloss in overall time savings? If so, thissituation may justify building HOV connectors,particularly if bus volume is high.

D. Although HOV direct connectors should not becategorically rejected because of cost, will thecost/benefit analysis imply a reasonable rate ofreturn? Anticipated benefits of HOV directconnectors are: (1) net travel-time savings and(2) safety benefits when compared to a groundlevel merging maneuver. Travel-time savingsmust consider potential increased delay for themixed-flow traffic. Timesavings may be basedon a “per passenger” basis rather than on thenumber of vehicles, (i.e. person-minutes ratherthan vehicle-minutes). Safety benefits for

HOV direct connectors are difficult to evaluateand should be discussed qualitatively untilthere is sufficient operational experience.

E. Will the community accept the additionalstructural height, which may be necessary forHOV direct connectors?

F. Is there a plan to maintain a desirable level ofservice for the HOV traffic by: (1) convertingto a higher occupancy requirement or (2)providing an additional HOV lane to maintain adesirable level of service for the HOV traffic?

G. Will it be fundable? HOV direct connectors areno more expensive than elevated HOV lanesand the need to provide continuity/connectivitymay be equally cost effective as additionalsegments (miles) of HOV lanes, especiallywhen user benefits are included. It is alsoimportant for Regional Transportation PlanningAgencies (RTPA’s) and Metropolitan PlanningOrganizations (MPO’s) to recognize their valueand plan for these important systemcomponents.

H. With regard to the buffer-separated or barrier-separated HOV facility, would an additionalingress point be impractical due to the highcost of providing lateral space in the median?

I. Will HOV direct connectors promote andenhance HOV usage or transit service in theregion or corridor?

J. Will HOV direct connectors eliminate or delaythe need to reconstruct or add additionalcapacity or additional connectors to existingfreeway-to-freeway interchanges?

K. Will HOV direct connectors substantiallyimprove the operational level of service,reducing congestion, on existing or futureconnectors?

If a HOV direct connector is feasible after considerationof the above factors, freeway-to-freeway HOV direct

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connector geometric standards, except for 1.5m medianshoulder should be used. However, when space islimited and the design exception fact sheet is approved,reducing the ramp geometrics may be justified. HOVconnectors may merge or diverge from either the rightor left side of the through HOV lanes. See the HDM,Section 302.1. Also, no less than 7.8m between barriersshould be provided to retain flexibility for initial orfuture re-striping to two lanes. HOV direct connectorsare often long in length, where future expansion to twolanes also serves to accommodate traffic volumegrowth and/or transit growth. The typical geometricconfigurations, cross section and schematic plan, forHOV direct connectors are shown in Figure 3.3 andFigure 3.4, respectively.

Section 3.8 HOV Drop Ramps

HOV ramps that provide ingress and egress betweenHOV lanes and conventional highways, streets, roads,transit facilities or park and ride facilities aresometimes referred to as HOV drop ramps. As is thecase with HOV direct connectors, operational andsupporting data are becoming available for planningand designing HOV drop ramps. These guidelines willbecome more definitive as operational experiencesaccumulate. It is recommended that the followingfactors be considered when drop ramps are beingconsidered:

A. Does the benefit/cost analysis regardingtimesavings and safety benefits indicate areasonable rate of return?

B. Is there a high concentration of HOV demanddue to major attractions such as transitfacilities, park and ride facilities, centralbusiness districts, or industrial concentrations?

C. Are HOV volumes using the interchange largeenough to have a significant negative impacton the through traffic lanes due to weavingmaneuvers?

D. Does removal of HOV traffic improve theoperating level of service for the freeway, theinterchange, or the cross streets?

It may be difficult, particularly in retrofit situations, tofit HOV drop ramps into the available space. The typicalgeometric configurations, cross section and schematicplan, to an overcrossing and an undercrossing are shownin Figures 3.5 and 3.6, respectively.

Section 3.9 Local Obstructions

If the geometric configuration for retrofit HOV facilitiesproves inadequate at localized obstructions, thegeometrics may be further reduced provided thenecessary design exception fact sheets are approved. Forexample, FHWA has allowed three tenths meter (0.3m)median shoulders on a case-by-case basis at localobstructions such as signposts. To retain existingovercrossings, they have also agreed to 3.3m mixed-flow and HOV lanes, no buffer, and 0.6m left and rightshoulders.

In extreme cases where the cost or impact is great,reducing the right shoulder of ramps or elimination ofauxiliary lanes may be considered in order to avoidremoval of existing overcrossings. A minimum lateralclearance to the structure or other obstruction should be0.6m. Benefits of removing the auxiliary lane should becarefully weighed against the adverse operationalimpacts associated with its removal.

Additional horizontal clearance may be obtained byeliminating the safety shape on the concrete barrieradjacent to structure columns, abutments, or median signbases as shown in Figure 3.7. The safety shape may beretained at median sign bases by utilizing a steel plate inlieu of concrete.

If the minimum clearance is not achieved by any of theabove methods, movement of the columns andreplacement or modification of the overcrossingstructure should be considered. The length of the newstructure should accommodate a full standard facilitywith the number of lanes indicated in the District’ssystem planning process, included in the TransportationConcept Reports (TCR).

When the approach roadway is widened as part of theHOV project, undercrossing structures should bewidened to accommodate the approach roadway.

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Shoulder

CL

HOV Lane

2.4m

Shoulder

RetainingWall

HOV LaneMixed

Flow Lanes Shoulder

HOV Lane

2.4m

Shoulder HOV Lane

Buffer

Mixed Flow Lanes Shoulder

RetainingWall

1.5m 1.5m3.6m 3.6m

3.0m3.6m3.6m3.0m1.2m 1.2m

3.0m 3.6m 3.6m 3.0m

HOV Lane

3.0m

RetainingWall

Mixed Flow LanesShoulder HOV Lane Shoulder

Mixed Flow LanesShoulder HOV Lane Shoulder

HOV Lane

3.0m

RetainingWall

3.6m1.5m 1.5m

3.6 m

3.0m1.2

3.6m3.0m 3.6m1.2

3.0m 3.6m 3.6m 3.0m

(see note 1)

FIGURE 3.5

TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS

HOV DROP RAMP TO

OVERCROSSING AND UNDERCROSSING

NOT TO SCALE

HOV DROP RAMP

TO UNDERCROSSING

HOV DROP RAMP

TO OVERCROSSING

0.6m (typ)

Shoulder Shoulder

Buffer

BufferShoulder

CL

(see note 1)

Shoulder Shoulder

0.6m (typ)

Buffer

NOTE: Justification for the use of anything less than typical geometrics must be well documented by a sound engineering analysis. Any deviation from these recommendations should be discussed with the FHWA Transportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel, from the District and Headquarters, Headquarters' Traffic Liaisons and Headquarters' Design Coordinators.

See Topic 82, Chapter 80 of the HDM.

etric

Caltrans

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CH-3♦ 12

CHAPTER 3♦ HOV GEOMETRIC DESIGN

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

HO

V O

n-R

am

p

HO

V L

ane

Auxi

liary

Lane

BC

EC

(see n

ote

2)

HO

V O

ff R

am

pR

= 1

40

0m

Cra

sh C

ushio

n

Auxi

liary

Lane

2m

300m

180m

1.2

m

(see n

ote

2)

(see n

ote

2)

Buffer

Should

erS

hould

er

Re

tain

ing

Wa

ll

Should

er

Media

n B

arr

ier

100m

(see n

ote

3)

100m

220m

BC

EC

HO

V L

an

e

BC

EC

EC

BC

R =

14

00

m

0.6

m

2m

22

0m

27

0m

15

0m

(see n

ote

4)

Cra

sh C

ushio

n3

0m

"x"

(se

e n

ote

1)

Undercrossingor

Overcrossing

BC

EC

Should

er

Should

er

HO

V L

an

e

30

0m

75

m

FIG

UR

E 3

.6T

YP

ICA

L H

OV

DR

OP

RA

MP

EN

TR

AN

CE

S A

ND

EX

ITS

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

DE

TA

ILM

ER

GE

ES

CA

PE

AR

EA

se

e D

ETA

IL(a

bo

ve

)

2.4

m

Buffer

Mix

ed F

low

Lane

Mix

ed F

low

Lane

= 3

° to

18

0m

(ty

p)

NO

TE

S:

1.

Should

er

wid

ths o

n H

OV

Dro

p R

am

ps s

hall

confo

rm to the H

ighw

ay D

esig

n M

anual.

2.

R =

3000m

. is

typic

ally

less than 0

1 0

0' 0

0".

For

le

ss than 0

0 3

0' 0

0",

a taper

may b

e u

sed in lie

u o

f curv

e.

3.

Entr

ance p

rofile

s s

hould

appro

xim

ate

ly p

ara

llel th

e p

rofile

of th

e fre

ew

ay for

at le

ast 100m

prior

to the 2

m p

oin

t

to p

rovid

e inte

r-vis

ibili

ty in m

erg

ing s

ituations.

4.

A 3

00m

long a

uxili

ary

lane s

hould

be p

rovid

ed, part

icula

rly o

n a

scendin

g e

ntr

ance r

am

ps.

5.

The M

erg

e E

scape A

rea (

Deta

il) is n

ot re

quired w

here

the left fre

ew

ay s

hould

er

is 2

.4m

or

gre

ate

r.

6.

The m

axim

um

gra

de o

n a

descendin

g o

ff-r

am

p s

hould

be 6

%.35

m

Me

rge

Esca

pe

Are

a(s

ee n

ote

5)

Mix

ed F

low

Lane

Mix

ed F

low

Lane

BufferS

hould

er

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

Page 35: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-3♦ 13

CHAPTER 3♦ HOV GEOMETRIC DESIGN

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Bridge Column

20:1 TransitionA

A

C

C

ALTERNATE 1

180mm

ALTERNATE 2

Steel Plate

B

B

SECTION B-B

Varies

1430m

m

Column Post

A

A

C

C

B

B

20:1 Transition

••

SECTION C-C

1430m

mVaries

••

••

320mm

910m

m

Median CL

Median CL

FIGURE 3.7MEDIAN BARRIER TRANSITIONS

NOT TO SCALE

MEDIAN BARRIER TRANSITIONAT BRIDGE COLUMNS

MEDIAN BARRIER TRANSITION ATSIGN STRUCTURES AND BRIDGE COLUMNS

CONCRETE BARRIERTYPE 60

SECTION A-A

All structure design details to be provided by the Engineering Service Center,

Division of Structures, corresponding to Caltrans Standard Plans.

NOTE:

etric

Caltrans

Page 36: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-3♦ 14

CHAPTER 3♦ HOV GEOMETRIC DESIGN

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 3.10 Relative Priority of Cross-Sectional Elements

It may be appropriate to consider minor reductions inlane, buffer and shoulder widths at ‘pinch points’ inorder to avoid the complete reconstruction of significantroadway elements (i.e. - overcrossing structures). Areduction in standards for cross-sectional elements maybe necessary for most retrofit HOV projects. Whennecessary, any deviation from the HDM mandatorystandards must be discussed with Headquarters’ DesignCoordinators and, if justified, will require approveddesign exception fact sheets. For the mixed-flow lanes,outside shoulder widths and the outside lane widthsgenerally should not be altered. When sufficientjustification exists, suggested priority for reduction ofthe cross-sectional elements for the various geometricconfigurations is outlined below. Any deviation frommandatory standards shall be discussed with the FHWATransportation Engineer (at, or impacting, interstatefreeways), Traffic Operations personnel, from theDistrict and Headquarters, Headquarters’ TrafficLiaisons and Headquarters’ Design Coordinators. SeeChapter 80 of the HDM for specific requirements.

1. Two-Way Barrier-Separated HOV Facilities(See Figure 3.1)

♦ First, reduce the left HOV shoulder to 0.6m.

♦ Second, reduce the HOV lane to 3.3m.

If the above reductions are not sufficient to meet right ofway constraints, then buffer-separated or contiguousHOV facilities should be considered.

2. Reversible Barrier-Separated HOV Facilities(See Figure 3.1)

♦ First, reduce the 1.5m HOV shoulder to a minimumof 0.6m while maintaining a minimum 3.0m shoulder onthe other side.

♦ Second, reduce the HOV lanes to a minimumof 3.3m.

♦ Third, reduce the mixed-flow left shoulder to aminimum of 2.4m, if the shoulder is structurallyadequate.

♦ Fourth, reduce the mixed-flow lanes to 3.3m, startingwith the left lane and moving to the right as needed.The outside mixed-flow lane should remain at 3.6munless truck volumes are less than 3%.

♦ Fifth, reduce the left shoulder for the mixed-flowlanes to a minimum of 0.6m. Shoulders less than 2.4mbut greater than 1.5m are not recommended. Any excesswidth resulting from a reduction of median shoulderwidth from 3.0m to 1.5m or less should be used torestore the mixed-flow lane widths to 3.6m starting fromthe outside and moving to the left.

3. Buffer-Separated HOV Facilities(See Figure 3.2)

♦ First, reduce the median shoulders from 4.2m (thewidth to accommodate continuous enforcement areas) to3.0m. Any reduction of the median shoulders should beaccompanied by the addition of CHP enforcement areas.

♦ Second, reduce the buffer to 0.6m.

♦ Third, reduce the median shoulders to a minimumof 2.4m.

♦ Fourth, reduce the HOV lane to 3.3m.

♦ Fifth, reduce the number one mixed-flow laneto 3.3m.

♦ Sixth, reduce the remaining mixed-flow lanes to3.3m, starting with the number two lane and moving tothe right as needed. The outside mixed-flow lane shouldremain at 3.6m unless truck volume is less than 3%.

♦ Seventh, reduce the median shoulders to a minimumof 0.6m. Shoulders less than 2.4m but greater than 1.5mare not recommended. Any excess width resulting froma reduction of median shoulder width from 2.4m to 1.5mor less should be used to restore the mixed-flow lane

Page 37: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-3♦ 15

CHAPTER 3♦ HOV GEOMETRIC DESIGN

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

widths to 3.6m starting from the outside and moving tothe left.

The reduction of the median shoulders from 4.2m toeither 2.4m or 0.6m should be combined with theconstruction of enforcement areas.

4. Contiguous HOV Facilities(See Figure 3.2)

♦ First, reduce the median shoulders from 4.2m (thewidth to accommodate continuous enforcement areas)to 3.0m. Any reduction of the median shoulders shouldbe accompanied by the addition of CHP enforcementareas.

♦ Second, reduce the median shoulders to a minimumof 2.4m.

♦ Third, reduce the HOV lane to 3.3m.

♦ Fourth, reduce the mixed-flow lanes to 3.3m,starting with the left lane and moving to the right asneeded. The outside mixed-flow lane should remain at3.6m unless truck volumes are less than 3%.

♦ Fifth, reduce the median shoulders to a minimum of0.6m. Shoulders less than 2.4m but greater than 1.5mare not recommended. Any excess width resulting froma reduction of median shoulder width from 2.4m to1.5m or less should be used to restore the mixed-flowlane widths to 3.6m starting from the outside andmoving to the left.

Section 3.11 On-Line Bus Facilities

On-line bus station facilities are built within freewaymedians providing buses a direct access to a busloading and unloading stop without exiting the HOVfacility. They are normally located at overcrossings orundercrossings to arterial streets at local bus or railstation connections. Regional Transportation Agenciesare normally involved in the planning process if on-linebus facilities are to be considered. A typical geometricconfiguration, layout and cross-section, for an on-linebus station is shown in Figure 3.8.

