Chapter 15 Religion and Magic The Universality of Religion Variation in Religious Beliefs Variation in Religious Practices Religion and Adaptations Religious

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  • Chapter 15Religion and MagicThe Universality of ReligionVariation in Religious BeliefsVariation in Religious PracticesReligion and AdaptationsReligious ChangeCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • What is a religion?

  • ReligionReligion is defined as any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power, whether that power be forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons.

  • What do peoples religious experiences around the world tell us about religion for the human experience?

  • Religion as a WorldviewReligion is Universal and can be described as an interpretive effort to express a set of shared assumptions about how the world works.

    Lets take a look.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fBT72-hhTs

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • How would you explain the Universality of religion?

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Universality of Religion

    The Need to UnderstandReversion to Childhood FeelingsAnxiety and UncertaintyThe Need for CommunityCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Variation in Religious BeliefsThere is no general agreement among scholars as to why people need a religion. Yet there is general recognition of the enormous variation in the details of religious beliefs and practices around the world. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Supernatural BeingsGods are named personalities, they can be conceived in the image of a person, animals, or celestial bodiesSpirits are beings which are beneath the gods in prestige, and live closer to peopleGhosts are supernatural beings who were once humanAncestor Spirits are ghosts of dead relatives

    Types of Supernatural Forces and Beings

  • Celebrating our ancestorsAqu no existe la tristeza Solo existe la alegra El baile de los queridos De los queridos del pasado Mira como baila mi mama Bailando con mi hermano del pasado Sus espritus se juntan bailando Llenos de alegra y gozando Cierta gente puede ver Espritus bailando entre la gente Si pueden verlos bailando mis hermanos Sern bendecidos entre los cielos Mira como baila mi mama Bailando con mi hermano del pasado Sus espritus se juntan bailando Llenos de alegra y gozando http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUUAgEWeYeI

  • Variation in Religious BeliefsPolytheistic ReligionsMonotheistic ReligionsCan Catholicism be considered a polytheistic religion? Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Variation in Religious PracticesWays to Interact with the Supernatural Various methods have been used to attempt communication with the supernatural.

    Prayer, ethnogens, simulation, feasts, and sacrifices are some examples.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Variation in Religious PracticesMagic compelling the supernatural to act in some particular and intended way

    Sorcery may include the use of materials, objects, and medicines to invoke supernatural malevolence.

    Witchcraft may be said to accomplish the same ills by means of thought and emotion alone.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Variation in Religious PracticesTypes of Practitioners

    The ShamanSorcerers and WitchesMediumsPriests

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Variation in Religious PracticesPractitioners and Social Complexity

    The number of types of practitioners seems to vary with degree of cultural complexity

    The more complex the society, the more types of practitioners.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Religion and Adaptation

    Following Malinowski, many anthropologists take the view that religions are adaptive because they reduce the anxieties and uncertainties that afflict all peoples.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Religious ChangeConversion to one of the world religions has often been associated with colonization and the expansion of state societies. Can you think of some negative issues associated with religious conversion?

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cargo CultsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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