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    IntroductionNationalismwas an important factor in the development ofEurope.In the 19th century, a wave ofromantic

    nationalismswept the European continent, transforming its countries. Some newly formed countries, such as Germany,

    Italy andRomaniawere formed by uniting various regional states with a common "national identity". Others, such as

    Greece, Poland and Bulgaria, were formed by winning their independence.

    storming of the Bastille

    TheFrench Revolutionpaved the way for the modernnation-stateand also had a big part in the birth of nationalism.

    Across Europe radicalintellectuals,influenced byNapoleonand theNapoleonic Codethe instrument for

    thepoliticaltransformation of Europe. Revolutionary armies carried the slogan of "liberty, equality and brotherhood" and

    ideas ofliberalismand national self-determinism. National awakening also grew out of anintellectualreaction to

    theEnlightenmentthat emphasizednational identityand developed aromantic viewofculturalself-expression

    throughnationhood.The key exponent of the modern idea of thenation-statewas the GermanG. W. Friedrich Hegel.

    He argued that a sense ofnationalitywas the cement that held modernsocietiestogether in the age when

    dynasticandreligiousallegiance was in decline. In 1815, at the end of theNapoleonic wars,the major powers of Europe

    tried to restore the olddynasticsystem as far as possible, ignoring the principle ofnationalityin favour of "legitimism",the assertion oftraditionalclaims to royal authority. With most of Europe's peoples still loyal to their

    localprovinceorcity,nationalism was confined to small groups ofintellectualsandpoliticalradicals.

    Furthermore,political repression,symbolized by theCarlsbad Decreespublished inAustriain 1819,

    pushednationalistagitation underground.


    180415,Serbian Revolutionagainst theOttoman Empire 1815,Congress of Vienna
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    1821-29,Greek War of Independenceagainst theOttoman Empire

    1830-31,Belgian Revolution

    1830-31,Revolution in Poland and Lithuania

    1846,Uprising in Greater Poland

    1848, Nationalist revolts inHungary,ItalyandGermany(includingPolish revolt in Greater Poland).

    1859-61,Italy unified.

    1863,Polish national revolt.

    1866-71,Germany unified.

    1867,Hungarygranted autonomy.

    1867,IrishFenian uprising

    1878,Congress of Berlin:Serbia,RomaniaandMontenegrogranted independence, after they won the war against

    the Ottoman Empire.

    190308,Macedonian Struggle

    1908,Bulgariabecomes independent.

    1912,Albanian national awakeningAlbania becomes independent.

    The struggle for independence

    A strong resentment of what came to be regarded asforeignrule began to develop.

    InIreland,Italy,Belgium,Greece,Poland,HungaryandNorwaylocal hostility to aliendynasticauthoritystarted to take

    the form ofnationalistagitation.Nationalismcame where an eight-yearwar(18211829) againstOttomanrule led to

    anindependent Greek state;in 1831Belgiumobtainedindependencefrom theNetherlands.Over the next two

    decadesnationalismdeveloped a more powerful voice, spurred bynationalistwriters championing the cause of

    nationalist self-determination. In 1848,revolutionsbroke out acrossEurope,sparked by a severefamineandeconomic

    crisisand mounting popular demand forpoliticalchange. InItalyGiuseppe Mazziniused the opportunity to encourage a

    war mission: "A people destined to achieve great things for the welfare of humanity must one day or other be constituted

    a nation".

    Congress of Berlin1878.

    InHungary,Lajos Kossuthled a national revolt againstAustrianrule; inTransylvania,Avram Iancu(also known

    as Craisorul Muntilor, which means The Prince of the Mountains) led of thenationalistrevolts in 1848 were successful,
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    any more than the two attempts to winPolish independencefromRussianrule in 1831 and 1846 had

    been.Conservativeforces proved too strong, while the majority of the populations little understood the meaning

    ofnational struggle.But the 1848 crisis had givennationalismits first full public airing, and in the thirty years that

    followed no fewer than seven new national states were created inEurope.This was partly the result of the recognition

    byconservativeforces that the old order could not continue in its existing form. Conservative reformers such

    asCavourandBismarckmade common cause withliberalpolitical modernizers to create a consensus for the creation

    ofconservativenation-states inItalyandGermany.In theHabsburg empirea compromise was reached

    withHungariannationalists in 1867 granting them a virtuallyindependent state.In theBalkanstheSerbianexample had

    inspired other national awakenings. Nativehistoryandculturewere rediscovered and appropriated for

    thenationalstruggle. Following a conflict betweenRussiaandTurkey,theGreat Powers met at Berlinin 1878 and

    granted independence toRomania,SerbiaandMontenegroand a limited autonomy toBulgaria.

    Nationalism's growth and export[edit]

    Theodor Herzl.