1. General

The following amenities should be included in theon-line bus station platform design:

♦ Facility Covering: Provide shelter to protect patronsfrom rain and direct sunshine.

♦ Seating: A limited amount of seating should beprovided on the platform.

♦ Transit Information: A provision in the station designshould be made for informational kiosks containingmaps and schedules of bus lines.

2. Communications

The following communication requirements should beincluded in the on-line bus station platform design:

♦ Hook-ups to telecommunications and data sources forsecurity and data collection purposes.

♦ Pay telephones.

♦ A closed circuit television security system.

♦ A direct line to a dispatcher for emergencies.

♦ Direct, on-line transit information.

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CH-3♦ 16

CHAPTER 3♦ HOV GEOMETRIC DESIGN

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

1.2

m

Sh

ou

lde

rB

us L

an

eP

latfo

rmB

us L

an

eP

latfo

rmS

ho

uld

er

HO

V L

an

e

C L

SE

CT

ION

A-A

3.0

m

Bu

ffe

r

1.2

m

Sh

ou

lde

r HO

V L

an

e

3.0

m

Buffe

r

3.6

m5

.0m

3.6

m1

.8m

3.6

m5

.0m

3.6

m

15

0m

30

0m

115:1

taper

(see n

ote

1)

85

m

0.6

m (

typ

) 30

0m

35

m

R=

14

00

m

115:1

taper

(see n

ote

1)

115:1

taper

(se

e n

ote

1)

10

00

m(s

ee

no

te 2

)B

US

LA

NE

AU

XIL

IAR

YLA

NE

HO

V L

AN

E

HO

V L

AN

E

75

m3

40

m

Bu

ffe

r

BU

S L

AN

E

AU

XIL

IAR

Y L

AN

E

Bu

s B

ypa

ss

Op

en

ing

1.2

m

Pla

tfo

rm

Pla

tfo

rm

Me

dia

n B

arr

ier

Me

dia

n B

arr

ier

Me

dia

n B

arr

ier

A

Bu

ffe

r

AFIG

UR

E 3

.8T

YP

ICA

L L

AY

OU

T A

ND

CR

OS

S S

EC

TIO

NH

OV

ON

-LIN

E B

US

FA

CIL

ITIE

SN

OT

TO

SC

AL

E

BC

EC

= 3

° to

Cra

sh

Cu

sh

ion

Cra

sh

Cu

sh

ion

0.6

m (

typ)

NO

TE

S:

1.

Fo

r 11

5:1

ta

pe

r, =

00

30

' 00

". A

cu

rve

ma

y b

e u

se

d in

lie

u o

f a

ta

pe

r. R

= 3

00

0m

.

is t

yp

ica

lly le

ss t

ha

n 0

1 0

0' 0

0".

2.

10

00

m is r

eco

mm

en

de

d f

or

bu

s a

cce

lera

tio

n.

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

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CH-4♦ 1

CHAPTER 4♦ HOV INGRESS AND EGRESS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 4.1 Beginning and TerminationPoints

An entry into the HOV facility should require a consciousmovement. A design configuration, which requiresmixed-flow traffic to exit, could be susceptible toviolations.

A. Start of Facility

Normally an HOV lane should begin on the left of thenumber one mixed-flow lane as a new lane, at a 90-degree angle (Details M-1 and M-2, Chapter 5) to fullwidth. For a buffer-separated facility, a minimum of400m of dashed white line should be offered on the rightto provide consistency of appearance with ingress andegress areas. See Figure 4.2. The beginning of anybuffer should begin no earlier than a distance equivalentto 200m per lane change required entering the HOV lanefrom the nearest on-ramp. Additional length of dashedwhite lines may be desired if visibility of the striping iscompromised within the 400m distance; for example, atlocations where vertical and horizontal curves arepresent.

B. End of Facility

See Appendices A-4 and A-5: Caltrans, TrafficOperations Memorandum, The Ending of High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, December 11, 1995.

… concerning the end treatment for HOV lanes, it “hasbeen determined that an HOV lane shall end in a

continuing lane which enables the HOV traffic tocontinue without a merge. When a lane end has to occurit shall become the standard to drop the outside mixed-flow lane as shown on the attached drawing (Detail M-6,Chapter 5).” If an exception is needed, document thereasons and request an approving signature from theappropriate Headquarters’ Traffic Liaison andHeadquarters’ Design Coordinator. “Frequently, theending of the HOV lane could be shifted up ordownstream to make a right merge more feasible.”

“Revisions of plans are required for projects in theplanning or design stage.” For those HOV projects underconstruction with the HOV lane merging, we requestreview of these projects and request contract changeorders as needed.

If the HOV lane has to be merged back into the freewaytraffic, a minimum of 400m of dashed white line (920mis desirable) should be provided before the end of theHOV lane taper begins. Additional length may bedesired to achieve enhanced or improved visibility ofdashed striping at location where horizontal or verticalalignment vary. No less than 200m per lane changeshould be provided from the end of the buffer to the nextoff-ramp or connector. See Figure 4.2. Where feasible,greater length may be desired.

In addition, the outside mixed-flow lane may also bedropped at an off-ramp. Engineering analysis is essentialwith this alternative to ensure congestion does not resultnear the lane drop location. Typically, there should be ahigh demand exiting the off-ramp where the lane drop isconsidered.

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CH-4♦ 2

CHAPTER 4♦ HOV INGRESS AND EGRESS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 4.2 Ingress/Egress ForBarrier-Separated Facilities

The at-grade ingress and egress from the mixed-flowlanes to a barrier-separated HOV facility can beachieved with at-grade channelized openings in thephysical barriers. A typical geometric configuration isshown in Figure 4.1. The at-grade opening can beaccomplished with the use of a weave lane to assist themerging of the HOV traffic with the mixed-flow traffic.The preferable length of the weaving area for ingressand egress designs is 400m, minimum.

Other means of providing access to and from barrier-separated facilities include, but are not limited to:

A. Median drop ramps from overcrossings orundercrossings.

B. Freeway-to-freeway connection.

Section 4.3 Ingress/Egress ForBuffer-Separated Facilities

Access to and from the HOV lane should be providedby any of the following four general types of ingressand egress designs:

A. At-grade ingress and egress.

B. Median drop ramps from overcrossings orundercrossings.

C. Freeway-to-freeway connection.

D. Beginning and termination points(as described above).

At-grade access is not intended to serve every on andoff-ramp. When it is operationally possible, ingressand egress locations are based on the following criteria:

1. To serve every freeway-to-freewayconnection.

2. To serve high volume ramps.3. Ramps with high number of carpools.4. When adjacent to park and ride facilities.

5. When requested by transit districts.6. To assist in the modification of local commute

patterns (may be at local request).7. To help balance and optimize interchange

operational level of service within a localjurisdiction, within a corridor, or within aregion.

8. To support and encourage ride sharingprograms (HOV demand/usage).

As applied to the buffer-separated facilities, ingress andegress are relative to the origin and destination patternsof HOVs. If the majority of HOVs originate upstreamand have destinations downstream of the facility, theywill all use the lane facility and there will be littleimpact related to intermediate access points. However,intermediate access points will allow fuller use of thefacility.

The operation of weaving sections needs to beconsidered. It is important that ingress and egresslocations be of proper length and located to provide thebest possible access, especially to adjoining freeways.There could be situations in which merging to and fromthe HOV lane can create queueing in the HOV lane.One example would be providing ingress and egressnear ramp locations on a freeway that has many closelyspaced ramps in a bottleneck section. This could createconflicts in the flow of both the HOV and mainlinefacilities. Design should include the consideration of anadditional lane between these ramps to allow ingress/egress to the HOV facility without adversely impactingeither it or the mixed-flow lanes. Figure 4.2 indicatesrecommended weaving distances for buffer-separatedfacilities.

Provisions for traffic to enter and leave the HOV facilityshould be provided at every freeway-to-freewayinterchange. Ingress and egress to State highways andmajor arterials should be considered where demandexists and where operation is not severely impacted.

Ingress and egress locations should be on a tangent andaway from CHP enforcement areas whenever possible.To ensure ingress and egress locations are placed atoptimal locations, District Traffic Operations personneland the Headquarters’ Traffic Liaison should beconsulted early in the design phase.

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CH-4♦ 3

CHAPTER 4♦ HOV INGRESS AND EGRESS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 4.4 Ingress and Egress ForContiguous HOV Facilities

At-grade access for contiguous HOV facilities isunlimited since no buffer or barrier separates the HOVlane from the mixed-flow traffic. See Detail M-3,Chapter 5, as well as the Manual on Uniform TrafficControl Devices (MUTCD) and California Supplementto the MUTCD, which replaces Caltrans’ TrafficManual. When a lane has to be discontinued, it ispreferable to drop the outside mixed-flow laneapproximately 0.8km after the end of the HOV facility.See Detail M-6, Chapter 5 for more information.

Page 42: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-4♦ 4

CHAPTER 4♦ HOV INGRESS AND EGRESS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Shoulder

Shoulder

Crash Cushion

20:1Shoulder

Shoulder

50:1

Mixed Flow Lane

Weave

Buffer/Shoulder

HOV Lane

Mixed Flow Lane

Weave

Buffer/Shoulder

HOV Lane

3.6 m

3.6 m

3.0 m20:1

50:1

3.6m

3.6m

3.0m

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

3.6m

3.0m

3.0m

0.6m

0.6m

0.6m

3.6m

3.0m

3.0m

1.5m

1.5m

Crash Cushion

330m605m130m

1065m

24m

FIGURE 4.1

INGRESS/EGRESS FOR

BARRIER-SEPARATED HOV FACILITIES

NOT TO SCALE

50:120:1

3.6m

3.0m

3.0m

0.6m

20:1 50:1 0.6m

3.6m

3.0m

3.0m

330m605m130m

1065m

Crash Cushion and Barrier 180m from this point

1.5m

1.5m

0.6m

FOR 3.0m BUFFER/SHOULDER AREA

FOR 1.2m BUFFER/SHOULDER AREA

NOTE: When necessary, any deviation from the HDM mandatory standards must be discussed with

the Headquarters' Design Coordinator and, if justified, will require approved design

exception fact sheets. For the mixed-flow lanes, widths for the outside shoulder and the

outside lane generally should not be altered. When sufficient justification exists, suggested

priority for reduction of the cross-sectional elements for the various geometric configurations

is outlined in Section 3.10. Any deviation from these recommendations should be discussed

with the FHWA Transportation Engineer, Traffic Operations personnel, from the District and

Headquarters, Traffic Operations Liaison and Design Coordinator.

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

24m

Mixed Flow Lane

Weave

Buffer/Shoulder

HOV Lane

1.2m

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

Shoulder

Mixed Flow Lane

Weave

Buffer/Shoulder

HOV Lane

1.2m

Crash Cushion and Barrier 180m from this point

etric

Caltrans

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CH-4♦ 5

CHAPTER 4♦ HOV INGRESS AND EGRESS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

FIG

UR

E 4

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WE

AV

E D

ISTA

NC

E A

T

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FF

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PA

RA

TE

D H

OV

FA

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ITIE

S

NO

T T

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CA

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ING

RE

SS

/EG

RE

SS

CAR

POOL

ONLY

CAR

POOL

ONLY

ON

-RA

MP

20

0m

20

0m

20

0m

20

0m

20

0m

20

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OF

F-R

AM

PCAR

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ONLY

ON

-RA

MP

20

0m

20

0m

20

0m

BE

GIN

HO

V L

AN

E

20

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CAR

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ONLY

20

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20

0m

20

0m

OF

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AM

PE

ND

HO

V L

AN

E

EN

D B

UF

FE

RIN

GR

ES

S/E

GR

ES

S

40

0m

BE

GIN

BU

FF

ER

ING

RE

SS

40

0m

BE

GIN

BU

FF

ER

EN

D B

UF

FE

R

NO

TE

: A

ny d

evia

tion fro

m m

andato

ry s

tandard

s s

hall

be d

iscussed w

ith the F

HW

A

T

ransport

ation E

ngin

eer

(at, o

r im

pacting, in

ters

tate

fre

ew

ays),

Tra

ffic

Opera

tions

pers

onnel (f

rom

both

the D

istr

ict and H

eadquart

ers

), H

eadquart

ers

' Tra

ffic

Lia

isons a

nd

Headquart

ers

' D

esig

n C

oord

inato

rs.

20

0m

20

0m

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CH-5♦ 1

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 5.1 General

These guidelines for mainline HOV signs and markingsfollow the general principles in the Manual on UniformTraffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and CaliforniaSupplement to the MUTCD, which replaces the Caltrans’Traffic Manual. Should a particular situation occurwhere neither the MUTCD, California Supplement to theMUTCD nor these HOV guidelines are sufficient, theDistrict is advised to consult the Headquarters’ TrafficLiaisons or Headquarters Traffic Operations, HOVSystems Branch personnel, for guidance.

The need for specific HOV sign and marking guidelinesarises from the fact that most HOV facilities areretrofitted into existing mixed-flow facilities where thetwo types of facilities have very distinctive operatingcharacteristics. That one system is superimposed ontoanother often means that space for signs and markings isvery restrictive, which varies by different geometricconfigurations and modes of operation among districts.These include geometric variations for contiguous,buffer-separated or barrier-separated HOV facilities anddifferences such as varying operational hours andoccupancy requirements. Therefore, it is essential thatthe design and placement of HOV signs and markingsclearly indicate whether they are intended for motorists inthe HOV or the mixed-flow lanes. They should convey amessage that HOV lanes are restricted to HOV’s, provideclear directions for ingress/egress areas, define vehicleoccupancy requirements, the hours of operation, andviolation fines. See the following Chapter 5, HOV Detailsand Sign Specifications, as well as Chapter 5 AppendicesA and B, which include HOV Sign Policy Statements.

Much of HOV signs and markings relate to enhancingsafety for the motorists. Geometric standards may beimpacted due to the lack of right of way. Also,operational characteristics such as the differential speedbetween the HOV lane and the adjacent mixed-flowtraffic, the lack of passing opportunities in the HOV lane,and the necessity for frequent merging and weavingactions, mean that messages must be clear and succinctwherever possible. Special situations, such as inclementweather and lower visibility conditions during hours ofdarkness, also need to be considered since heavy HOVlane usage may occur in early morning and late afternoonperiods. The signs and markings must not only considerthe typical commuter but also the occasional user of thefacility who may be unfamiliar with the HOV facility andits operation.

Maintenance and update of the HOV signs and markingsafter initial implementation are also essential. Whenoperational conditions change for a HOV facility, it isimportant to revise the signs and markings to reflect thatchange. For maintenance purposes, the geometricimpacts often mean narrow lanes, shoulders and buffers,reduced access for maintenance vehicles and anincreased need to maintain stripes and markers,particularly where there is heavy bus usage.Consideration should be given to replacing worn outsigns and markings in conformance with updatedguidelines.

As used by Caltrans, the diamond symbol is used only todesignate HOV facilities. While the symbol is sometimesused elsewhere in the nation for other applications, it isthe intent of Caltrans to use this symbol only for HOVpurposes. For signs, whether regulatory, guide or

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CH-5♦ 2

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

warning in nature, it is typically a white symbol on ablack background to convey the restrictive nature of theHOV lane and to make it more readily recognizable.The use of the symbol with all HOV signs also informsdrivers, whether they are in the mixed-flow lane orHOV lanes that the messages conveyed are onlyintended for HOV’s.

