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Altitude

The Altitude of a celestial body is itsangular distance above the Horizon. TheAltitude of a celestial body may be

measured with a sextant to give themeasured Altitude.

nlimea unui corp ceresc este distana saunghiular msurat deasupraorizontului. nlima unui corp ceresc poate

fi msurat cu un sextant pentru a danlimea msurat.

The Altitude as calculated from theEstimated Position using Sight Reduction

Tables, or some other means ofcalculating what the Altitude should befrom your Estimated Position, is calledthe calculated Altitude.

nlimea calculat rezultat dinpoziia estimat folosind

tabele Sight Reduction, sau altemijloace pentru calcularea nlimii pornindde la Poziia Estimant, se numete nlimeCalculat.

By comparing the measured Altitude tothe calculated Altitude for your EstimatedPosition, a Position Line may be drawn onyour map or chart.

Prin compararea nlimea msurate cunlimea Calculat reieit din poziiaestimat, poate fi desenat o linie de poziie

pe hart sau diagram.

Artificial Horizon

If sight of the natural Horizon is notavailable, an Artificial Horizon is somemeans by which an observer can refer to ahorizontal plane through his position.

With a marine sextant, it is common touse a mirror in the horizontal plane. Theangle between the celestial body as seenin the sky and as reflected in the mirror ismeasured with the sextant. Halving thisangle gives the Altitude of the celestialbody above the Horizon.

Dac Orizontul natural nu este vizibil,un orizont artificial este unmijloc prin care un observator sepoate referi la un plan orizontal care trece

prin poziia sa. Cu un sextant maritim, sepoate folosi o oglind n plan orizontal, aacum este reprezentat n figura de maijos. Unghiul dintre un corp ceresc aa cum sevede pe cer i corpul reflectat n oglindaorizontal, se msoar cu sextant.njumtirea acestui unghi d nlimea

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astrului ceresc deasupra orizontului.

Azimuth

The Azimuth of a celestial body is thebearing of the body from your position, asmeasured clockwise from true North. Sofor example, at mid-day (strictly, at localapparent noon), the sun will be in theSouth and have an Azimuth of 180.

Azimutul unui corp ceresc este relevmentulcorpului ceresc msurat din poziiaobservatorului, msurat n sensul acelor deceasornic de la Nordul Adevrat.Deci, de exemplu, la mijlocul zilei (strict, laaparentul pranz local), soarele va fi spre Sud

i are un Azimut de 180 .

The celestial body will be in one of four Corpul ceresc va fi ntr-unul din cele patru

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Azimuth Quadrants. If it is to the NORTHWEST, (Azimuth 0 to 90), then it is inthe NORTH WEST quadrant and so onfor the SOUTH WEST, SOUTH EASTand NORTH EAST.

cadrane azimutale. Dac este la NORDWEST, (Azimuth de la 0 la 90 ),atunci este n cadranul Nord-Vest i aa maideparte pentru Sud-West, Sud-Est i Nord-Est.

Declination

The Declination of a celestial body is thelatitude of itsGeographical Position Northor South of the Equator.

*******Declinaia unui corp ceresc este latitudinea sa ale poziia geografic nord sau sud deEcuator.

Great Circle

Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA)

A plane through the centre of the earthintersects the surface of the earth on aGreat Circle. So the centres of GreatCircles are always at the centre of theearth.

Un avion prin centrul pmntului taiesuprafaa de pmntpe un cercmare. Deci, centrele de cercurile Marii suntntotdeauna n centrul pmntului.

The Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) is theangular distance to the Meridian of thecelestial body, as measured Westwardsfrom the Greenwich Meridian (0

Longitude, also called the PrimeMeridian).

Greenwich ore Unghi (GHA) este distana unghiular lameridianul de corp ceresc, ca sprevest msurat de laMeridian Greenwich (0 longitudine, de asemenea, numitprim-

Meridian).

