Catechesis and Mystagogy in St. Ephrem the Syrian: The Liturgy of

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Boston UniversityOpenBU http://open.bu.eduTheses & Dissertations STH Theses and Dissertations

2013-05

Catechesis and Mystagogy in St.Ephrem the Syrian: The Liturgy ofBaptism and the Madrashe

Kim, Jung

https://hdl.handle.net/2144/8464Boston University

BOSTON UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY

Dissertation

CATECHESIS AND MYSTAGOGY IN ST. EPHREM THE SYRIAN:

THE LITURGY OF BAPTISM AND THE MADRASHE

By

Jung Kim

(B.A. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 1989; M.A., Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, 1993; M.Div., Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, 2001;

Th.M., Emory University School of Candler, 2004)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Theology

2013

Copyright 2013 by Jung Kim All rights reserved

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .. ix

Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . 1 Fresh Reading of Ephrems Madrashe ( )

Method and Content Sources and Translations Terms and Definitions Problems in Catechetical and Liturgical Understanding of Ephrem

II. EPHREM AND HIS WORLD .15

Fourth Century Nisibis and Edessa Christian Communities

Language and Culture Asceticism and Baptism

The Baptismal Ethos in Asceticism Bnay/Bnat Qyama ( / ): Ascetic Baptismal Community Ihidaya ( ): Ascetic Baptismal Individual

Ephrems Works and the Catechetical School Madrashe ( ) and the Role of Bnat Qyama ( ) The Rise and Function of the Catechetical School

III. THE CATECHUMENATE .52 Ephrem in the Catechumenate

Ephrem the Catechumen Ephrem the Exegete

Didactic Offices in the Catechumenate Sim ( ): Speaker of Liturgical Reading Drsh ( Instructor of the Scriptures :(Cn ( ): Priest

Three Liturgical Orders in the Catechumenate The Hearers: Taksa dShamue ( )

The Signed: Taksa dRshime ( ) The Baptizands: Taksa dAmide( )

IV. THE LITURGY OF BAPTISM106

Prebaptismal Fasting: The Holy Fasting of Forty Days ( (

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Fasting and Prayer Fasting and Scripture Reading Fasting and Vigil Silence of the Daily Exorcism during the Forty Days of Fasting

Anointing: Prebaptismal Rite Odes of Solomon The Acts of Thomas Demonstrations of Aphrahat

Ephrems Understanding of Anointing Baptism

Administration of Baptism Sanctification of the Baptismal Water Baptism by Immersion Diving down Image of Baptism Baptism in the Name of Trinity Fire and Spirit in the Baptism Whitening

Eucharist Ephrems Terminology of the Eucharist: Qurbana ( )

The Eucharist within the Initiation Rites V. EPHREMS MYSTAGOGY .... 159

Ephrem as a Mystagogical Figure

Content and Method Pastoral and Liturgical Dimensions of Mystagogy Ephrems Ongoing Mystagogy

Ephrems Mystagogy on Removal of Clothing Moral Implications of the Clothing Metaphor Eschatological Implications of the Robe of Glory

Ephrems Mystagogy on Anointing Oil and Anointing

Ephrems Mystagogy on Baptism Baptism as Birth Christ in the Baptismal Womb of the Jordan The Robe of Glory in the Baptismal Water Baptism as Betrothal to Christ

Ephrems Mystagogy on the Incarnation Christs Putting on the Garment Putting on the Robe of Glory Re-entering Paradise in the Robe of Glory

Ephrems Mystagogy on the Eucharist The Eucharist as the Medicine of Life Spiritual Instruction in the Eucharistic Celebration

VI. EPHREMS FAITH FORMATIONAL METHODOLOGY.195

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Key Features of Ephrems Methodology Scriptural Formation Song-actions and Body-learning: madrashe in a Ritual Form Mystagogical Reflection through Baptismal Language Continual Reaffirmation in Liturgy