Where HOV corridors overlap district boundaries,regional consistency in signs and markings must bemaintained to minimize motorist confusion. Whilethese guidelines contribute toward a statewideconsistency in HOV signs and markings, specificsituations may occur where the guidelines may not beapplicable. In those situations, the Districts are advisedto work with one another to ensure regional consistencyin signs and markings. Also, consult with HeadquartersTraffic Operations personnel if the matter has policy orstatewide implications. It may also be appropriate toconsult with outside agencies, such as the CaliforniaHighway Patrol, as enforcement of HOV violations andsigns and markings are related issues.

Section 5.2 HOV Signs

The signs and markings details, Details M-1 to M-11,provide guidance for the most common HOV geometricconfigurations used by Caltrans, such as the contiguous,buffer-separated and barrier-separated HOV facilities,and direct HOV connectors to and from arterials.

Signs for other types of HOV facilities, such as thoseused for reversible-flow and contra-flow operations,direct HOV connectors between freeways andtemporary HOV lanes used during construction, shouldbe designed using the MUTCD and CaliforniaSupplement to the MUTCD, and by consultation withthe appropriate Headquarters and District Trafficpersonnel.

In general, signs for direct HOV connectors betweenfreeways will need HOV guide signs, both advance andaction, in addition to the normal regulatory signs. Signsfor reversible-flow HOV facilities are done on a case-by-case basis. However, it will typically requireoverhead changeable message signs at both ends of thefacility and general HOV regulatory signs (R86-2,

R93-2), mounted back to back, between the entranceand exit. When changeable message signs are used toconvey lane use restriction, other signs to convey thesame message are not mandatory but may be used assupplemental controls.

Frequently, it is necessary to place ground-mountedsigns on top of median barriers. If so, it is essential thatno portion of the sign panel project beyond the barrierbase, particularly in narrow medians. For example, for a900-mm wide panel and a barrier base 610 mm wide,the maximum angle between the sign panel and the axisof the barrier is 42 degrees. A 900-mm wide sign panelis the maximum width unless the median barrier hasbeen retrofitted to accommodate a wider sign panel.Wider panel signs may be used where the median iswide enough to place ground mounted signs off thebarrier.

Regulatory signs for HOV facilities follow the standardregulatory signing principles; black legend with a whitereflective background on a rectangular panel. Theseinclude the following:

R82-1 CARPOOL LANE AHEAD, ½ MILER82B ___AM - ___AM, ___PM - ___PM,

MON - FRIR84-1 END CARPOOL LANER84-2 CARPOOL LANE ENDS, ½ MILER86 LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLY,

___AM - ___AM or ___PM - ___PM,MON - FRI

R86-2 LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLYR86-3 LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLY,

___AM - ___AM, ___PM - ___PM,MON - FRI

R87-1 CARPOOLS ONLY, ___ OR MOREPERSONS PER VEHICLE

R87-2 CARPOOLS ONLY, ___ OR MOREPERSONS PER VEHICLE(for HOV Drop Ramps)

R91-2 NO TRUCKS OVER 5 TONS ORVEHICLES WITH TRAILERS

R93A VEHICLES WITH DMV CLEAN AIRDECAL OK

R93-2 CARPOOL IS ___ OR MORE PERSONSPER VEHICLE

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CH-5♦ 3

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

SR50-1 CARPOOL VIOLATION $ ___ MINIMUMFINE (for heightened enforcement)

SR50-2 CARPOOL VIOLATION $ ___ MINIMUMFINE

Note that the sign layout plans, Details M-1 to M-11,do not include instructions on using the overhead signSR50-1 (CARPOOL VIOLATION $ ___ MINIMUMFINE). However, the use of SR50-1 is beneficial wherehigh violation rates are experienced. The SR50-1overhead can be installed on its own structure or“piggybacked” onto an existing sign structure providedthe latter is structurally adequate. Keep in mind thatmessages conveyed by the HOV signs, such asviolation fines and the beginning of a HOV lanedownstream, are not necessarily intended only for theHOV vehicle but also for single-occupant vehicles aswell.

Guide signs for the HOV facilities are generally used atintermediate ingress/egress locations to inform HOVmotorists of upcoming freeway exits and theappropriate location to exit the HOV lane. For directHOV connectors to and from arterials, guide signs areused in a fashion similar to the standard arterialinterchange signing practice. Guide signs follow thestandard guide-signing format; white reflective legendon green opaque background and rectangular shape.The exception is the diamond where the white symbolis on a black background. For overhead signs thediamond is placed on the left side and is the full heightof the sign panel.

Illumination for overhead signs shall follow the currentCaltrans policy for standard guide signs.

Section 5.3 HOV Markings

HOV markings, supplemental to signs, are usedprimarily to differentiate the HOV lane from theadjacent mixed-flow lane and to convey a message thatthe lane is restricted to HOV’s. Weather and time-of-day variations, particularly during the winter months,are essential considerations in the design of HOV signsand markings since commute hours are the busiestperiods for the HOV facilities.

Details M-1 to M-11 provide placement schemes forHOV markings for most HOV scenarios. Theseschemes are based on applications from the MUTCDand California Supplement to the MUTCD. In someapplications, variations are used to address specialsituations or to enhance safety. In some retrofitsituations, which result in a narrow median, the closerspacing of the reflective markers may be moreappropriate.

The most simple pavement markings are thoseassociated with the contiguous HOV facility. Becausethe HOV lane may be reverted to mixed-flow use afterthe HOV operation, the marking separating the HOVlane and the mixed-flow lane is the lane line patternused on the majority of freeways. For HOV facilitiesseparated by barriers, the pavement marking also tendsto coincide with details from the MUTCD andCalifornia Supplement to the MUTCD.

The most complex in terms of markings are those forbuffered HOV facilities, mainly used for full-time HOVoperation. A combination of reflective markers andsolid yellow and white stripes are used to delineate theHOV lane from the adjacent mixed-flow lane, the whitestripe is necessary because the California Vehicle Code,Section 21655.8, prohibits driving to the left of doubleparallel solid lines. To prevent the accidental crossinginto the HOV lanes, reflective pavement markers 7.5meters apart are used to warn errant motorists. All ofthese combined with the diamond symbol and “carpoolonly” pavement markings, serve to prevent violationsand to inform and warn motorists that the HOV facilityis restrictive in nature and should only be used by thosewho qualify.

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CH-5♦ 4-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

.

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Page 48: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 5-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

300 m

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Page 49: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 6-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

R86-3CS 101+00

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CH-5♦ 7-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

R86-2

R93-2

SR50-2

(SE

E N

OT

E 3

)

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POOL

CAR

400 m

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POOL

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CS 104+00

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0 m

(SE

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RP

OO

LS

ON

LY2

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S P

ER

VE

HIC

LE

CA

RP

OO

LIS

__

_

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

LE

FT

LA

NE

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

CA

RP

OO

LV

IOL

AT

ION

$ _

__

_M

INIM

UM

FIN

E

LE

FT

LA

NE

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

CA

RP

OO

LIS

__

_

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

NE

XT

EX

IT

Alicia

Pkw

y NO

TE

S:

ONL

POOL

CAR

25:1

CS 100+00

CONTROLSTATION

1.2

m B

UF

FE

R S

HO

WN

(SE

E N

OT

E 6

)

Alicia

Pkw

y

2.

Re

pe

at

R8

6-2

& R

93

-2 a

s a

pa

cka

ge

do

wn

str

ea

m o

f o

n-r

am

ps

be

twe

en

in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss lo

ca

tio

ns. R

ep

ea

t R

86

-2 b

y its

elf a

s needed b

etw

een long inte

rvals

without on-r

am

ps o

r in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss

loca

tio

ns.

4.

De

tail

25

A is o

ptio

na

l w

he

n m

ed

ian

wid

th is 1

.8 m

.

1.

Re

pe

at

De

tail

M-7

@ D

=7

0 f

or

3 t

ime

s, th

ere

afte

r re

pe

at D

eta

il M

-8 @

D=

80

0 m

.

3.

SR

50

-2 is o

ptio

na

l a

t in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss lo

ca

tio

ns. H

ow

eve

r, s

ign

sh

ou

ld b

e

p

lace

d d

ow

nstr

ea

m o

f h

ea

vy H

OV

ge

ne

rato

r a

nd

fre

ew

ay to

fre

ew

ay

in

terc

hanges o

r as n

eeded a

t lo

cations e

xperiencin

g h

igh v

iola

tion r

ate

s.

5. S

igns p

laced o

n the m

edia

n b

arr

ier

should

not pro

ject beyond the m

edia

n

b

arr

ier

ba

se

.

6.

Se

e D

eta

il M

-10

fo

r b

arr

ier-

se

pa

rate

d s

trip

ing

. S

ee

De

tail

M-9

an

d

D

eta

il M

-10

fo

r b

uffe

r d

eta

ils.

Bu

ffe

r w

idth

be

twe

en

1.2

m a

nd

3.6

m

a

re n

ot

to b

e u

se

d.

7. T

he G

86-8

or-

9 s

ign s

hould

be p

laced a

t every

ingre

ss/e

gre

ss location.

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L I

NG

RE

SS

/EG

RE

SS

FO

R H

OV

FA

CIL

ITIE

S W

ITH

BU

FF

ER

S 0

.3m

to

1.2

m

DE

TA

IL M

-4

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

LE

GE

ND

:N

ON

-RE

FL

EC

TIV

E W

HIT

E M

AR

KE

R

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

ON

E-W

AY

YE

LL

OW

RE

FL

EC

TIV

E M

AR

KE

R

2 -

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

S

10

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

10

0 m

m Y

EL

LO

W S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

20

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

Page 51: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 8-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

..

R93-2

50:1

CS

105

+50

D(S

EE

NO

TE 1

)

CAR

POOL

ONLY

250

m(S

EE

NO

TE 2

)

HO

V B

UFF

ER

(SE

E D

ETA

IL M

-10)

CS

106

+70

C113+24

R93-2

R86-2

CA

RP

OO

LIS

___

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

LE

FT

LA

NE

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

CA

RP

OO

LIS

___

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

300 m

m C

HE

VR

ON

MA

RK

ING

S@

60

m I

NT

ER

VA

L90

m

CS

104

+60

CAR

POOL

ONLY

CAR

POOL

ONLY

POOL

ONLY

POOL

ONLY

CS

104

+10

CAR

POOL

ONLY

1.8

m

ING

RE

SS

/ E

GR

ES

S S

TRIP

ING

(SE

E D

ETA

IL M

-10)

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R(S

EE

NO

TE 4

)

D(S

EE

NO

TE 1

)

CAR

POOL

ONLY

CAR

POOL

ONLY

SE

E D

ETA

IL M

-10

CARCAR

DE

TAIL

25

60 m

60 m

400 m

(SE

E N

OT

E 3

)

15:1

HO

V B

UF

FE

R(S

EE

DE

TAIL

M-1

0)

10 m

CONTROL STATION

CS 100+00

SR50-2

CS 100+75

R87-1

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY2

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S P

ER

VE

HIC

LE

CA

RP

OO

LV

IOL

AT

ION

$ _

___

MIN

IMU

M

FIN

E

G86-8 or -9

(SE

E N

OT

E 5

)

400 m

G85-7 or -8CS 99+25

Alicia

Pk

wy

CAR

POOL

ONLY

NE

XT

EX

IT

Alicia

Pk

wy

NO

TE

S:

1.

Repeat D

eta

il M

-7 @

D=

90 for

4 tim

es, th

ere

after

repeat D

eta

il M

-8 @

D=

800 m

.2.

Repeat R

86-2

& R

93-2

as

a p

ack

age d

ow

nst

ream

of on-r

am

ps

betw

een in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss lo

catio

n.

Repeat R

86-2

by its

elf a

s n

eeded b

etw

een long inte

rvals

without on-r

am

ps o

r in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss

locations.

3.

SR

50-2

is o

ptional at in

gre

ss/e

gre

ss locations. H

ow

ever, s

ign s

hould

be p

laced d

ow

nstr

eam

of heavy H

OV

genera

tor

and fre

ew

ay to fre

ew

ay inte

rchanges o

r as n

eeded a

t lo

cations

experiencin

g h

igh v

iola

tion r

ate

s.

4.

Sig

ns p

laced o

n the m

edia

n b

arr

ier

should

not pro

ject beyond the m

edia

n b

arr

ier

base.

5.

The G

86-8

or

-9 s

ign s

hould

be p

laced a

t every

ingre

ss/e

gre

ss location.

R86-2

CS

104+

40

LE

FT

LA

NE

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

DE

TA

IL M

-5N

OT

TO

SC

AL

E

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L IN

GR

ES

S/E

GR

ES

SF

OR

HO

V F

AC

ILIT

IES

WIT

H B

UF

FE

RS

3.6

m o

r W

IDE

R

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

Page 52: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 9-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

25:1

ME

DIA

NS

HO

ULD

ER

60

m6

0m

11

5: 1

BEGIN TAPER

1.2

m B

UF

FE

R S

HO

WN

(SE

E D

ETA

IL M

-9,

CH

AP

TE

R 5

)

BEGIN MERGE

40

0m

(SE

E S

EC

TIO

N 2

06.3

, H

DM

)4

14

m

ME

DIA

N S

HO

UL

DE

R

HO

V L

an

e3

.6m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.0

m S

HO

UL

DE

R

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.0

m

SH

OU

LD

ER

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

3.6

m

LE

GE

ND

:N

ON

-RE

FL

EC

TIV

E W

HIT

E M

AR

KE

R

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

ON

E-W

AY

YE

LL

OW

RE

FL

EC

TIV

E M

AR

KE

R

2 -

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

S

10

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

10

0 m

m Y

EL

LO

W S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

20

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

1.

Fo

r d

eta

ils o

f p

ave

me

nt

str

ipin

g a

nd

ma

rkin

gs,

se

e t

he

Ma

nu

al o

n U

nifo

rm T

raffic

Co

ntr

ol D

evic

es (

MU

TC

D)

an

d C

alif

orn

ia S

up

ple

me

nt

to t

he

MU

TC

D,

wh

ich

rep

lace

s C

altra

ns' T

raffic

Ma

nu

al.

2.

Re

fer

to A

pp

en

dic

es A

-4 a

nd

A-5

:

Ca

ltra

ns, T

raffic

Op

era

tio

ns M

em

ora

nd

um

,

Th

e E

nd

ing

of

Hig

h-O

ccu

pa

ncy V

eh

icle

(HO

V)

La

ne

s,

De

ce

mb

er

19

95

.

NO

TE

S:

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L E

ND

HO

V L

AN

E(S

imil

ar

Rig

ht

La

ne

Dro

p f

or

Co

nti

gu

ou

s a

nd

Ba

rrie

r-S

ep

ara

ted

Fa

cil

itie

s)

DE

TA

IL M

-6

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

80

0m

R84-2

R84-1

CA

RP

OO

L

LA

NE

EN

DS

1/2

MIL

E

EN

DC

AR

PO

OL

LA

NE

DE

TA

IL 2

5

DE

TA

IL 1

3

TY

PE

VI A

RR

OW

22

5m

75

m

W7

5

(LT

)W

11

(L

T)

11

5: 1

11

5: 1

11

5: 1

Page 53: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 10-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

7.8 m

16.8 m

16.8 m

7.8 m

3.66 m

3.66 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

60 m

1.02 m

2

2

2

2

MIXEDFLOW

TRAFFIC

NOTE: "CARPOOL ONLY" pavement

markings for full-time HOV facilities

only are to be used for initial

implementation and then allowed to

wear out. See current Caltrans

Standard Plans for pavement marking

details.