Geographical Position

The Geographical Position of a celestialbody it that point on the earth's surface

Poziia geografic aunui corp ceresc este acel punct de pe

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where the body is directly overhead, or atits zenith. This position is usuallyexpressed in terms of the Greenwich HourAngle (GHA) and the Declination (Dec.)of the celestial body.

suprafaa pmntului n cazul ncare organismul estedirect deasupracapului, sau la zenit. Aceast poziieeste, deobicei exprimat n termenide ore GreenwichUnghi (GHA) i Declinaie

(decembrie) a corpului ceresc.

Horizon

The sensible Horizon is a horizontal planethrough the observer's position. Here,"horizontal" means normal to a plumblineat the observers position.

sensibil Horizon este un plan orizontal caretreceprin poziia observatorului. Aici, "orizontal"nseamn normal la o cumpn n poziia deobservatori.

The visible Horizon, as seen from a shipat sea, is actually at an angle slightlybelow the sensible Horizon due to thecurvature of the earth. Almanacs will give"Dip Tables" to account for the differencein angle between the visible and sensibleHorizons.

Horizon vizibile, aa cum se vede de lao nav pemare, estede fapt la un unghi puin maijosHorizon sensibil din cauza curbura de pepamant.Almanahuri va da "tabelele DIP" aine seamadediferena n unghiul dintre Orizonturi vizibil isensibil.

Index Error

If the index mirror in a sextant is not set atthe correct angle, there will be asystematic error in the measured Altitudecalled the Index Error.

Dac oglinda index ntr-un sextant nu este setat launghiul corect, va exista oeroare sistematic nAltitudine msurat numit Error Index.

With a marine sextant, it is a simplematter to determine the Index Error eachtime the sextant is used by viewing acelestial body through the horizon mirrorand the via the index mirror at the same

Cu un sextant marin, este o chestiune simplde adetermina Index Eroare de fiecaredat sextanteeste utilizat de vizualizareaunui corp ceresc,prinoglinda orizont i prin oglinda index, n

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time. The two images should coincidewhen the index arm indicates a reading of0 on the arc. Any difference from exactlyzero degrees is the Index Error. Themeasured Altitude can then be corrected

for the Index Error. With a bubble sextant,the Index error needs to be determined bya set of sights on a celestial body such asPolaris (which moves very little in thesky) from a known position. Thedifference between the measured Altitudeand the calculated Altitude is then due toIndex Error. Obviously, it is not possibleto determine the Index Error for a bubblesextant very frequently.

acelai timp. Cele dou imagini ar trebuis coincidatunci candbratul indicele indic o lectur de 0pe arcul. Orice diferen de exact zero gradeesteEroare Index. Altitudine msurat poate f

i apoicorectate de eroare Index. Cu un sextant balon,eroarea Index trebuies fie determinat de un setde obiectiveturistice pe un corp ceresc, cumar fiPolaris (carese mic foarte puin n cer), dintr-opoziie cunoscut. Diferena dintre altitudinemsuratei calculate Altitude este apoi dincauzaIndex eroare. Evident, aceasta nu este posibil s se

determine eroare Index pentru un sextant balonfoarte frecvent.

Local Hour Angle (LHA)

The Local Hour Angle (LHA) is theangular distance to the Meridian of the

celestial body's Geographical Position, asmeasured Westwards from the observer'slocal Meridian.

Local ore Unghi (LHA) este distana unghiular lameridianul de corp ceresc de poziia

geografic,ca spre vest msurat dela Meridianobservatorului local.

