Career Progress in Online and BlendedLearning Environments
Melissa DeRosier, Ph.D., Rebecca Kameny, Ph.D., Wendy Holler, M.A.
Naomi Ornstein Davis, Ph.D., Emily Maschauer, M.S.
Objective: The authors examined the career achievement ofearly- and mid-career researchers in social, behavioral, andmental health who participated in a career-developmentconference.
Method: Trainees participated in a career-development conferenceeither through attending a live conference supplemented with anonline version of the conference (Combined: N=46) or through theonline version of the conference alone (Web-Only: N=60). Anobjective measure tracked the trainees publications, involvement inresearch projects, honors and grant awards, collaborations, andscientic presentations before and 9 months after participation inthe career-development conference.
Results: Statistical analysis showed that trainees improved foreach category measured, with no signicant differences acrossthe Combined and Web-Only groups. The strongest variableaffecting improvement was Time, and the most signicant timeeffect was seen in the production of presentations and publications.A signicant Gender difference was present, with women showinggreater total career progress than men.
Conclusion: Career-development conferences can supportcareer growth for trainees. Online training provides a cost-effective and time-efcient alternative to in-person methods,while still enhancing key markers of career progress.
Academic Psychiatry 2013; 37:98103
Training and supporting the pool of mental health re-searchers required for a thriving research communityis difcult in part because of the length of time between ed-ucation and research career independence (1). For example,the average age for receiving a National Institutes of Healthindependent research grant was 36 in 1981, but 42 in 2010(2). During this time, nancial and professional pressurescan drive talented individuals out of research and into otherelds (3).Career-development conferences contribute to the reten-
tion of high-quality researchers by providing informationspecic to a research career, such as the grant submissionprocess, as well as information generally applicable to allearly-career professionals, such as nding a worklife bal-ance (4). Conferences can also offer survival skills train-ing by providing techniques for and examples of successfulresearch career skills such as writing and negotiation strat-egies (5). Also, programs can facilitate the development ofmentoring skills and relationships in a context where bothsenior and junior scholars can benet (6, 7).
Career-Development Conferences Online
Although career-development conferences provide anestablished forum for continuing education, the costs ofattending conferences in person can be prohibitive (810).Online conference dissemination may be a viable methodfor extending the value of career-development conferences.Conference websites, for example, can reduce registrationand travel costs and increase international exposure forconference materials and ideas (11). Online conferencematerial also allows researchers to t educational time intoa busy schedule and supports different learning preferences(12).Previous work has shown that conference materials
adapted for online training can yield similar knowledgegains when compared with in-person training (13). These
Received July 20, 2011; revised September 21, 2011, January 26, 2012;accepted February 15, 2012. From the 3-C Institute for Social Develop-ment, Cary, NC. Send correspondence to Dr. Melissa DeRosier; e-mail:email@example.comCopyright 2013 Academic Psychiatry
98 http://ap.psychiatryonline.org Academic Psychiatry, 37:2, March-April 2013
ndings are consistent with the no signicant differencetheory, which holds that qualities other than the trainingmedium drive success for online education (14). In otherwords, online and in-person instruction are generally botheffective for conveying knowledge when the same in-struction methods are used (see references 1518 forreviews).
Three objectively measurable research skills are wellrecognized as indicators of scientic development: runningsuccessful research projects, writing publications, and se-curing honors or grant awards. Several of the major career-development institutes explicitly list writing and earninggrants in their mission statements (1921). Furthermore,grants completed, papers published, and honors received areall used to measure excellence of scientic contributionsduring tenure decisions (2224).Scientic collaborations and presentations also provide
benecial experience to early-career researchers. Collabo-rations can be formal or informal and range from brain-storming to results- or expertise-sharing (25). Sharing dataand experiences is particularly useful because it can in-uence scientic perspectives and challenge assumptions,especially at international levels (26). Collaboration mayalso improve researchers chances for publication (27),a critical yet often challenging accomplishment for early-career researchers. Finally, scientic presentations empha-size both the cognitive and the social elements of careerdevelopment (28) by offering professional and networkingbenets for the individual researcher as well as providinga forum for disseminating scientic ndings.The current study examines online and in-person career-
development training and the career advancement ofattendees. Data are presented from 106 trainees who par-ticipated in three different career-development institutes:the 2008 Career Development Institute (CDI) for BipolarDisorder, the 2008 CDI for Psychiatry, and the 2008Leadership Training Institute (LTI). Thework contributes tothe question of how online and in-person research trainingcan positively affect career change.
ParticipantsParticipants in the current study included 106 trainees
who participated in one of three career-development insti-tutes, each of which took place during the spring of 2008:
CDI for Bipolar Disorder (N=41), CDI for Psychiatry(N=41), and LTI (N=24). All participants were either early-career or mid-career researchers. Of the 106 participants,75% percent of the participants were early-career, and 25%were mid-career. Early-career was dened as havingobtained a terminal degree, having fewer than 10 peer-reviewed publications, and either having or seeking full-time employment in a research career (e.g., applying fora K award; rst-year assistant professor status). Mid-careerwas dened as having obtained a terminal degree, havinga broader range and higher number of peer-reviewed pub-lications than early-career individuals, possibly having re-ceived some research funding but not yet being fullyindependent, and having some experience in a researchcareer (e.g., receiving an R03 award; associate professorstatus).The sample of trainees included 66% women and 34%
men with a self-identied racial/ethnic distribution of 71%White, 15% Asian, and 14% Black, with 14% of the totalsample reporting being of Hispanic descent. Chi-squareanalyses showed no signicant differences across thethree conferences by gender, career level, or ethnicity.However, signicant differences in race were found (x2=35.30; p ,0.0001) where more Black (50% for the LTIversus 4% for the CDIs) and fewer White trainees (33% forthe LTI versus 81% for the CDIs) participated in the LTIthan in the other two conferences. This difference reectsthe fact that the LTI was designed specically for womenand minority researchers.
ProceduresThis study received expedited Institutional ReviewBoard
approval. Conference organizers solicited applications fortheir conference via national researcher list-servs, e-mail noti-cations to academic departments in relevant elds across thecountry, and advertisements in relevant professional organiza-tion publications. Each application required completion of anonline form, submission of a CV, a statement of research ex-perience and/or interests, and at least one letter of recommen-dation.More than 285 researchers applied for the three trainingprograms, and attendees were competitively selected by theconference organizers, with a selection rate of approximately50% of applicants.Participants for this study were recruited from the list of
conference attendees, aswell as recommendations of conferencefaculty and direct e-mails to early- and mid-career researcherswhosepublicationsmatched the conferences respective areas ofspecialty. Study participants lled out an online or hardcopyconsent form before completing pre-conference questionnaires.
Academic Psychiatry, 37:2, March-April 2013 http://ap.psychiatryonline.org 99
DEROSIER ET AL.
Participants had access to the career-development conferencesthrough one of two conditions: 1) combination of in-person andonline training (Combined: N=46), where participants attendedthe institute and also had subsequent access to the conferencematerials online; and 2)Web-Only training (Web-Only: N=60),where trainees had access to the conference materials-onlyonline. Chi-square analysis showed no differences across theCombined and Web-Only conditions by conference, gender,race, Hispanic status, or career-level.To maintain a high level of quality for the online com-
ponent, live conference presentations were videotaped andadapted for online display (12). The online presentationsprovided viewing options that appealed to different learningpreferences (e.g., full video presentation with transcript,slides and transcript only, transcript-alone). The mp3 audioles and slides for each presentation were also available fordownload. An online bulletin board, a downloads area,a links page, and faculty bio pages were also provided foreach conference.