ONLY

1.58 m

2.14 m

2.04 m

TYPICAL HOV SIGNS AND PAVEMENT MARKINGSTYPICAL HOV LANE PAVEMENT MARKING

FOR BUFFER-SEPARATED (INGRESS/EGRESS) HOV FACILITIES

DETAIL M-7

NOT TO SCALE

POOL

CAR

ONLY

POOL

CAR

etric

Caltrans

Page 54: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 11-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

NOTE: "CARPOOL ONLY" pavement

markings for full-time HOV facilities

only are to be used for initial

implementation and then allowed to

wear out. See current Caltrans

Standard Plans for pavement marking

details.

89.8 m

29.8 m

29.8 m

89.8 m

3.66 m

3.66 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

250 m

MIXEDFLOW

TRAFFIC

TYPICAL HOV SIGNS AND PAVEMENT MARKINGSTYPICAL HOV LANE PAVEMENT MARKING

DETAIL M-8

NOT TO SCALE

1.02 m

2

2

2

2

ONLY

1.58 m

2.14 m

2.04 m

POOL

CAR

ONLY

POOL

CAR

etric

Caltrans

Page 55: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 12-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

50 m

m

75 m

m

50 m

m

25 m

m

MIX

ED

FLO

WLA

NE

15 m

SH

OU

LD

ER

ET

W50 m

m

BU

FF

ER

ST

RIP

ING

DE

TAIL

BU

FF

ER

WID

TH

- 0

.6 m

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R (

SE

E N

OT

E 4

)

0.6

m

7.5

m

HO

V L

AN

E

DE

TAIL

25

(SE

E N

OT

E 1

)

ET

WM

IXE

DF

LO

WL

AN

E

HO

VL

AN

EE

TW

15 m

50 m

m

75 m

m

7.5

m

MIX

ED

FLO

WLA

NE

HO

V L

AN

E

ET

W

ET

W

ET

W1

00

mm

SH

OU

LD

ER

DE

TAIL

25

BU

FF

ER

ST

RIP

ING

DE

TAIL

BU

FF

ER

WID

TH

- 1

.2 m

MIX

ED

FLO

WLA

NE

HO

V L

AN

E

HO

VL

AN

EE

TW

ET

WM

IXE

DF

LO

WL

AN

E

BU

FF

ER

ST

RIP

ING

DE

TAIL

BU

FF

ER

WID

TH

- 0

.3 m

7.5

m

15 m

SH

OU

LD

ER

DE

TAIL

25

(SE

E N

OT

E 1

)

ET

W

25 m

m

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R (

SE

E N

OT

E 4

)

15 m

BU

FF

ER

ST

RIP

ING

DE

TAIL

BU

FF

ER

WID

TH

- 0

.9 m

75 m

m

7.5

m

MIX

ED

FLO

WLA

NE

HO

V L

AN

E

ET

W

ET

W

ET

W

SH

OU

LD

ER

DE

TAIL

25

(SE

E N

OT

E 1

)

50 m

m

100 m

m

1.2

m

0.3

m

0.9

m

50 m

m

50 m

m

50 m

m

NO

TE

S:

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

RM

ED

IAN

BA

RR

IER

LE

GE

ND

:1. D

eta

il 25A

is o

ptional w

hen m

edia

n w

idth

is

1.8

m. E

dgelin

e s

trip

ing a

s s

how

n in

"0

.3 B

uffer

Deta

il" m

ay b

e u

sed w

hen the

H

OV

lane s

tandard

wid

th is r

educed.

2. B

uffer

wid

th b

etw

een 1

.2 m

to 3

.6 m

are

not to

be u

sed.

3. M

ain

tain

str

ipin

g c

onsis

tency w

hen b

uffer

w

idth

s v

ary

within

a c

orr

idor.

4. R

efe

r to

the M

UT

CD

and C

alif

orn

ia S

upple

ment

to

the M

UT

CD

for

media

n b

arr

ier

delin

eation.

5. U

se D

eta

il 14 o

n a

ll buffer

str

ipes a

ppro

achin

g exit r

am

ps. U

se r

ed-y

ello

w r

eflective m

ark

ers

.

ON

E-W

AY

YE

LLO

W R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

100 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

100 m

m Y

ELLO

W S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L P

AV

EM

EN

T M

AR

KIN

G D

ETA

ILF

OR

BU

FF

ER

-SE

PA

RA

TE

D H

OV

FA

CIL

ITIE

S

DE

TA

IL M

-9

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

Page 56: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 13-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

.

HO

V L

AN

E

SH

OU

LD

ER

MIX

ED

FL

OW

LA

NE

DE

TAIL

25

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R

ME

DIA

N

BA

RR

IER

DE

TAIL

25

ET

W

ET

W

BA

RR

IER

- S

EPA

RA

TE

D S

TR

IPIN

G D

ETA

IL

DE

TAIL

27 B

ET

W

DE

TAIL

13

5.5

m3

.5 m

5.5

m5

.5 m

3.5

m

20

0 m

m

15 m

BU

FF

ER

ST

RIP

ING

DE

TAIL

BU

FF

ER

WID

TH

- 3

.6 m

OR

WID

ER2.4

m

OR

WID

ER

7.5

m

50 m

m

3.6 m (Min.)

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R

100 m

m

HO

V L

AN

E

ET

W

SH

OU

LD

ER

DE

TAIL

25

BUFFER

MIX

ED

FL

OW

LA

NE

75 m

m

0.6

m

ET

W ET

W

ING

RE

SS

/ E

GR

ES

S S

TR

IPIN

G D

ETA

IL(S

EE

DE

TAIL

M-1

, M

-4 &

M-5

)

42

DE

GR

EE

S MA

XIM

UM

AN

GL

E F

OR

90

0 m

m S

IGN

(SE

E N

OT

E 3

)

ME

DIA

N B

AR

RIE

R

SIG

N P

AN

EL

HO

V L

AN

E

200 m

m

7.5

m7.5

m

50 m

m

50 m

m

ING

RE

SS

/ E

GR

ES

S S

TR

IPIN

G D

ETA

ILF

OR

US

E W

ITH

BU

FF

ER

S

3.6

m O

R W

IDE

R(S

EE

DE

TAIL

M-5

)

NO

TE

S:

1. M

ain

tain

str

ipin

g c

onsis

tency w

hen b

uffer

wid

ths v

ary

within

a c

orr

idor.

2. U

se D

eta

il 14 o

n a

ll buffer

str

ipes a

ppro

achin

g exit r

am

ps. U

se r

ed-y

ello

w r

eflective m

ark

ers

.

3. M

axim

um

sig

n w

idth

is 9

00 m

m w

hen m

ounte

d on a

media

n b

arr

ier

with a

base w

idth

of 610 m

m.

Wid

er

panels

may b

e u

sed w

here

sig

ns

are

not m

ounte

d o

n a

barr

ier.

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L P

AV

EM

EN

T M

AR

KIN

G D

ETA

ILF

OR

HO

V F

AC

ILIT

IES

DE

TA

IL M

-10

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

LE

GE

ND

:N

ON

-RE

FL

EC

TIV

E W

HIT

E M

AR

KE

R

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

ON

E-W

AY

YE

LL

OW

RE

FL

EC

TIV

E M

AR

KE

R

2 -

ON

E-W

AY

CL

EA

R R

EF

LE

CT

IVE

MA

RK

ER

S

10

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

10

0 m

m Y

EL

LO

W S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC)

20

0 m

m W

HIT

E S

TR

IPE

(T

HE

RM

OP

LA

ST

IC) et

ric

Cal

tran

s

Page 57: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 14-Detail

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

HO

V L

AN

E

MIX

ED

FLO

W L

AN

E

HO

V L

AN

E

MIX

ED

FLO

W L

AN

EO

FF

- R

AM

P

HO

V L

AN

E

MIX

ED

FLO

W L

AN

E

HO

V L

AN

E

MIX

ED

FLO

W L

AN

E

ON

- R

AM

P

G86-1

0 (

OV

ER

HE

AD

)(S

EE

NO

TE

4)

G8

3-3

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

(SE

E N

OT

ES

3 &

4)

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

Ba

rra

nc

a R

d

G85-9

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

(SE

E N

OT

E 4

)

EX

IT O

NLY

TY

PE

R

PE

DE

ST

RIA

NS

PR

OH

IBIT

ED

R43

W41

G84-1

CA

RP

OO

LIS

2

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

R93-2

G20-9

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

DO

NO

T

ENTE

R

WR

ON

GW

AY

G92-1

R10

R11

R11

A

TY

PE

N

R7

DE

TAIL

M-7

EX

ITP

ED

ES

TR

IAN

S

BIC

YC

LE

S

MO

TE

R-D

RIV

EN

CY

CL

ES

PR

OH

IBIT

ED

G92-1

R93-2

W59-1

W7

2B

CA

RP

OO

LIS

2

OR

MO

RE

PE

RS

ON

S

PE

RV

EH

ICL

E

R44

CA

R

PO

OL

ON

LY

CA

R

PO

OL

ON

LY

EX

IT

ON

E

WA

Y

ON

E

WA

Y

R87-2

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

R87-2

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

G20-9

(O

VE

RH

EA

D)

DE

TA

IL 3

7

5

INT

ER

ST

AT

E

CA

LIF

OR

NIA

NO

TE

S:

300 m

m Y

ELLO

W D

IAG

ON

ALS

@ 3

0 m

1.

Sig

n p

lace

me

nt

sh

ou

ld b

e c

on

sis

ten

t w

ith

th

e M

UT

CD

a

nd

Ca

lifo

rnia

Su

pp

lem

en

t to

th

e M

UT

CD

.

3.

Sig

n is u

se

d o

nly

wh

en

au

xili

ary

la

ne

exis

ts.

4.

Use

th

e G

86

-10

, G

85

-9,

G8

3-3

(o

ptio

na

l) p

acka

ge

fo

r

ty

pic

al fr

ee

wa

y t

o f

ree

wa

y H

OV

dire

ct

co

nn

ecto

rs.

2.

De

tails

fo

r n

on

-HO

V s

ign

s a

re in

th

e M

UT

CD

an

d

Ca

lifo

rnia

Su

pp

lem

en

t to

th

e M

UT

CD

.

5.

On

ly H

OV

pa

ve

me

nt

ma

rkin

gs a

re s

ho

wn

. R

efe

r to

th

e

M

UT

CD

an

d C

alif

orn

ia S

up

ple

me

nt

to t

he

MU

TC

D f

or

sta

nd

ard

ma

rkin

gs f

or

ram

ps.

TY

PIC

AL

HO

V S

IGN

S A

ND

PA

VE

ME

NT

MA

RK

ING

ST

YP

ICA

L H

OV

DR

OP

RA

MP

SIG

NS

AN

D P

AV

EM

EN

T M

AR

KIN

GS

(Sim

ila

r fo

r C

on

tig

uo

us

an

d B

arr

ier-

Se

pa

rate

d F

ac

ilit

ies

)

DE

TA

IL M

-11

NO

T T

O S

CA

LE

CA

RP

OO

L L

AN

E

NORT

H

5

ENTR

ANCE

5IN

TE

RS

TA

TE

NORT

H

5

ENTR

ANCE

5IN

TE

RS

TA

TE

30

MP

H

Ba

rra

nc

a R

dL

EF

T E

XIT

- 1

/2 M

ILE

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

EX

IT

ON

LY

Ba

rra

nc

a R

d

CA

RP

OO

L L

AN

E

RIG

HT

LA

NE

NO

RT

H5

INT

ER

ST

AT

E CA

RP

OO

L L

AN

E

LE

FT

LA

NE

NO

RT

H5

INT

ER

ST

AT

E

NO

RT

H

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

O

R M

OR

E P

ER

SO

NS

PE

R V

EH

ICL

E255

INT

ER

ST

AT

E

NO

RT

H

CA

RP

OO

LS

ON

LY

O

R M

OR

E P

ER

SO

NS

PE

R V

EH

ICL

E255

INT

ER

ST

AT

E

etri

c

Cal

tran

s

Page 58: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 15

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G20-9None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

108 x 70 108 70 1-1/2 35 24 36 18-3/4 12 3

K L M

8 8E

N P

185

R

106E

108 x 72 108 72 1-1/2 36 24 36 18-3/4 12 3 8 8E 185 116E

S

6

6

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm)

A B C D E F G H J

2743 x 1778 2743 1778 38 889 610 914 476 305 76

K L M

203 200E

N P

457127

R

254150E

2743 x 1829 2743 1829 38 914 610 914 476 305 76 203 200E 457127 279150E

152

S

152

8/1/02

S

A

B

G

C

E

E

DL

H

F

H

P

N

K

M

L

K

INTE RSTATE

5 NORTH

RIGHT LANE

CARPOOLLANE

J

M

R

For Route Shield details,see Sign SpecificationsG26-1, G27-1 or G28-1,in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 59: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 16

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

LEGEND ON WHITE BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN & WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G83-3None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 70 Var. 70 2 35 24 36 18-3/4 12 3

K L M

5-1/2

N P

13.3UC & 10LC

R

5

S

126 316

Variable x 100 Var. 100 2 50 24 36 18-3/4 12 3 13 13.3UC & 10LC11 126 320

T U

10D8-1/2

10D14.3

9

12

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE

(mm)A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 1778 Var. 1778 51 889 610 914 476 305 76

K L M

140

N P

330UC & 250LC

R

127

S

3200 76406

Variable x 2540 Var. 2540 51 1270 610 914 476 305 76 330 330UC & 250LC279 3200 76508

T U

250D216

250D363

229

305

CARPOOLS ONLYBarranca RdEXIT ONLY

J

T

A

B

HC

E

E

P

L

G

F

M

K

D

H

N

S

W61D

R

U

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 60: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 17

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G84-1None

NOT E: For arrow size, see dimens ions ‘L’ (Width) , ‘M’ (He ight),and Standard Arrows for Direct ional Signs in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

36 x 54 36 54 1 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8

K L M N

5 8E 11-1/4 12-3/4 3

N

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

CL

F

J

EXIT

H

See Note

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm)

A B C D E F G H J

914 x 1372 914 1372 25 457 241 191 95 29

K L M N

127 200E 286 324 76

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 61: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 18

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G85-7None

Notes:1. Series C or D alphabets, abbreviations and hyphenations may be used

to maintain minimum sign widths. Smaller letter heights, 4”(100 mm)minimum, may be used as a last option.

2. For arrow size and dimensions, see Standard Arrows for Directional Signsin Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A

Variable x 60 60

Variable x 72

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

1 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 7-1/2 6UC&4-1/2LC 6 4-1/2 3

72Var. 1-1/4 18 9-5/8 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 10 8UC&6LC 8 6 6

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A

Variable x 1524 1524

Variable x 1829

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

25 457 241 191 95 29 191 150UC&113LC 152 114 76

1829Var. 32 457 244 191 95 29 254 200UC&150LC 203 152 152

N

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

M

L

K

CL

F

AliciaPkwy

H

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 62: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 19

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G85-8None

Notes:

1. Series C or D alphabets, abbreviations and hyphenations may be used to maintain minimum sign widths. Smaller letter heights, 4”(100 mm) minimum, may be used as a last option.