The Local Hour Angle is calculated fromthe Greewich Hour Angle (GHA) of thecelestial body and the Longitude of yourEstimated Position in the following way:

Local Hour Angle se calculeaz dela oreGreewich Unghi (GHA) din corp ceresc ilongitudine ale poziiei dumneavoastr estimat nfelul urmtor:

LHA = GHA - Longitude, if the Longitude is WestLHA = GHA + Longitude, if the Longitude is East

Meridian

A Meridian is a Great Circle line whichpasses through the poles of the earth. A

Un Meridian este o mare linie de cerccare trece prin poli

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local Meridian is one that passes throughthe observer's local position. TheGreenwich Meridian passes throughGreenwich, England, and is defined ashaving 0 Longitude.

ai Pmntului. Un local Meridian esteunacare trece prin poziia observatorului local.Meridian Greenwich trece prin Greenwich,Anglia,i este definit ca avnd 0 Longitudine.

Nautical Almanac

The "Nautical Almanac" is published byHer Majesty's Stationary Office in theUnited Kingdom and by the USGovernment Printing Office in the UnitedStates. It gives the positions for the Sun,

the Moon, the visible planets and 58selected stars for each day of one year,from which the Geographical Position ofthose celestial bodies may be obtained. Italso has a concise set ofSight ReductionTables.

"Almanahul Nautic" este publicat de HerMajesty'sOffice staionare n RegatulUnit i de ctreGuvernulSUA Printing Office n Statele Unite.Acestaofer posturi

pentru Soare, Luna, planetelevizibile i 58 stele selectate pentru fiecare zi de unan, din care poziia geografic a acestor corpuri ceresti se pot obine. Ea are, deasemenea, un setconcis de tabelele dereducere Sight.

The so called "Navigational Triangle" is aspherical triangle formed on the earth'ssurface by the North Pole (true North), theobserver's Estimated Position and theGeographical Position of the celestial body.These points are connected by Great Circles,two of which are Meridians. One Meridian isthe Longitude for the Estimated Position andthe other is the Greenwhich Hour Angle ofthe Geographical Position.

aa-numitele "navigaie Triangle" este un triunghisferic format pe suprafaa pmntului dectrePolul Nord (adevrat deNord), Poziiaobservatorului estimat i poziiageografic acorpului ceresc. Aceste puncte sunt conectate prinMarea Cercuri, dintrecaredou sunt meridiane.Una Meridian este L

ongitudine pentru poziiaestimat, iarcellalteste Greenwhich ore Unghide poziiageografic.

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There are six angles associated with anyspherical triangle. In the Navigationaltriangle, three of these angles are known,leaving three unknown angles. We need tofind two of them to determine theAzimuth and the calculated Altitude.

Exist ase unghiuri asociate cu orice triunghisferic. n triunghiul de navigaie, treidintre acesteunghiuri sunt cunoscute, lsnd trei unghiurinecunoscute. Avem nevoiede a agsi doi dintre eipentru adetermina Azimuth i calculate Altitudine .

The calculated Altitude is derived fromthe angle 90- Alt. which is shown in thedrawing. When this angle is zero forexample, the celestial body will bedirectly overhead and the Altitude of thecelestial body will be 90 above thehorizon.

Altitudine calculat este derivat din unghi 90 - Alt.care este prezentat n desen. Cnd acest unghieste zero, deexemplu, corpul ceresc va fi directdeasupracapului i Altitudine de corp ceresc va fi de90 deasupra orizontului.

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Similarly, the Azimuth angle shown is theobverse of the included angle in the

triangle which is actually calculated. It isshown this way because the Azimuth isdefined as the bearing of the GeographicalPosition as measured clockwise from trueNorth. If the GP and the EP were swappedover in this diagram, the Azimuth wouldthen be the included angle in the triangle.

n mod similar, unghiulde azimut indicat esteaversul de unghiul din t

riunghiul care este defaptcalculat. Se arat n acest fel,deoarece Terra estedefinit ca poart de poziia geografic ca sensul acelor de ceasornic msurat de la TrueNorth. n cazul n care GP i PE aufost schimbate peste naceast diagram, Terra ar fi unghiul incluse ntriunghi.

