Text of CHAPTER 12 Applying Anthropology. Dimensions of American anthropology: Academic or theoretical...
CHAPTER 12Applying Anthropology
2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved.
Applying AnthropologyDimensions of American anthropology:Academic or theoretical anthropologyApplied anthropology Applied anthropologyApplication of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problemsAll four subdisciplines
Role of Applied AnthropologistsEarly applicationsApplication was a central concern of early anthropology in Great Britain (during colonialism) and in the U.S. (Native American policy)Modern applied anthropology differs from earlier approaches
Academic and applied anthropologyAcademic anthropology expanded after World War IIApplied anthropology began to grow in the 1970s
Applied anthropology todayAppropriate roles for applied anthropologists:Identifying locally perceived needs for changeWorking with local people to design culturally appropriate, socially sensitive changeProtecting interests of local people
Development anthropologyBranch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development
Strategies for innovationTo maximize social and economic benefits, development projects must:Be culturally compatibleRespond to locally perceived needsInvolve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect themHarness traditional organizationsBe flexible
Strategies for innovationOverinnovation too much changeUnderdifferentiation tendency to overlook cultural diversity and view less-developed countries as more alike than they truly are
Strategies for innovationThird World modelsBest models for economic development are to be found in target communities
Anthropology and education
Urban anthropologyCross-cultural and ethnographic study of global urbanization and life in cities
Medical anthropologyStudy of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groupsTheories about the causes of illnessPersonalistic disease theoriesNaturalistic disease theoriesEmotionalistic disease theoriesHealth Care SystemsWestern vs. non-Western medicine
Anthropology and businessFor business, key features of anthropology include:Ethnography and observation as ways of gathering dataCross-cultural expertiseFocus on cultural diversity
Careers and AnthropologyAnthropologys breadth provides an excellent foundation for many careers