2. For arrow size and dimensions, see Standard Arrows for Directional Signsin Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A

Variable x 72 72

Variable x 84

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

1 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 8 6UC&4-1/2LC 6 4-1/2 3

84Var. 1-1/4 18 9-5/8 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 10 8UC&6LC 8 6 6

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A

Variable x 1829 1829

Variable x 2134

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

25 457 241 191 95 29 203 150UC&113LC 152 114 76

2134Var. 32 457 244 191 95 29 254 200UC&150LC 203 152 152

N

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

M

L

K

CL

F

NorthAlicia

H

PkwyL

K

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 63: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 20

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

LEGEND ON WHITE BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN & WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G85-9None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 70 Var. 70 2 35 24 36 18-3/4 12 3

K L M

5-1/2

N P

13.3UC & 10LC

R

5

S

126 316

Variable x 100 Var. 100 2 50 24 36 18-3/4 12 3 13 13.3UC & 10LC11 126 320

T U

10D8-1/2

10D14.3

9

12

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE

(mm)A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 1778 Var. 1778 51 889 610 914 476 305 76

K L M

140

N P

330UC & 250LC

R

127

S

3200 76406

Variable x 2540 Var. 2540 51 1270 610 914 476 305 76 330 330UC & 250LC279 3200 76508

T U

250D216

250D363

229

305

Note:For arrow size and dimensions, see Standard Arrows for Directional Signs in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

CARPOOLS ONLYBarranca Rd

EXIT ONLY

J

T

A

B

HC

E

E

P

L

G

F

M

K

D

H

N

S

W61C

R

U

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 64: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 21

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G86-8None

Note: Series C or D alphabets, abbreviations and hyphenations may be used for the primary message to maintain minimum sign widths. Smaller letterheights, 4”(100 mm) minimum, may be considered as a last option.

R

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

M

L

K

CL

F

AliciaPkwy

H

NEXTEXIT

N

N

P

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A

Variable x 60 60

Variable x 78

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

1 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 6-1/2 6UC&4-1/2LC 6 4-1/2 4E

78Var. 1-1/4 18 9-5/8 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 8-1/2 8UC&6LC 8 7 6E

M N P R

3

5

3

6

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A

Variable x 1524 1524

Variable x 1981

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

25 457 241 191 95 29 165 150UC&113LC 152 114 100E

1981Var. 32 457 244 191 95 29 216 200UC&150LC 203 178 150E

P R

76

127

76

152

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 65: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 22

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G86-9None

Note:Series C or D alphabets, abbreviationsand hyphenations may be used for theprimary message to maintain minimumsign widths. Smaller letter heights,4”(100 mm) minimum, may be used asa last option.

R

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

M

L

K

CL

F

NorthAlicia

H

PkwyL

K

NEXTEXIT

N

N

P

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A

Variable x 72 72

Variable x 90

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

1 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 6-1/2 6UC&4-1/2LC 6 4-1/2 4E

90Var. 1-1/4 18 9-5/8 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 8 8UC&6LC 8 6 6E

P

3

5

R

3

6

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A

Variable x 1829 1829

Variable x 2286

Var.

B C D E F G H J K L M N

25 457 241 191 95 29 165 150UC&113LC 152 114 100E

2286Var. 32 457 244 191 95 29 203 200UC&150LC 203 152 150E

P

76

127

R

76

152

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 66: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 23

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

LEGEND ON WHITE BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN & WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G86-10None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 70 Var. 70 2 35 24 36 18-3/4 12 3

K L M

8

N P

13.3UC & 10LC

R

10D

S

126 316

Variable x 100 Var. 100 2 50 24 36 18-3/4 12 3 15 13.3UC & 10LC10D 126 320

T U

118

1714

9

12

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE

(mm)A B C D E F G H J

Variable x 1778 Var. 1778 51 889 610 914 476 305 76

K L M

203

N P

330UC & 250LC

R

250D

S

3200 76406

Variable x 2540 Var. 2540 51 1270 610 914 476 305 76 381 330UC & 250LC250D 3200 76508

T U

279203

432356

229

305

CARPOOLS ONLY

Barranca RdJ

T

A

B

HC

E

E

L

G

F

N

K

D

H

P

S

R

U

LEFT EXIT - MILE1 2M

L

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 67: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 24

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

G92-1None

L

A

B

GC

G

F

E

D

K

J

CL

F

J

H

CARPOOL LANE

ENTRANCE K

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F G H J

36 x 36 36 36 1/2 18 9-1/2 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8

K L

3 4C 1-1/2

48 x 42 48 42 3/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 3-3/4 1-1/8 4 5C 1-7/8

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm)

A B C D E F G H J

914 x 914 914 914 13 457 241 191 95 29

K L

76 100C 38

1219 x 1067 1219 1067 19 457 238 191 95 29 102 125C 48

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 68: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 25

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R82-1None

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 127 125C 89762

N

48

914 x 1676 1676 16 22 450 237 191 2995 127 150C 102914 57

1219 x 2134 2134 19 31 450 238 191 2995 178 200C 1521219 76

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 5 5C 3-1/230

N

1-7/8

36 x 66 66 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 6C 436 2-1/4

48 x 84 84 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 7 8C 648 3

N

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

L

K

M

M

L

CL

L

M

L

E

D

CARPOOLLANE

AHEAD2 MILE1

J

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 69: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 26

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER & LEGEND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R82BNone

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 610 610 13 19 102 100C 64 75C762 48

914 x 610 610 16 22 102 100D 64 75D914 57

1219 x 914 914 19 31 127 150D 102 100D1219 76

J

A

B

C

H

E

F

D

MON FRI-

__PM __PM-__AM __AM-

G

F

G

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 24 24 1/2 3/4 4 4C 2-1/2 3C30 1-7/8

36 x 24 24 5/8 7/8 4 4D 2-1/2 3D36 2-1/4

48 x 36 36 3/4 1-1/4 5 6D 4 4D48 3

NOTE: Specify times when ordering.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 70: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 27

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R84-1None

P

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

K

N

CL

L

M

E

D

END

LANE

J

CARPOOLN

M

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 54 54 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 5 6D 430

N

5C

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 8D 536 6C

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 7 10D 648 8C

P

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1372 1372 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 127 150D 102762

N

125C

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 127 200D 127914 150C

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 178 250D 1521219 200C

P

48

57

76

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 71: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 28

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R84-2None

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 127 125C 89762

N

48

914 x 1676 1676 16 22 450 237 191 2995 127 150C 102914 57

1219 x 2134 2134 19 31 450 238 191 2995 178 200C 1521219 76

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 5 5C 3-1/230

N

1-7/8

36 x 66 66 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 6C 436 2-1/4

48 x 84 84 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 7 8C 648 3

N

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

L

K

M

M

L

CL

L

M

L

E

D

CARPOOLLANE

ENDS2 MILE1

J

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 72: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 29

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R86None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 4 4C 330

N

5

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 4 4D 336 5

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 4D 348 7

P

5B

5C

7C

R

4C

4D

5D

S

3C

3D

4D

T

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 102 100C 76762

N

127

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 102 100D 76914 127

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 127 100D 761219 178

P

125B

125C

175C

R

100C

100D

125D

S

75C

75D

100D

T

48

57

76

NOTE:Specify times and AMor PM when ordering.

8/1/02

R

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

T

K

N

CL

L

N

P

E

D

CARPOOLSK

S

P

MON FRI-

__AM __AM-

ONLY

LANELEFTJ

LM

K

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 73: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 30

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R86-2None

P

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

L

K

M

CL

L

M

N

E

D

LEFTLANE

CARPOOLS

J

ONLY

K

KD

N

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 4 5D 330

N

4C

36 x 66 66 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 4 6D 3-1/236 5C

48 x 84 84 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 6 8D 548 6C

P

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 102 125C 76762

N

100C

914 x 1676 1676 16 22 450 237 191 2995 102 150C 89914 125C

1219 x 2134 2134 19 31 450 238 191 2995 152 200C 1271219 150C

P

48

57

76

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 74: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 31

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R86-3None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 66 66 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 4 4C 330

N

5

36 x 66 66 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 4 4D 336 5

48 x 78 84 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 4 4D 348 6

P

5B

5C

7C

R

4C

4D

5D

S

3C

3D

4D

T

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1676 1676 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 102 100C 76762

N

127

914 x 1676 1676 16 22 450 237 191 2995 102 100D 76914 127

1219 x 2134 2134 19 31 450 238 191 2995 102 100D 761219 152

P

125B

125C

175C

R

100C

100D

125D

S

75C

75D

100D

T

48

57

76

R

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

T

K

N

CL

L

N

P

E

D

CARPOOLSK

S

P

MON FRI-

__PM __PM-__AM __AM-

ONLY

LANELEFTJ

LM

R

M

K

NOTE:Specify times when ordering.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 75: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 32

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R87-1None

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

NOTES:1. Specify number of persons per vehicle when ordering.2. For arrow dimensions, see Standard Arrows for Directional Signs in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

168 x 70 70 1 1-3/4 35 24 36 12

K L M

18-1/2 3 9-1/2 10D168

N

8

192 x 100 100 1-1/2 2 50 24 36 1218-3/4 3 16 12D192 12

P

6E

8E

R

4

8

S

16-1/2

16-1/2

T

8E

10E

U

9

12

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

4267 x 1778 1778 25 44 889 610 914 305

K L M

470 76 241 250D4267

N

203

4877 x 2540 2540 38 51 1270 610 914 305476 76 406 300D4877 305

P

150E

200E

R

102

203

S

419

419

T

200E

250E

U

229

305

L

A

B

J

G

C

F

F

M

NP

R

T

H

R

E

DJ

CARPOOLS ONLYK

CL

S

U

PER VEHICLEOR MORE PERSONS2

P

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 76: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 33

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R87-2None

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

NOTES:1. Specify number of persons per vehicle when ordering.2. For Route Shield details, see Sign Specifications G26-1, G27-1 or G28-1,

in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.3. For arrow size and dimensions, see Standard Arrows for Directional Signs

in Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

8/1/02

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

132 x 70 70 1 1-3/4 35 24 36 12

K L M

18-1/2 3 12 18132

N

8D

132 x 72 72 1 1-3/4 36 24 36 1218-1/2 3 13 18132 8D

P

9

9

R

5E

5E

S

4

4

T U

9

9

6E

6E

DIMENSIONS (Millmeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

3353 x 1778 1778 25 44 889 610 914 305

K L M

470 76 305 4573353

N

200D

3353 x 1829 1829 25 44 914 610 914 305470 76 330 4573353 200D

P

229

229

R

125E

125E

S

102

102

T U

229

229

150E

150E

L

A

B

J

G

C

F

F

M

L

P

H

S

E

DJ

K

CL

U

R

N

SNT

CARPOOLS ONLY

PER VEHICLEOR MORE PERSONS2

INTERSTATE

5 NORTH

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 77: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 34

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R91-2None

A

B

C

G

GF

R

K

N

E

D

NOM

L

TRUCKS

8/1/02

OVER 5 TONSOR VEHICLESWITH TRAILERS

H

H

CL

J

M

M

M

P

P

P

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J K L M N

36 x 66 66 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 3-1/2 6E 3-1/236 5C

48 x 78 78 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 8E 448 6C

P

5B

6B

R

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J K L M N

914 x 1676 1676 16 22 457 237 191 2995 89 150E 89914 125C

1219 x 1981 1981 19 32 457 238 191 2995 127 200E 1021219 150C

P

125B

150B

R

57

76

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 78: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 35

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER & LEGEND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

A

B

C

D

F

G

E

F

R93ANONE

8/1/02

H

VEHICLES WITH DMVCLEAN AIR DECAL OK

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches)

A B C D E F

36 x 15 15 3/8 5/8 2-1/43-1/236

G

3B

30 x 12 12 3/8 1/2 1-1/22-3/430 2-1/2C

H

2

1-1/2

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE

(mm)A B C D E F

914 x 381 381 10 16 5789914

G

75B

762 x 305 305 10 13 3870762 63C

H

51

38

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

DEPUTY CHIEF, DIVISION OF TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

Page 79: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 36

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

R93-2None N

A

B

H

H

C

G

GF

L

K

M

E

D

CARPOOL

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1829 1829 13 19 457 235 191 29

K L M

95 83 125C 150D762

N

48

914 x 2134 2134 16 22 457 237 191 2995 102 150C 200D914 57

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 72 72 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 3-1/4 5C 6D30

N

1-7/8

36 x 84 84 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 4 6C 8D36 2-1/4

J

OR MORE

PERSONS

PER

VEHICLE

IS 2 L

L

L

L

L

K

K

K

K

K

NOTE:Specify number of personsper vehicle when ordering.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 80: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 37

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

SR50-1None

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

NOTE: Specify fine amount when ordering.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

192 x 70 70 1 1-3/4 35 24 36 12

K L M

18-1/2 3 10 10D192

N

9

P

12E

R

10E

S

9

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

4877 x 1778 1778 25 44 889 610 914 305

K L M

470 76 254 10D4877

N

229

P

300E

R

250E

S

229

L

A

B

J

G

C

F

F

M

N

R

H

E

DJ

K

CL

S

P

N

CARPOOL VIOLATION$271

MINIMUM FINE

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 81: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 38

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND & BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

SR50-2NoneP

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

L

K

M

M

L

M

L

E

D

CARPOOL

J

VIOLATION

$271MINIMUM

FINE

N

M

L

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 66 66 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8K L M

3-3/4 5 5C 330

N6D

36 x 78 78 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 6 6C 436 8D

48 x 96 96 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 7 8C 5-1/248 10D

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

P

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1676 1676 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 127 125C 76762

N

150D

914 x 1981 1981 16 22 450 237 191 2995 152 150C 102914 200D

1219 x 2438 2438 19 31 450 238 191 2995 178 200C 1401219 250D

P

4857

76

NOTE:Specify fine amount,

when ordering.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 82: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 39

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)BACKGROUND - YELLOW (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

W11-1Lt. or Rt.

None

T

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

K

N

CL

L

M

E

D

J

L

NP

RS

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 7-1/2 9 7-1/230

N

3

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 7-1/2 9 7-1/236 3

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 9 12 1048 4

P

4-1/2

4-1/2

6

R

1-1/2

1-1/2

2

S

3-1/2

3-1/2

4-3/4

T

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 191 229 191762

N

76

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 191 229 191914 76

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 229 305 2541219 102

P

114

114

152

R

38

38

51

S

89

89

121

T

48

57

76

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 83: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 40

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)BACKGROUND - YELLOW (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

W59-1Lt. or Rt.

None

W

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

K

Note:For arrowhead dimensions,see Standard Arrowhead forWarning & Regulatory Signin Chapter 5, Appendix 1.

CL

L

M

E

D

J

T

N

P

R S

U

V

45Deg.