Using the Estimated Position and theGeographical Position as inputs, SightReduction Tables will give the calculatedAltitude and Azimuth as outputs.However, it is fairly easy to derive thecalculated Altitude and Azimuth on acalculator using the equations:

Folosind poziia estimat i poziia geografic caintrri, Mese de reducerea Sight va da Altitudinecalculate i Terra ca ieiri. Cu toate acestea, este destul deuor pentru aobine Altitudine calculatei Terra peun calculator cu ajutorul ecuaiilor: -

Here, Dec. is the Declination of thecelestial body, Lat. is the Latitude of yourestimated position and LHA is the LocalHour Anglebetween the two positions.

(Use the convention that Declinations andLatitudes South of the equator arenegative.)

Aici, decembrie este Declinaia corp ceresc,Lat.Latitude este de poziia estimat i LHAesteLocal ore Unghiul dintre cele doupoziii. (Utilizaiconvenie care Declinations

i Latitude sud deecuator sunt negative.)

The Azimuth derived using these azimut derivate folosind aceste formule va fi

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formulae will always be an angle less than90, so a correction will need to madedepending on the Azimuth Quadrant inwhich the observed celestial body islocated.

ntotdeauna un unghi mai mic de 90 , astfelnct o corecie va trebui s face n funciede QuadrantTerra n care organismul observate ceresc se afl.

If the observed body is in the WEST andSOUTH, add 180 to obtain the correctAzimuth.If the observed body is in the WEST andNORTH, subtract the derived Azimuth

from 360 to obtain the correct Azimuth.If the observed body is in the EAST andSOUTH, subtract the derived Azimuthfrom 180 to obtain the correct Azimuth.If the observed body is in the EAST andNORTH, the derived Azimuth is correct.

n cazul ncare organismul este observat n vest isud, se adaug 180 pentrua obine corectTerra.n cazul n

care organismul este observat n vest inord, scade Terra derivate de la 360 pentru a obine corect Terra.n cazul ncare organismul este observat n Est i deSud, scade Terra derivate de la 180 pentruaobine corect Terra.n cazul ncare organismul este observat n estul inordul, Terra derivat este corect.

Position, Estimated

The Estimated Position is the latitude andlongitude at which the observer estimateshis position to be, before fixing his actualposition with the use of a sextant.

Poziia estimat este de latitudine ilongitudine lacare observator estimrile poziia sa s fie, nainte de astabili poziia real cu utilizarea unui sextant.

Position, FixedThe Fixed Position is the latitude andlongitude at which two or more PositionLines intersect on the map or chart.

poziie fix este de latitudine ilongitudine la caredou sau maimulte Pozitie se intersecteaz liniilede pe hart sau diagram.

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Position Line

When you measure the Altitude of acelestial body with a sextant, you knowyou are somewhere on a circle of equalAltitude which can be drawn upon theearth's surface, centred on theGeographical Position (GP). On the muchsmaller scale of a map or chart, the circle

of equal Altitude approximates to astraight line running through it. This lineis called the Position Line. Usually youcan be reasonably sure that you aresomewhere near yourEstimated Position(EP), so you will be somewhere on thePosition Line as drawn on the map or

Cnd msura altitudine aunui corp ceresc cu unsextant, tii csuntei undeva pe un cerc de egalAltitudine care pot fitrase pe suprafaa pmntului,centrat pe poziia geografic (GP). Pe scara multmai mica de o

hart sau diagram, cercul de egalAltitudineaproximeaz cu o linie dreapt care treceprin ea. Aceast linie senumeste liniapoziia. Deobicei, putei fi suficient de sigurc vsunt undeva napropierea Poziia dumneavoastrestimat (P

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chart. E), aa c va fi undeva pe linia de poziie isunt trase de pe hart sau diagram.

