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  • Governance, Conservation and Development in Canada’s Boreal

    S t a t e o f t h e D e b a t e

  • © National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, 2005

    All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping or information retrieval systems – without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

    Boreal futures : governance, conservation and development in Canada’s boreal : state of the debate report.

    Issued also in French under title: Avenir boréale : la gouvernance, la conservation et le développement dans la région boréale du Canada : rapport de la série L’État du débat.

    Includes bibliographical references.

    ISBN 1-894737-11-3

    1. Boreal Shield Ecozone–Management. 2. Taigas–Canada–Management. I. NRTEE Boreal Forest Program Task Force II. Title.

    HC120.E5B67 2005 333.75 C2005-906454-4

    This book is printed on Environmental Choice paper containing 20 percent post-consumer fibre, using vegetable inks.

    National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy

    344 Slater Street, Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1R 7Y3 Tel.: (613) 992-7189 Fax: (613) 992-7385 E-mail: admin@nrtee-trnee.ca Web: www.nrtee-trnee.ca

    Other publications available from the National Round Table State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy Series:

    1. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Water and Wastewater Services in Canada

    2. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Private Woodlot Management in the Maritimes

    3. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: The Road to Sustainable Transportation in Canada

    4. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Greening Canada’s Brownfield Sites

    5. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Managing Potentially Toxic Substances in Canada

    6. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Aboriginal Communities and Non-renewable Resource Development

    7. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators for Canada

    8. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Environmental Quality in Canadian Cities: the Federal Role

    9. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Securing Canada’s Natural Capital: A Vision for Nature Conservation in the 21st Century

    10. State of the Debate on the Environment and the Economy: Economic Instruments for Long-term Reductions in Energy-based Carbon Emissions

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  • Governance, Conservation and Development in Canada’s Boreal

  • ◗ About Us

    The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) is dedicated to exploring new opportunities to integrate environmental preservation and economic development, in order to sustain Canada’s prosperity and secure its future.

    Drawing on the wealth of insight and experience represented by our diverse membership, our mission is to generate and promote innovative ways to advance Canada’s environmental and economic interests in combination, rather than in isolation. In this capac- ity, it examines the environmental and economic implications of priority issues and offers advice on how best to reconcile the sometimes competing interests of economic prosperity and environmental preservation.

    The NRTEE was established in 1994 as an independent advisory body reporting to governments and the Canadian public. Appointed by the Prime Minister, our members are distinguished leaders in business and labour, universities, environmental organizations, Aboriginal communities and municipalities.

    ◗ How We Work

    The NRTEE is structured as a round table in order to facilitate the unfettered exchange of ideas. By offering our members a safe haven for discussion, the NRTEE helps reconcile positions that have traditionally been at odds.

    The NRTEE is also a coalition builder, reaching out to organizations that share our vision for sustainable development. We believe that affiliation with like- minded partners will spark creativity and generate the momentum needed for success.

    And finally, the NRTEE acts as an advocate for positive change, raising awareness among Canadians and their governments about the challenges of sustainable development and promoting viable solutions.

    We also maintain a secretariat, which commissions and analyzes the research required by our members in their work. The secretariat also furnishes administrative, pro- motional and communications support to the NRTEE.

    The NRTEE’s State of the Debate reports synthesize the results of stakeholder consultations on potential opportunities for sustainable development. They summarize the extent of consensus and reasons for disagreements, review the consequences of action or inaction, and recommend steps specific stakeholders can take to promote sustainability.

    Boreal Futures: Governance, Conservation and Development in Canada’s Boreal iii

    NRTEE MANDATE◗

  • Chair Glen Murray Toronto, Ontario

    Vice-Chair Allan F. Amey President & CEO Climate Change Central Calgary, Alberta

    Vice-Chair Edythe A. Marcoux Gibsons, British Columbia

    Elyse Allan President & CEO GE Canada Toronto, Ontario

    David V.J. Bell Professor Emeritus, Senior Scholar and Former Dean Faculty of Environmental Studies York University Toronto, Ontario

    Katherine M. Bergman Dean, Faculty of Science University of Regina Regina, Saskatchewan

    William J. Borland Director, Environmental Affairs JD Irving Limited Saint John, New Brunswick

    Wendy L. Carter Vancouver, British Columbia

    Linda Coady Vice-President, Sustainability Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Vancouver, British Columbia

    Richard Drouin Chairman Board of Abitibi Consolidated and Stelco Montreal, Quebec

    Linda Louella Inkpen St. Phillips, Newfoundland and Labrador

    Stephen Kakfwi Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    David Kerr Executive Chairman Noranda Inc. Toronto, Ontario

    Manon Laporte President & CEO Enviro-Access Sherbrooke, Quebec

    Diane Frances Malley President PDK Projects Inc. Nanaimo, British Columbia

    Audrey McLaughlin Whitehorse, Yukon

    Patrice Merrin Best President & CEO Luscar Ltd. Edmonton, Alberta

    Alfred Pilon Corporate Secretary Office franco-québécois pour la jeunesse Montreal, Quebec

    Darren Allan Riggs Marketing and Sales Manager Superior Sanitation Services Ltd. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island

    Keith Stoodley Vice-President OceanTouch Paradise, Newfoundland and Labrador

    Sheila Watt-Cloutier Chair, Inuit Circumpolar Conference Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Judy Williams Partner MacKenzie Fujisawa LLP Vancouver, British Columbia

    Steve Williams Executive Vice-President, Oil Sands Suncor Energy Inc. Fort McMurray, Alberta

    Eugene Nyberg Acting President & CEO NRTEE

    Boreal Futures: Governance, Conservation and Development in Canada’s Boreal v

    NRTEE MEMBERS◗

  • NRTEE MANDATE iii

    NRTEE MEMBERS v

    PREFACE ix

    BOREAL FOREST PROGRAM TASK FORCE MEMBERS xi

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xiii

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Looking at the Future of Canada’s Boreal 2

    1.2 The Boreal Forest Program 3

    1.3 The State of the Debate Report 4

    2. CANADA’S BOREAL TODAY 7

    2.1 Overview of the Boreal 8

    2.2 Why Canada’s Boreal Matters 11

    2.3 Key Interests in the Boreal 13

    2.4 Trends Affecting the Future of the Boreal 15

    2.5 State of the Debate: The Boreal Today 21

    3. CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE BOREAL: OPPORTUNITIES FOR GOVERNANCE ACTIONS 23

    3.1 Leadership, Education and Information 25

    3.2 Economic Instruments 33

    3.3 Planning and Regulatory Processes 38

    3.4 Aboriginal Peoples’ Engagement 44

    4. BOREAL FUTURES: CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 51

    APPENDICES 57

    Appendix A: Summary of Case Studies 58

    Appendix B: Program Participants 67

    Appendix C: Summary of Recent Canadian Initiatives Related to the Boreal 80

    SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 87

    ENDNOTES 90

    Boreal Futures: Governance, Conservation and Development in Canada’s Boreal vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS◗

  • The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) established the Securing Canada’s Natural Capital: The Boreal Forest program to examine how to advance conservation in balance with economic activity on public lands allocated for resource development in Canada’s boreal through regulatory and fiscal policy reform.

    The impetus for this program stemmed largely from the findings of the NRTEE’s Conservation of Natural Heritage program, which determined that the boreal region is of prime importance to Canada and Canadians – ecologically, economically, and socially, and that a time-limited opport