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 21 15-3/4 13-1/430

N

5-1/4

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 21 15-3/4 13-1/436 5-1/4

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 27 20-1/2 17-1/248 7

P

3-5/8

3-5/8

4-3/4

R

4

4

5-1/4

S

9-5/8

9-5/8

12-13/16

T

15-5/8

15-5/8

20-3/4

U

33-5/16

33-5/16

44-3/8

V

33-5/8

33-5/8

45

W

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 533 400 337762

N

133

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 533 400 337914 133

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 686 521 4451219 178

P

92

92

121

R

102

102

133

S

244

244

325

W

48

57

76

V

854

854

1143

U

846

846

1127

T

397

397

527

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 84: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 41

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)BACKGROUND - YELLOW (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

W72BNone

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

CL

K

E

D

J

EXIT

30mph

L

M

N

P

R

K

DM

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

36 x 66 66 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/4 4 6E 5-1/236

N

12E

48 x 78 78 7/8 1-1/2 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/4 5 8E 6-1/248 16E

60 x 102 102 1 1-3/4 27 13-15/16 10 1-1/25 6 10E 860 20E

P

5E

6E

8E

R

3

3-3/4

4-1/2

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

914 x 1676 1676 19 32 457 237 191 29

K L M

95 102 150E 140914

N

300E

1219 x 1981 1981 22 38 457 238 191 2995 127 200E 1651219 400E

1524 x 2591 2591 25 44 686 354 254 38127 152 250E 2031524 500E

P

125E

150E

200E

R

76

95

114

Notes:Speed Variable,

specify when ordering.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 85: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 42

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)BACKGROUND - YELLOW (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

W74-1Lt. or Rt.

None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/430

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/436

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/448

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

4

4

6

5C

5D

7D

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 102 125C762

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 102 125D914

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 152 175D1219

48

57

76

M

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

K

CL

L

E

D

J

THRUTRAFFICMERGERIGHT

K

L

K

L

K

L

Alternate Message,Line 4: LEFT.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 86: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ 43

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

COLORSBORDER, LEGEND & DIAMOND BACKGROUND - BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE)

DIAMOND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)BACKGROUND - YELLOW (REFLECTIVE)

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION

W75-1Lt. or Rt.

None

DIMENSIONS (Inches)SIGN SIZE(Inches) A B C D E F G H J

30 x 60 60 1/2 3/4 18 9-1/4 7-1/2 1-1/8

K L M

3-3/430

36 x 60 60 5/8 7/8 18 9-5/16 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/436

48 x 72 72 3/4 1-1/4 18 9-3/8 7-1/2 1-1/83-3/448

1-7/8

2-1/4

3

4

4

6

5C

5D

7D

DIMENSIONS (Millimeters)SIGN SIZE(mm) A B C D E F G H J

762 x 1524 1524 13 19 450 235 191 29

K L M

95 102 125C762

914 x 1524 1524 16 22 450 237 191 2995 102 125D914

1219 x 1829 1829 19 31 450 238 191 2995 152 175D1219

48

57

76

M

A

B

H

HC

G

GF

K

CL

L

E

D

J

LANEENDS

MERGERIGHT

K

L

K

L

K

L

Alternate Message,Line 4: LEFT.

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 87: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-1

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

G26-1(Metric)U.S. SHIELDS ON GUIDE SIGNS

COLORS :BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

BORDER & LEGEND - BLACK(NON-REFLECTIVE)

M1-4

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 88: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-2

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

U.S. SHIELDS ON GUIDE SIGNSM1-4G26-1

(English)

COLORS :BACKGROUND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

BORDER & LEGEND - BLACK(NON-REFLECTIVE)

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 89: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-3

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

G27-1(Metric)INTERSTATE SHIELDS

USED ON GUIDE SIGNS

COLORS :BORDER & LEGEND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

INTERSTATE BACKCROUND - RED (REFLECTIVE)NUMERAL BACKGROUND - BLUE (REFLECTIVE)

M1-1

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 90: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-4

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

G27-1(English)INTERSTATE SHIELDS

USED ON GUIDE SIGNS

COLORS :BORDER & LEGEND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

INTERSTATE BACKCROUND - RED (REFLECTIVE)NUMERAL BACKGROUND - BLUE (REFLECTIVE)

M1-1

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 91: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-5

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

G28-1(Metric)STATE ROUTE SHIELDS

USED ON GUIDE SIGNS

COLORS :BORDER & LEGEND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

BACKCROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

M1-5

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 92: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-6

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

G28-1(English)STATE ROUTE SHIELDS

USED ON GUIDE SIGNS

COLORS :BORDER & LEGEND - WHITE (REFLECTIVE)

BACKCROUND - GREEN (REFLECTIVE)

M1-5

8/1/02

MUTCD NUMBER _____________ CODE _____________

- THE POLICY FOR INTENDED USAGE OF THIS SIGN IS SHOWN ON REVERSE SIDE -

CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 93: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-7

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Standard Arrowhead forWarning & Regulatory Signs

Arrowhead Dimensions

A = Width of ShaftB = 1.14AC = 2.01AD = 0.15AE = 0.18A

8/1/02CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

A

B

C

E

D

B

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 94: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-8

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Standard Arrows for Directional Signs

Two LineHorizontal Arrow

AC

B

D E

R

F

R

R

4U.C.,4Cap

5Cap

6U.C.

6Cap

8U.C.

8Cap

10.67U.C.

10Cap

12Cap

13.3U.C.

16U.C.

A B C D E F R

7-1/8 4-1/8 1-9/16 1-15/16 7/16 6-3/8 5/16

9 5-3/16 1-15/16 2-7/16 9/16 8-1/16 3/8

10-11/16 6-3/16 2-5/16 2-15/16 5/8 9-9/16 1/2

14-1/4 8-1/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 12-3/4 5/8

18-3/4 10-7/8 3-3/4 5 1-5/16 17-1/4 11/16

14-1/4 8-1/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 12-3/4 5/8

18-3/4 10-7/8 3-3/4 5 1-5/16 17-1/4 11/16

23-13/16 13-13/16 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 20-1/4 3/4

23-13/16 13-13/16 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 20-1/4 3/4

23-13/16 13-13/16 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 20-1/4 3/4

28-1/2 16-1/2 5-3/8 7-1/8 1-3/4 25 1

Dimensions in InchesLetterSizes

100U.C.,100Cap

125Cap

150U.C.

150Cap

200U.C.

200Cap

265U.C.

250Cap

300Cap

330U.C.

400U.C.

A B C D E F R

181 105 40 49 11 162 8

229 132 49 62 14 205 10

271 157 59 75 16 243 13

362 210 79 98 22 324 16

476 276 95 127 33 438 17

362 210 79 98 22 324 16

476 276 95 127 33 438 17

605 351 114 152 38 514 19

605 351 114 152 38 514 19

605 351 114 152 38 514 19

724 419 137 181 44 635 25

Dimensions in MillimetersLetterSizes

8/1/02CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

One LineHorizontal, Verticalor Diagonal Arrow

A

CB

D

E

R

F

R

R

4U.C.,4Cap

5Cap

6U.C.

6Cap

8U.C.

8Cap

10.67U.C.

10Cap

12Cap

13.3U.C.

16U.C.

A B C D E F R

5-5/8 3-5/8 1-9/16 1-15/16 7/16 6-3/8 5/16

7-1/16 4-9/16 1-15/16 2-7/16 9/16 8-1/16 3/8

8-7/16 5-7/16 2-5/16 2-15/16 5/8 9-9/16 1/2

11-1/4 7-1/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 12-3/4 5/8

14-1/4 9-13/16 3-3/8 4-1/2 1-5/16 17-1/4 3/4

11-1/4 7-1/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 12-3/4 5/8

14-1/4 9-13/16 3-3/8 4-1/2 1-5/16 17-1/4 3/4

17-1/2 11-3/4 4-3/8 5-5/8 1-1/2 20-1/4 7/8

17-1/2 11-3/4 4-3/8 5-5/8 1-1/2 20-1/4 7/8

17-1/2 11-3/4 4-3/8 5-5/8 1-1/2 20-1/4 7/8

21-7/8 14-1/4 5 6-3/4 1-3/4 25 1

Dimensions in InchesLetterSizes

100U.C.,100Cap

125Cap

150U.C.

150Cap

200U.C.

200Cap

265U.C.

250Cap

300Cap

330U.C.

400U.C.

A B C D E F R

143 92 40 49 11 162 8

179 116 49 62 14 205 10

214 138 59 75 16 243 13

286 184 79 98 22 324 16

362 249 86 114 33 438 19

286 184 79 98 22 324 16

362 249 86 114 33 438 19

445 298 111 143 38 514 22

445 298 111 143 38 514 22

445 298 111 143 38 514 22

556 362 127 171 44 635 25

Dimensions in MillimetersLetterSizes

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Page 95: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-5♦ Appendix 5A-9

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Standard Arrows for Directional Signs

Vertical Down Arrow

A

C

BDR

E

RA B C D E

24 12 5 2 16-1/2

32 16 6-1/2 3 22

Dimensions in Inches

R

3/4

1

A B C D E

610 305 127 51 419

813 406 165 76 559

Dimensions in Millimeters

R

19

25

Two Line Verticalor Diagonal Arrow

A

CB

D

E

R

F

R

R

NOTE:The angle for a diagonalarrow is measured from

the vertical.

4U.C.,4Cap

5Cap

6U.C.

6Cap

8U.C.

8Cap

10.67U.C.

10Cap

12Cap

13.3U.C.

16U.C.

A B C D E F R

5-5/8 4-3/8 1-9/16 1-15/16 7/16 9-1/8 5/16

7-1/16 5-1/2 1-15/16 2-7/16 9/16 11-1/2 3/8

8-7/16 6-9/16 2-5/16 2-15/16 5/8 13-11/16 1/2

11-1/4 8-3/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 18-1/4 5/8

15-1/8 11-9/16 3-3/4 5 1-5/16 24-1/4 3/4

11-1/4 8-3/4 3-1/8 3-7/8 7/8 18-1/4 5/8

15-1/8 11-9/16 3-3/4 5 1-5/16 24-1/4 3/4

18-1/4 14 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 29-1/4 7/8

18-1/4 14 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 29-1/4 7/8

18-1/4 14 4-1/2 6 1-1/2 29-1/4 7/8

22-1/4 17 5-3/8 7-1/8 1-3/4 35-5/8 1

Dimensions in InchesLetterSizes

100U.C.,100Cap

125Cap

150U.C.

150Cap

200U.C.

200Cap

265U.C.

250Cap

300Cap

330U.C.

400U.C.

A B C D E F R

143 111 40 49 11 232 8

179 140 49 62 14 292 10

214 167 59 75 16 348 13

286 222 79 98 22 464 16

384 294 95 127 33 616 19

286 222 79 98 22 464 16

384 294 95 127 33 616 19

464 356 114 152 38 743 22

464 356 114 152 38 743 22

464 356 114 152 38 743 22

565 432 137 181 44 905 25

Dimensions in MillimetersLetterSizes

8/1/02CHIEF, OFFICE OF SIGNS AND DELINEATION DATE REVISION REVISION

Advance Arrow

A

CB

D

E

R

F

R

R

G

6U.C.

6Cap

8U.C.

A B C D E F G

8-7/16 5-7/16 2-5/8 9-3/4 5/8 11-1/4 3R

11-1/4 7-1/4 3-1/2 13 7/8 15 4R

11-1/4 7-1/4 3-1/2 13 7/8 15 4R

Dimensions in InchesLetterSizes R

1/2

5/8

5/8

150U.C.

150Cap

200U.C.

A B C D E F G

214 138 67 248 16 286 76R

286 184 89 330 22 381 102R

286 184 89 330 22 381 102R

Dimensions in MillimetersLetterSizes R

13

16

16

STATE OF CALIFORNIA - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

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CH-5♦ Appendix 5B-1

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

POLICY: G20-9

The CARPOOL LANE DESIGNATION sign(G20-9) should be used on a multilane cross streetapproaching an HOV drop ramp to indicate theproper lane to directly enter the HOV facility fromthe cross street.

The sign should be placed far enough in advance ofthe HOV drop ramp to permit a motorist to get intothe proper lane.

POLICY: G83-3

The CARPOOLS ONLY, EXIT ONLY sign (G83-3)should be used at a freeway off-ramp or freeway tofreeway direct connector that can be accessed onlyfrom an HOV lane where an auxiliary lane ininstalled.

POLICY: G84-1

The HOV Lane EXIT sign (G84-1) should be used atexit ramp gores on HOV drop ramps to identify theexiting point for High-Occupancy Vehicles. Thearrow should be aligned to approximately the angleof departure.

As much as possible, the sign should be positioned toavoid confusion that the exit may also serve mixedflow traffic.

POLICY: G85-7

The HOV Lane ACTION sign (G85-7) shall be usedfor exiting traffic for buffered and barriered HOVfacilities and is generally located near the beginningof the egress locations. The sign repeats thedestination shown on the Primary Directional sign(G86) and is generally located downstream from it.

POLICY: G85-8

The HOV Lane ACTION sign (G85-8) shall be usedfor exiting traffic for buffered and barriered HOVfacilities and is generally located near the beginningof the egress locations. The sign repeats the

destination shown on the Primary Directional sign(G86) and is generally located downstream from it.

POLICY: G85-9

The CARPOOLS ONLY, EXIT ONLY, ACTIONsign (G85-9) shall be used at a freeway off-ramp orfreeway to freeway direct connector that can beaccessed only from an HOV lane.

POLICY: G86-8

The HOV Lane PRIMARY DIRECTIONAL sign(G86-8) should be used to give advance notice ofegress locations for buffered and barriered HOVfacilities and is located upstream from the actionsign.

POLICY: G86-9

The HOV Lane PRIMARY DIRECTIONAL sign(G86-9) should be used to give advance notice ofegress locations for buffered and barriered HOVfacilities and is located upstream from the actionsign.

POLICY: G86-10

The CARPOOLS ONLY, LEFT EXIT PrimaryDirectional sign (G86-10) should be used in advanceof an HOV drop ramp tat can be accessed only froman HOV lane.

POLICY: G92-1

The CARPOOL LANE ENTRANCE sign (G92-1)shall be used at the entrance to an HOV drop ramp.

This sign is similar to the FREEWAY ENTRANCEsign (G92) and shall be installed similarly.

POLICY: R82-1

The CARPOOL LANE AHEAD, ½ MILE sign(R82-1) shall be used to indicate the distance to thebeginning of an HOV facility.

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CH-5♦ Appendix 5B-2

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

POLICY: R82B

The ___AM - ___AM, ___PM - ___PM, MON - FRIsign (R82B) shall be used to designate the period ofHOV operation for part time HOV facilities.

It is generally used with the CARPOOL LANEAHEAD, ½ MILE sign (R82-1).

POLICY: R84-1

The END CARPOOL LANE sign (R84-1) shall beused to designate the end of an HOV lane forcontiguous, buffered, or barriered HOV facilities.

It is located at the end of the HOV Lane andgenerally downstream from the CARPOOL LANEENDS, ½ MILE sign (R84-2).

POLICY: R84-2

The CARPOOL LANE ENDS, ½ MILE sign (R84-2)shall be used to indicate the distance to the end of anHOV lane.

It is located in advance of the END CARPOOLLANE sign (R84-1).

POLICY: R86

The LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLY, ___AM -___AM or ___PM - ___PM, MON - FRI sign (R86)shall be used when the left lane is designated as acarpool only lane during specified times and revertsto mixed flow operation.

The sign is generally located at the beginning of theHOV lane. It is also used in tandem with theCARPOOL IS ___ OR MORE PERSONS PERVEHICLE sign (R93-2) and repeated as a package.

POLICY: R86-2

The LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLY sign (R86-2)shall be used when the left lane is designated forcarpool only on a full time basis.