Using the GeograpEstimated PositionTables will give yfrom the Estimatefor the Azimuth frPosition to the Ge

To construct a Posor chart, an Azimu

from the EstimateLine is drawn at 9drawn at a distancPosition equal to tthe calculated andthe measured Altitthan the calculatedposition is closer tposition than the Ethe Position Line i

Geographical Posi

If the measured Altitude is less than thecalculated Altitude, your actual position isfurther away from the GeographicalPosition than your Estimated Position. Acontra-Azimuth line is drawn from theEstimated Position at an angle equal to theAzimuth + 180. The Position Line is thendrawn at 90 to this line.

n cazul n care Altitudine msurat este maimic dect calculat Altitudine, poziiadumneavoastr actual este maideparte de poziia geograficdect poziia dvs. estimat. O linie de contra-Terraeste trasat de la poziiaestimat la un unghi egalcu Terra + 180. Line Poziia este apoi trase la 90 la aceast linie.

Refraction

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Having passed through the vacuum ofouter space, the light from the celestialbody has to pass through the atmospherebefore it is observed using a sextant. Theatmosphere tends to bend the path of the

light as it passes through, so that thecelestial body appears higher in the skythan it would be if there was noatmosphere.

Care au trecut prin vacuum de spaiulcosmic,lumina de la corpul ceresc trebuies treac prinatmosfer nainte de afi observat folosind unsextant. Atmosfera tinde s ndoii calea de luminace

trece prin, astfel nct corpul ceresc apare mai mare n cer dect ar fi dac nu arexista atmosfera.

A calculated Altitude assumes the earthhas no atmosphere, so the sextant Altitude

has to be corrected for Refraction so thatit can be compared to the calculatedAltitude. Refraction tables are alwaysincluded in Almanacs used for celestialnavigation.

O altitudine de calculat presupune pmnt nuareatmosfera, astfel sextante Altitudine trebu

ie s fiecorectat de refracie astfel nct spoat ficomparate cu Altitudine calculate. Tabele de refracie sunt ntotdeauna inclusen almanahuriutilizate pentrunavigaie ceresc.

Sight Reduction Tables

Sight Reduction Tables are sets of tablesfrom which the calculated Altitude andAzimuth of a celestial body may beobtained from an Estimated Position.They range from a set of volumes thatwould fill a long shelf, to slim volumes of"concise" sight reduction tables. Ingeneral, the larger the volume(s) of tables,the quicker they are to use. TheNautical

Almanac has a set of concise sightreduction tables in the back, as does the"Long Term Almanac 2000 - 2050" byGeoffrey Kolbe.

Tabelele Reducerea Sight sunt seturi de mesede la care Altitudine calculat i Terra aunui corpceresc poate fi obinut dintr-o poziie estimat.Acestea variaz dela un set de volume care arputea umple un raft lung, la volume de subire"concise" tabele de reducerea vederii. n general,maimare volum (e) din tabele, cu atat mai

repedeacestea sunt de autiliza. Almanahul Nautic areunset de tabele concise reducere vedere inspate, la fel ca "pe termenlung Almanahul 2000 -2050" deGeoffrey Kolbe.

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http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Altitude+(triangle)

elevation [ l ve n]

1. the act of elevating or the state of being elevated2. the height of something above a given or implied place, esp above sea level3. a raised area; height4. nobleness or grandeur; loftiness elevation of thought5. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Architecture) a drawing to scale of the external face of abuilding or structure Compareplan [3] ground plan [1]6. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Architecture) the external face of a building or structure

7. (Performing Arts / Ballet) a ballet dancer's ability to leap high8. (Christianity / Roman Catholic Church)RC Church the lifting up of the Host at Massfor adoration9. (Astronomy)Astronomy another name foraltitude [3]10. (Military / Firearms, Gunnery, Ordnance & Artillery) the angle formed between themuzzle of a gun and the horizontal11. (Mathematics & Measurements / Surveying) Surveyingthe angular distance betweenthe plane through a point of observation and an object above it Compare depression [7]12.Linguistics another term foramelioration