Rhetorical Strategies of Ephrems Methodology Inclusio Symbol

Paradox Typological Juxtaposition

VII. CONCLUSION ..221 BIBLIOGRAPHY .226

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

While thinking, reading, re-thinking, and writing, I have experienced deeply joyful

gratitude. My deepest gratitude is to my advisor, Dr. Karen Westerfield Tucker. She inspired my

interest and intellect to soar upward in joy and comfort, by supplying guideposts in her extensive

yet accurate notes that accompanied the more than 75,000 words of this dissertation. She not

only thoroughly read my writings but also proofread while making multiple editorial changes

and numerous deletions, even with her own cruel schedule. Her thoughtful advice made this

study a concrete embodiment of my abstract thinking, by balancing probabilities when I faltered

either in the lack of resources, or in the midst of romantic nostalgia for the liturgy that originated

from Jesus and the disciples. I am thankful for her support in enlarging and broadening my

academic insight and experience in the world of liturgy through recommending my membership

in Societas Liturgica; that committees financial scholarship allowed me to participate in the

conference in Reims, France, in 2011. I would like to dedicate this dissertation to you, Dr.

Westerfield Tucker!

I am also deeply thankful to Dr. John Baldovin. Despite his highly academic knowledge

of liturgy, he respected my novice-like questions in his Medieval liturgy class. He supported the

process of my doctoral degree program as a second reader both of my major comprehension

exam and my oral exam, and now as a reader of on my reading committee as a liturgy specialist

from Boston College. I was also honored with his generous recommendation to membership in

Societas Liturgica. He provided huge academic hospitality by reading my weekly journal entries

on Christian Baptism, which organized in structure my time during dissertation writing. It was

like Isaiahs proclamation, Come, buy wine and milk without money and without price, since I

gained profound and savory insight from his classes whether with credits or not.

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To my reading committee, I am grateful for their thorough reading and thoughtful

comments. Dr. Christopher Browns historical prism expanded my perspective for envisioning

the early liturgy in a wider context of church history. Dean Mary Elizabeth Moores elaborate

comments, in particular, beauty begets beauty, will be my future further studies, enriching my

liturgical view. I am also indebted to Dr. Claire Wolfteich, whose practical advice guided me to

think constructively about my idealization of the early church liturgy in relation to a concrete,

contemporary society.

I am sincerely and heartily grateful to Dr. Don E. Saliers. His influence has been

embodied in the dissertation title, which was Catechesis and Mystagogy. The advice he gave to

me and the lectures he presented in class still undergird my attitude as a minister working in an

academic vineyard. As his classes unfolded, they became his catechesis and mystagogy to let us

know the mystery of God. He initiated me into the world of liturgy, especially the early church

liturgy. My words and insights in this study echo his teaching consciously and unconsciously.

My great joyfulness of gratitude is for my husband, Jaekyu Hyun, and my daughter, Seo-

Young Hyun. How beautiful and how grateful it is to us that we have been talking together

around our everyday table in love and awe about God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, and His

people, the Church. Lets joyfully embark on the tale of Paradise over timea tale that is short

to read but rich to explore. (St. Ephrem the Syrian in Hymns on Paradise 1:3)

May 1, 2013

Boston University

Jung Kim

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CATECHECIS AND MYSTAGOGY IN ST. EPHREM THE SYRIAN:

THE LITURGY OF BAPTISM AND THE MADRASHE

(Order No. )

Jung Kim

Doctor of Theology

Boston University School of Theology, 2013

Major Professor: Karen Westerfield Tucker, Professor of Worship

ABSTRACT

Ephrems madrashe (catechetical hymns sung in the liturgy) held a distinctive role in

early Syriac-speaking Christianity, and were remarkable not only for the catechetical and

mystagogical characteristics that they contributed in public worship, but also for the poetic and

lyrical features that were displayed when performed by female liturgical choirs (Bnat Qyama).

This study investigates the context and content of Ephrems madrashe, with an emphasis on the

catechumenate and the liturgy of baptism, both of which have an overall bearing on his

mystagogy. The poetic and hymnic characteristics of his madrashe enable Ephrem to be

recognized as a poetic theologian. Furthermore, the catechetical and mystagogical characteristics

of his madrashe also serve to identify him as a mystagogical figure.

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Ephrems madrashe and the Syriac Vita tradition of Ephrem serve as key sources for

studying the catechumenate, the liturgy of baptism, Ephrems mystagogy and his faith

formational methodology. The following methodological features are discussed: scriptural

formation, song-actions and body-learning, mystagogical reflection, and continual reaffirmation

through liturgical participation. Ephrems rhetorical strategies in his madrashe are also examined,

namely inclusio, symbol, paradox, and typological