The sign is generally located at the beginning and atingress/egress points of the HOV facility. It is alsoused in tandem with the CARPOOL IS ___ ORMORE PERSONS PER VEHICLE sign (R93-2) andrepeated as a package. It may also be used by itselfas needed between long intervals without on-rampsor ingress/egress locations.

POLICY: R86-3

The LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLY, ___AM -___AM, ___PM - ___PM, MON - FRI sign (R86-3)shall be used when the left lane is designated as acarpool only lane during specified times and revertsto mixed flow operation.

The sign is generally located at the beginning of theHOV lane. It is also used in tandem with theCARPOOL IS ___ OR MORE PERSONS PERVEHICLE sign (R93-2) and repeated as a package.

POLICY: R87-1

The CARPOOLS ONLY, ___ OR MORE PERSONSPER VEHICLE sign (R87-1) shall be used near thebeginning of the HOV facility and at ingress/egresslocations to restrict the lane to High-OccupancyVehicles and to indicate occupancy requirements forbuffered or barriered HOV facilities. It may also beused at the beginning of contiguous HOV facilities.

POLICY: R87-2

The CARPOOLS ONLY, ___ OR MORE PERSONSPER VEHICLE sign (R87-2) shall be used to restrictthe HOV drop ramps for High-Occupancy Vehiclesonly and to indicate the number of persons requiredper vehicle.

POLICY: R91-2

The NO TRUCKS OVER 5 TONS OR VEHICLESWITH TRAILERS sign (R91-2) may be placedadjacent to the HOV lane, as needed, where inci-dences of trucks or vehicles with trailers in the HOVlanes have commonly occurred and on surface streetsapproaching HOV drop ramps.

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CH-5♦ Appendix 5B-3

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

POLICY: R93A

The VEHICLES WITH DMV CLEAN AIR DECALOK sign (R93A) when used shall be placed below theR91, R91-1, R91-3 or R93-2 sign.See CVC 21655.9.

POLICY: R93-2

The CARPOOL IS ___ OR MORE PERSONS PERVEHICLE sign (R93-2) shall be placed near thebeginning of HOV facilities. It is also used intandem with the LEFT LANE, CARPOOLS ONLYsign (R86-2) and repeated as a package.

POLICY: SR50-1

The CARPOOL VIOLATION $ ___ MINIMUMFINE sign (SR50-1) may be used to supplement theSR50-2 sign on HOV facilities where violation ratesare particularly high. It is normally a retrofitsituation where the sign can be “piggybacked” ontoan existing overhead sign where the support isstructurally adequate to support the additional sign.

POLICY: SR50-2

The CARPOOL VIOLATION $ ___ MINIMUMFINE sign (SR50-2) should be placed near thebeginning of all HOV facilities and may be placed atingress/egress locations for buffered or barrieredHOV facilities. The sign may be repeated at 3.2 km(2-mile) intervals or as needed at locationsexperiencing high violation rates.

POLICY: W11-1

The HOV Lane Reduction Transition sign (W11-1)should be used to warn of a reduction in the numberof HOV lanes.

It is not to be used in advance of the end of anacceleration lane.

POLICY: W59-1

The HOV Lane Merge symbol sign (W59-1) shouldbe used in advance of locations where HOV lanesconverge. This includes HOV drop ramps wherehigh speeds and volumes prevail and merging orweaving must be accomplished in a relatively shortdistance.

This sign is similar to the Merge symbol sign (W59)and should be installed similarly.

POLICY: W72B

The HOV ADVISORY EXIT (RAMP) SPEED sign(W72B) when used, should be placed on the left ofan HOV drop ramp or freeway to freeway connectorto advise motorists of the speed at which the dropramp or freeway to freeway connector can becomfortably negotiated.

POLICY: W74-1

The HOV Lane THRU TRAFFIC MERGE RIGHT(LEFT) sign (W74-1) should be used to informmotorists that the outside or inside lane of an HOVfacility with two or more directional HOV lanes isbeing dropped at the next exit and through HOVtraffic must merge into the adjacent HOV lane.

This sign should not be used for a lane reduction.See the HOV LANE ENDS MERGE RIGHT (LEFT)sign (W75-1).

POLICY: W75-1

The HOV LANE ENDS MERGE RIGHT (LEFT)sign (W75-1) should be used on an HOV facility towarn of the reduction in the number of HOV lanes.

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CH-5♦ Appendix 5B-4

CHAPTER 5♦ HOV SIGNS AND MARKINGS

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

APPENDIX 5A

POLICY: G26-1

The US Route Shield sign (G26-1) should be usedwhen being placed on a guide sign.

POLICY: G27-1

The Interstate Route Shield sign (G27-1) should beused when being placed on a guide sign.

POLICY: G28-1

The State Route Shield sign (G28-1) should be usedwhen being placed on a guide sign.

Standard Arrowhead for Warning &Regulatory Signs

Standard Arrows for Directional Signs(2 sheets)

Page 100: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

CH-6♦ 1

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 6.1 General

Adequate enforcement of HOV violations is a necessaryelement for a successful HOV system. The threat ofreceiving a citation for an occupancy violation is a strongdeterrent to the illegal use of the HOV lanes and studieshave shown that violation rates increase whenenforcement levels are low. Therefore, enforcementconsiderations must be accounted for during the planning,design, and operational phases of all HOV projects. TheCalifornia Highway Patrol (CHP) involvement in allphases of development is beneficial. The CHP is theresponsible agency in HOV lane enforcement issues, andthey are an integral part of ensuring a successful HOVfacility.

Section 6.2 Role of Enforcement

Experience with HOV facilities has clearly demonstratedthat enforcement is required to develop an appropriatepublic attitude toward these facilities. In fact, thepresence of a CHP officer has a beneficial impact. Suchbenefits usually correlate directly to the level of theofficer’s presence and are related to the motorist’sperception of the extent of enforcement. In addition, thisperception can be affected by the following factors:

♦ How frequently are enforcement units observed?

♦ Are enforcement units observed issuing citations?

♦ Are the fines sufficiently high to deter the illegal useof the HOV facility?

♦ Is the enforcement unit moving with the flow oftraffic or is it parked?

A properly designed enforcement program is essential tothe success of HOV facilities. The role of enforcement isto ensure proper implementation and compliance of theprogram. California Vehicle Code (CVC) Section 2400places enforcement responsibility for State highwaysconstructed as freeways under the jurisdiction of theCHP. It follows that the enforcement of laws relative toHOV facilities falls under the jurisdiction of the CHP.The Judicial Council of California (JCC) sets the finesand maintains the Uniform Bail and Penalty Schedule(UBPS) for traffic violations. See Appendices A-7through A-10, California Vehicle Code Section 42001.11,Traffic Penalty Schedule and the California Penal Codefor further explanation of minimum violation fines.

Section 6.3 Violation Rates

The task of keeping violation rates within reasonablebounds implies an ability to determine an acceptableviolation rate. Based on California’s HOV operations, arate below ten percent (10%) is preferable. Establishing astandard for acceptable violation rates on a particularfacility should include safety considerations, freewayoperations, public attitudes, and practicality.

A. Safety ConsiderationsPast studies suggest there is no consistent correlationbetween accident rates and occupancy violation rates onany of California’s HOV facilities. However, the practiceof weaving in and out of a HOV lane creates a safetyissue for the violator as well as for other traffic.

B. Freeway OperationsMany of California’s HOV facilities are operating nearcapacity. As traffic flow approaches capacity, violations

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CH-6♦ 2

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

represent a threat to the timesavings and other benefitsof HOV facilities.

C. Public AttitudesEven where there is intense public sentiment against theHOV facility, drivers recognize violations as a problem.Drivers tend to over-estimate violation rates and arelikely to be critical if actual violation rates are above10%.

D. PracticalityExperience suggests that routine enforcement combinedwith moderate applications of heightened enforcementcan keep HOV violation rates within the 5% to 10%range. Consistent heightened enforcement would benecessary to drive violation rates below 5% and wouldhave little effect on freeway performance. It isrecommended that a target level below 10% beconsidered for mainline HOV facilities.

Section 6.4 Enforcement Alternatives

Detection of occupancy violations by video technologyis not yet sufficiently reliable to eliminate on-the-sceneverification by an officer. Therefore, every effortshould be made to provide enforcement areas for allHOV facilities. The following enforcement areaconfigurations are listed in order of preference:

1. Continuous paved median 4.2m or wider in bothdirections for the length of the HOV facility. Ifspace is available, additional enforcement areasmay be built in conjunction with the 4.2m median.

2. When 4.2m continuous paved median shouldersare not possible, paved bi-directional enforcementareas spaced 3.2km to 4.8km apart should be built.A separation in the median barrier should beprovided for CHP motorcycle officers to patrol theHOV facility in both directions of travel.

3. Where median width is limited, some combinationof 1 and 2 should be included.

4. Paved directional enforcement areas spaced 3.2kmto 4.8km apart and staggered to accommodate bothdirections when space limitations do not allow anyof the above outlined considerations.

5. Where space is limited, directional enforcementareas located wherever right of way is available.

New HOV facilities should be built to provide adequateenforcement areas. Also, consideration should be givento adding enforcement areas to existing facilities whereviolation rates are consistently above 10%.

Figures 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3 represent typical enforcementareas for various median configurations mutuallyagreeable to Caltrans and the CHP. The widths shownfor enforcement areas are 4.5m and 4.8m. However,design variations due to restrictive right of way, mayindicate a lesser width is necessary. In such cases, 4.2mshould be the minimum width for enforcement areas.The typical length is 400m although a minimum of300m is acceptable. Any deviation from these typicalconfigurations could lead to a perception of unsafeconditions by the CHP officer and result in non-use.Therefore, district alternatives, which deviate from theabove options, should be resolved with the local CHPcommand and the appropriate Headquartersrepresentatives. It is likely that building anyenforcement areas will require an approved designexception fact sheet.

Other considerations for the design and operation ofenforcement areas include the following:

A. For buffered HOV facilities, the buffer should becarried full width adjacent to the enforcement area.

B. Audible warning markers spaced 1.8m apart shouldbe placed outside the lane striping, running parallelwith the enforcement area boundary. See WarningMarker Detail, shown on Figures 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3,and Chapter 5, HOV Signs and Markings.

C. The right shoulder should not be sacrificed toprovide room for enforcement areas in the medianexcept for extreme circumstances and only with thenecessary approvals.

D. Maintenance of enforcement areas should beroutinely provided to avoid accumulation of debris.Excessive debris in enforcement areas may presenthazards to CHP units and motorists.

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CH-6♦ 3

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

E. Ensure adequate drainage.

F. Glare screens should not be installed adjacent toHOV enforcement areas. This will improvevisibility and allow officers a possible escape routeif an errant vehicle enters the enforcement area.

G. Enforcement areas should be avoided at ingress/egress locations for buffer or barrier separatedHOV facilities.

H. Enforcement areas should be avoided at curves. Ifpossible, adequate sight distance should beprovided.

I. To protect officers from thrown or falling objects,enforcement areas should not be placed nearovercrossings.

J. Design features should ensure that enforcementareas are not perceived as traffic lanes.

Section 6.5 Other EnforcementConsiderations

Enforcement techniques used on mainline HOVfacilities will vary according to the design of thefacility. While 4.2m paved median or enforcementareas are preferred options for new HOV facilities, theymay not be possible for retrofit HOV facilities onexisting freeways due to the lack of right of way.Existing facilities have a number of different geometriccharacteristics that impact enforcement strategies, asfollows:

A. Median WidthHOV facilities created by retrofitting within the medianfrequently have no usable enforcement areas in thecenter of the freeway. The absence of a center medianshoulder has an adverse impact on two importantaspects of enforcement on these facilities: safety andvisibility. Enforcement action on this facility requiresthat the violator be taken across congested mixed-flowlanes to the right shoulder. This maneuver ispotentially hazardous and reduces the beneficial impactfrom visible enforcement.

B. BuffersThree types of separations are currently in use onCalifornia HOV facilities:

1. Single barrier stripe (double yellow)2. Painted barrier (two double yellow stripes)3. Fixed barrier (concrete barrier)

Each type of separation presents special enforcementconsiderations. The single barrier stripe providesseparation within existing, yet restricting, right of way.This type of treatment may also limit enforcementcapabilities.

The painted barrier (buffer-separated) with two doubleyellow stripes presents a different enforcementchallenge. If the buffer is wider than 1.2m, it creates theillusion that it may be a safe place to stop. Therefore,buffers between 1.2m and 3.6m should not be used.

The HOV facilities that are physically separated fromthe mixed-flow lanes by a fixed barrier (barrier-separated) tend to have the least number of occupancyviolations. Any enforcement that takes place on thesefacilities requires an officer dedicated to that lane. Thebarrier may create an access issue for emergencyvehicles.

The planning and design of enforcement areas mustconsider the impact on safety and visibility. Anydeviation from the preferred geometrics requires adocumented engineering analysis and a design exceptionapproval. The optimum design is the availability ofadequate enforcement areas in the median. Whereexisting facilities do not have these enforcement areas ornew facilities are not designed with them, it can beexpected that enforcement on the facility will bechallenging.

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CH-6♦ 4

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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CH-6♦ 5

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

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CH-6♦ 6

CHAPTER 6♦ HOV ENFORCEMENT

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Appendix♦Α− 1

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

HOV STATUTES AND POLICIES

Following is a partial listing of HOV related statutes and policies. Web addresses have been includedwhere possible although availability may be subject to change. Hard copies of selected documents areindicated in Italics and included in this Appendix.

California Air Resources Board♦ California Air Resources Board: Buyer’s Guide to Cleaner Cars

http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm♦ Transportation Performance Standards of the California Clean Air ActExecutive Summary - HOV Systems Plans as Air Quality Control Measures

California Department of Transportation♦ (1989) Policy and Procedure Memorandum P89-01♦ (1991) Delegation of Authority for HOV Occupancy Determination, James W. Van Loben Sels♦ (1995) Deputy Directive DD-43, see Appendix A-3

http://admin.dot.ca.gov/bfams/deputydirectives/Internal/DD-43.pdf♦ (1995) The Ending of High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, see Appendix A-4 and A-5

California Penal Codehttp://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=pen&codebody=&hits=20

California Transportation Commission♦ (1987) Bus and Carpool Lane Facilities Resolution G-87-8, see Appendix A-6

http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/transprog/ctcliaison/Delegations/GRes-1978-1997.pdf♦ (1980) Policy Statement on Bus and Carpool Lanes

2003 California Vehicle Code (CVC)Visit the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) website, see Appendix A-7 and A-8:

http://www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/vc/vctoc.htm.Most of the HOV related vehicle code sections are located in Division 11 of the CVC.

♦ Section 21460 Double Lines♦ Section 21654 Slow-Moving Vehicles♦ Section 21655 Designated Lanes for Certain Vehicles♦ Section 21655.3 Permanent High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes♦ Section 21655.5 Exclusive- or Preferential- Use Lane for High-Occupancy Vehicles♦ Section 21655.5(b) Mass Transit and Paratransit Vehicles may use HOV lanes

regardless of occupancy♦ Section 21655.6 Approval of Transportation Planning Agency or

County Transportation Commission♦ Section 21655.7 Use of Highway: Public Mass Transit Guideway♦ Section 21655.8(a) Entering or Exiting Preferential- Use Lanes♦ Section 21655.9 HOV Lanes: Use by Ultra-Low Emission Vehicles♦ Section 21714 Three-Wheeled Vehicles: Operation in HOV Lanes

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Appendix♦Α− 2

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

♦ Section 22364 Lane Speed Limits♦ Section 22406 Maximum Speed for Designated Vehicles♦ Section 42001.11 Violations of Provisions Governing HOV Lanes and $271 minimum

fine breakdown, see Appendix A-9 and A-10

Federal Highway Act♦♦♦♦♦ Title 23, Chapter 1, Subchapter I, Sec. 101, Definitions and Declaration of Policy;

(A) Definitions, (2) Carpool Projecthttp://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/23/101.html

♦ Title 23, Chapter 1, Subchapter I, Sec. 102, Program Efficiencies, see Appendix A-11http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/23/102.html

♦ Title 23, Chapter 1, Subchapter I, Sec. 146, Use of High Occupancy Laneshttp://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/23/146.notes.html

Federal Highway Administration♦ (2001) Request for Hybrid Vehicles to Use High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/policy/hybridmemo.htm♦ (2001) Program Guidance on High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/policy/hovmemgd.htm♦ (1988) Memorandum Deleting 3+ Occupancy Requirement♦ (1987) Procedure Memorandum D6103, see Appendix A-12 and A-13

Federal Register♦ (2001) Volume 66, Number 88 [FHWA Docket FHWA-98-4300]

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; Implementation for Participation in theValue Pricing Pilot Programhttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/frmay7.htm

Judicial Council of California ♦ Traffic Infraction Fixed Penalty Schedule (California Vehicle Code Sections)

Public Resources Code♦ Chapter 5.8, Section 25485

Streets and Highways Code♦ Section 149 - The Carrell Act

Authority for Caltrans to Construct HOV Lanes♦ Section 149.1San Diego Association of Governments transit program♦ Section 30101.8 Reduced Rates for High-Occupancy Vehicles

Surface Transportation Assistance Act (1982)♦ Section 167

United States Code♦ Amended Section 102 of Title 23Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991

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Appendix♦Α− 3

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Appendix♦Α− 4

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

* The original attachment is included on the subsequent page although supercededby Chapter 5, Detail M-6 of this Guideline, 2003 Edition.

*

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Appendix♦Α− 5

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Appendix♦Α− 6

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

California Transportation Commission‘G’

General Resolutions

CTC Resolution Index Updated: October 13, 2000

Resolution Status Date Passed Title/Description

Finance, Transportation Programming Page 1 Office of CTC Liaison

1978-1982

G-01 Replaced by

G-23

as Replaced by

G-50

April 21, 1978 Authorization for Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to

submit a list of Proposed STIP projects at each April CTC

Meeting for the purpose of advertising certain projects prior

to the fiscal year in which funds are appropriated, with

contract award pending appropriation of funds by the

Legislature, and adoption of the STIP. See related

Resolutions G-09 and G-16.

Resolution G-01 Replaced by G-23 as Replaced by G-50

G-02 Amended by

G-95-07

G-96-26

G-97-12

G-98-22

July 28, 1978 Procedure for sale of excess lands / property.

Resolution G-02 Amended by Resolution G-95-07

Resolution G-02 Amended by Resolution G-96-26.

Resolution G-02 Amended by Resolution G-97-12.

Resolution G-2 Amended by Resolution G-98-22

G-03 Original July 28, 1978 Procedure for lease of excess lands / property for park

purposes to local agencies. See related Resolution G-91.

G-04 Original July 28, 1978 Procedures relating to Resolutions of Necessity to acquire

property by eminent domain.

G-05 Replaced by

G-94-13, G-96-

27

and G-97-06

Aug 10, 1994 Procedure for leasing airspace to private entities.

Resolution G-05 Replaced by Resolutions G-94-13, G-96-27

and G-97-06.

G-06 Original July 28, 1978 Procedure for leasing airspace to public agencies.

G-07 Not Used No Resolution On File.

G-08 Replaced by

G-15

May 19, 1978 Procedure for recycling / rescinding adoption of freeway

locations.

Resolution G-08 Replaced by Resolution G-15.

G-09 Original April 21, 1978 Affirmation of California Highway Commission approval of

FY 1978-79 construction projects (Partial List) - See Related

Resolutions G-01 and G-16.

G-10 Replaced by

G-88-21

May 19, 1978 Adoption of toll rate schedule for the Antioch Toll Bridge.

Resolution G-10 Replaced by Resolution G-88-21.

G-11 Amended and

Superseded by

G-94 and

Amended by

G-00-11

Jun 23, 1978 Authorization for Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to

allocate funds for emergency projects.

Resolution G-11 Amended and Superseded by G-94.

G-12 Amended and

Superseded by

G-95-08

Jul 28, 1978 Delegation of authority to Department of Transportation

(Caltrans) to adjust project allocations and modify project

descriptions.

Resolution G-12 Amended by Resolutions G-83-06, G-85-

10, G-88-04, G-88-18, G-88-23, and G-90-24, which were

subsequently Replaced and Superseded by G-95-08.

G-13 Replaced by

G-91-01

Jun 23, 1978 Delegation of authority to Department of Transportation

(Caltrans) to sub-allocate right of way funds.

Resolution G-13 Replaced by Resolution G-91-01.

G-14 Original Nov 17, 1978 Procedure for adoption of freeway route locations.

G-15 Replaces

G-08

Feb 29, 1980 Procedure for recycling / rescinding adopted freeway

locations and policy for conditional retention of adoptions.

Resolution G-15 Replaces Resolution G-08.

G-16 Original Aug 25, 1978 Affirmation of California Highway Commission approval of

FY 1978-79 construction projects (balance of projects)

See related Resolutions G-01 and G-09.

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Appendix♦Α− 7

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

ADDITIONAL HOV INFORMATION

California Vehicle Code sections relating to HOV lanes:To view the 2003 California Vehicle Code (CVC), visit the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) website:http://www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/vc/vctoc.htm. Most of the HOV related vehicle code sections summarizedbelow are located in Division 11 of the CVC. Section titles in BOLD indicate official title names as shown inthe CVC. The section title in regular font was included for clarity in describing the HOV related issue.

Section 21460 Double LinesThe purpose of the solid-white single line on the inside of the double yellow lines onbuffered HOV lanes is to permit vehicles to legally drive to the left of the double yellowlines as defined in the provisions of this section.

Section 21654 Slow-Moving VehiclesThis section requires vehicles, such as those with 3-or-more-axles or vehicles with trailers asdefined in Section 22406, to use the farthest right freeway lanes. Therefore, these vehiclescannot use the HOV lanes.

Section 21655 Designated Lanes for Certain VehiclesAllows the Department of Transportation or local authorities to designate specific lanes forvehicles required to drive at reduced speeds. Requires vehicles driving at reduced speeds touse the farthest right lanes.

Section 21655.3 Permanent High-Occupancy Vehicle LanesAfter 1/1/87, but before 12/31/87 all permanently designated HOV lanes operating 24 hoursa day shall be separated from general use highway lanes by a minimum 4 foot wide buffer.

Section 21655.5 Exclusive- or Preferential- Use lanes for High-Occupancy VehiclesAllows the Department of Transportation and local authorities to designate specific lanes forHOV preferential use upon completion of competent engineering estimates made of theeffects of the lanes on safety, congestion, and highway capacity.

Section 21655.5(b) Mass Transit and Paratransit VehiclesEnactment of SB 236 on January 1, 1998, permits mass transit vehicles to use the HOVlanes without meeting the occupancy requirement.

Enactment of AB 2582 on January 1, 2003, permits clearly marked paratransit vehicles touse the HOV lanes without meeting the occupancy requirement. This section also requiresthat HOV lane-use comply with posted signs designating the minimum occupancyrequirement.

Section 21655.6 Approval of Transportation Planning Agency or County Transportation CommissionRequires the Department of Transportation to have approval of the county transportationcommission prior to establishing new HOV lanes.

Section 21655.7 Use of Highway: Public Mass Transit GuidewayAllows for any portion of a highway to be designated for exclusive public mass transit use.

Section 21655.8(a) Entering or Exiting Preferential-Use LanesA citation for violation of the provisions of this section, commonly called a buffer violation,carry a minimum fine of $271.

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Appendix♦Α− 8

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Section 21655.9 HOV Lanes: Use by Ultra – Low Emission VehiclesWebsite for list of vehicles that meet federal requirements and qualify as ultra-low emissionvehicles (ULEV) and super ultra low-emission vehicles (SULEV) in Assembly Bill 71,enacted July 1, 2000:http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/carpool/carpool.htm

Section 21714 Three-Wheeled Vehicles: Operation in HOV LanesProhibits three-wheeled vehicles from using the HOV lanes.

Section 22364 Lane Speed LimitsAllows the Department of Transportation to post the appropriate speed for designated lanes.

Section 22406 Maximum Speed for Designated VehiclesBy definition in this section, trucks with three or more axles, or vehicles with trailers, arenot allowed to use the HOV lanes because they cannot drive the maximum legal speed limitposted on HOV lanes in California. Provisions of Section 21654 (above) then apply.

Definition of Two-Seat Vehicles (used in San Francisco Bay Area only):

Applies to the Interstate 80 HOV lanes and the toll plaza HOV by-pass lanes in the Bay Area requiring 3 or moreoccupants. Two seat vehicles are exempt from the 3 or more person occupancy requirement where posted. However,they must still have two people in them to use a 3 or more person facility.

State Assemblyman John Burton’s legislation, Assembly Bill 210, was implemented on October 1, 1995. Thelegislation amended Section 30101.8 of the Streets and Highways Code to read, “…..grant the same toll-free passageand reduced-rate passage to class I vehicles designed by the manufacturer to be occupied by no more than twopersons, including the driver, if these vehicles are occupied by two persons, including the driver.”

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Appendix♦Α− 9

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

How the $271 Minimum Fine is Derived

The Judicial Council of California (JCC) sets the fines and maintains the Uniform Bail and Penalty Schedule(UBPS) for traffic violations. In that schedule the fine is $270 for an occupancy violation per Section 21655.5(b)or a buffer violation per Section 21655.8(a) of the CVC.

The $270 set by the JCC, a minimum, is comprised of:

(1) Section 1464 of the Penal Code setting $170 and

(2) Section 42001.11 of the CVC setting a $100 minimum to $150 maximum for first offense,$150 minimum to 200 maximum for second offense within 1 year,and $250 to $500 for third offense within 2 years.

The additional $1 assessment is under Section 42006 of the CVC for counties that have night court.

In addition, the counties can assess and additional $10 for administration, at the discretion of the county’s Boardof Supervisors, under Section 40508.6 of the CVC. Also, Section 1463.28 of the Penal Code provides for 30counties to exceed fines scheduled in the UBPS. In the San Francisco Bay Area, the only county that can do thisis Contra Costa.

All of the counties that have HOV lanes also have night court, so this is why the posted sign shows$271 minimum.

Uniform Traffic Penalty Schedule

40310. The Judicial Council shall annually adopt a uniform traffic penalty schedule which shall be applicableto all nonparking infractions specified in this code, unless in a particular case before the court the judge orauthorized hearing officer specifies a different penalty. No penalty shall be established for any infraction in anamount, exclusive of any additional penalty levied pursuant to Section 1464 of the Penal Code, in excess ofthe amount of the maximum fine pursuant to Section 42001 or 42001.5, and penalties shall be set withoutregard to residence. In case a traffic penalty is not paid within 20 days following mailing of a notice that thepenalty has been assessed, a late charge shall be due in the amount of 50 percent of total initial penalty. Inestablishing a uniform traffic penalty schedule, the Judicial Council shall classify the offenses into four orfewer penalty categories, according to the severity of offenses, so as to permit convenient notice and paymentof the scheduled penalty

Amended Ch. 696, Stats. 1992. Effective September 15, 1992.

JUDICIAL COUNCIL OF CALIFORNIATRAFFIC INFRACTION FIXED PENALTY SCHEDULE

(Vehicle Code Sections)

Base Added Total Bail PointSection Offense Fine Penalty Bail Category Count

21655.5(b) Improper Use of Preferential Lanes $ 100 + 170 = $ 270 4a 021655.8 Driving Over Double Lines $ 100 + 170 = $ 270 4a 1

of Preferential Lanes

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Appendix♦Α− 10

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

2003 Vehicle Code General Provisions and Divisions

Exclusive or Preferential Use Lanes

42001.11. Every person convicted of an infraction for a violation of Section 21655.5 or 21655.8shall be punished as follows:

(a) For a first conviction, a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100), nor more than one hundred fiftydollars ($150).

(b) For a second conviction within a period of one year, a fine of not less than one hundred fifty dollars($150), nor more than two hundred dollars ($200).

(c) For a third or any subsequent conviction within a period of two years, a fine of not less than two hundredfifty dollars ($250), nor more than five hundred dollars ($500).

Added Ch. 1054, Stats. 1988. Effective January 1, 1989.

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Appendix♦Α− 11

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

Title 23, United States Code (U.S.C.), Highways

Sec. 102. - Program efficiencies

(a) HOV Passenger Requirements. -

(1) In general. - A State transportation department shall establish the occupancy requirements of vehicles operating inhigh occupancy vehicle lanes; except that no fewer than 2 occupants per vehicle may be required and, subject tosection 163 of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, motorcycles and bicycles shall not be consideredsingle occupant vehicles.

(2) Exception for inherently low-emission vehicles. - Notwithstanding paragraph (1), before September 30, 2003, aState may permit a vehicle with fewer than 2 occupants to operate in high occupancy vehicle lanes if the vehicle iscertified as an Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle pursuant to title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, and is labeled inaccordance with, section 88.312-93(c) of such title. Such permission may be revoked by the State should the Statedetermine it necessary.

(b) Access of Motorcycles. -

No State or political subdivision of a State may enact or enforce a law that applies only to motorcycles and theprincipal purpose of which is to restrict the access of motorcycles to any highway or portion of a highway for whichFederal-aid highway funds have been utilized for planning, design, construction, or maintenance. Nothing in thissubsection shall affect the authority of a State or political subdivision of a State to regulate motorcycles for safety.

(c) Engineering Cost Reimbursement. -

If on-site construction of, or acquisition of right-of-way for, a highway project is not commenced within 10 years (orsuch longer period as the State requests and the Secretary determines to be reasonable) after the date on which Federalfunds are first made available, out of the Highway Trust Fund (other than Mass Transit Account), for preliminaryengineering of such project, the State shall pay an amount equal to the amount of Federal funds made available for suchengineering. The Secretary shall deposit in such Fund all amounts paid to the Secretary under this section.

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Appendix♦Α− 12

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Appendix♦Α− 13

APPENDIX A

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Appendix♦Β− 1

APPENDIX B

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Page 120: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

Appendix♦Β− 2

APPENDIX B

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Page 121: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

Appendix♦Β− 3

APPENDIX B

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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Page 122: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

Appendix♦Β− 4

APPENDIX B

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

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ased o

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olu

mes a

nticip

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years

after

openin

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ns w

ith

sim

ilar

fre

ew

ays.

Page 123: Chapter 4 HOV Ingress and Egress - Caltransdot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/systemops/hov/files/hov_guidelines/HOV...Chapter 4 ♦ HOV Ingress and Egress 4.1 Beginning and Termination Points

Appendix♦Β− 5

APPENDIX B

High-Occupancy Vehicle Guidelines, 2003 Edition

SU

MM

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CO

NG

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TIO

N /

CA

PA

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ased o

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olu

mes a

nticip

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years

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Actu

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r fr

eew

ays.