    The invention of a symbolicnational identitybecame the concern ofracial,ethnicorlinguisticgroups

    throughoutEuropeas they struggled to come to terms with the rise ofmass politics,the decline of thetraditional social

    elites,populardiscriminationandxenophobia.Within theHabsburg empirethe different peoples developed a more mass-

    based, violent and exclusive form ofnationalism.This developed even among theGermansandMagyars,who actually

    benefited from the power-structure of theempire.On theEuropeanperiphery, especially inIrelandandNorway,

    campaigns for nationalindependencebecame more strident. In 1905Norwaywon independence fromSweden,but

    attempts to grantIrelandthe kind ofautonomyenjoyed byHungaryfoundered on the national divisions on

    theislandbetween theCatholicandProtestantpopulations. The Polish attempts to win independence fromRussiahad

    previously proved to be unsuccessful, withPolandbeing the only country in Europe whose autonomy was gradually

    limited rather than expanded throughout the 19th century, as a punishment for the failed uprisings; in 1831 Poland lost

    its status as a formally independent state and was merged into Russia as areal unioncountry and in 1867 she became

    nothing more than just another Russian province. Faced with internal and external resistance toassimilation,as well as

    increased xenophobicanti-Semitism,radical demands began to develop among the statelessJewishpopulation

    ofeasternandcentral Europefor their own national home and refuge. In 1897, inspired by the Hungarian-born JewishnationalistTheodor Herzl,theFirst Zionist Congresswas held inBasle,and declared their national 'home' should be,_Count_of_Cavour,_Count_of_Cavour,_Count_of_Cavour,_Count_of_Cavour
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    inPalestine.By the end of the period, the ideals ofEuropeannationalismhad been exported worldwide and were now

    beginning to develop, and both compete and threaten the empires ruled bycolonialEuropean nation-states.

    Seberian revolution against Ottoman empire

    The Serbian Revolutionrefers to thenationaluprising active between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory

    evolved from anOttoman provinceinto aconstitutional monarchyand a modernSerbia.[1][2]The first part of the period,

    from 1804 to 1815, was marked by a violent struggle for independence from theOttoman Empirewith two armed

    uprisings taking place, ending with a ceasefire. The later period (18151835) witnessed a peaceful consolidation of

    political power of the increasingly autonomous Serbia, culminating in the recognition of the right to hereditary rule

    bySerbian princesin 1830 and 1833 and the territorial expansion of the young monarchy.

    The Ottomans fell behind the Europeans in military technology as the innovation that fed the Empire's forceful

    expansion became stifled by growing religious and intellectual conservatism.[45]But in spite of these difficulties, the

    Empire remained a major expansionist power until theBattle of Viennain 1683, which marked the end ofOttomanexpansion into Europe.

    The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade


    Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Viennawas a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian

    statesmanKlemens Wenzel von Metternich,and held inViennafrom September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of

    the Congress was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from theFrench

    Revolutionary Warsand theNapoleonic Wars.The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries, but to resize the main

    powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for

    republicanism or revolution. France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial

    gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west and 40% of theKingdom of Saxony;Austria gained Venice and

    much of northern Italy. Russia gainedparts of Poland.The new kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just

    months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.

    HistorianPaul Schroederargues that the old formulas for "balance of power" were in fact highly destabilizing and

    predatory. He says the Congress of Vienna avoided them and instead set up rules that produced a stable and benign


    The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known astheConcert of Europe,which was an attempt to forge a peacefulbalance of powerin Europe. It served as a model for

    later organizations such as theLeague of Nationsin 1919 and theUnited Nationsin 1945.
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    Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna.

    The immediate background wasNapoleonic France'sdefeat andsurrender in May 1814,which brought an end to

    twenty-five years of nearly continuous war. Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting triggered

    byNapoleon'sdramatic return from exile and resumption of power in France during theHundred Daysof MarchJuly

    1815. The Congress's "Final Act" was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815.

    In a technical sense, the "Congress of Vienna" was not properly a Congress: it never met inplenary session,and most

    of the discussions occurred in informal, face-to-face, sessions among theGreat Powersof Austria, Britain, France,

    Russia, and sometimes Prussia, with limited or no participation by other delegates. On the other hand, the Congress

    was the first occasion in history where, on a continental scale, national representatives came together to formulate

    treaties, instead of relying mostly on messengers and messages between the several capitals. The Congress of Vienna

    settlement, despite later changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First

    World War in 1914.

    Role of writers & others{romanticism}

    The ideas ofRousseau(1712-1778) and ofJohann Gottfried von Herder(1744-1803) inspired much early Romantic

    nationalism in Europe. In 1784 Herder argued that geography formed the natural economy of a people, and that their

    customs and society would develop along the lines that their basic environment favored.

    From its beginnings in the late 18th century, romantic nationalism has relied upon the existence of a historical ethnic

    culture which meets the romantic ideal;folkloredeveloped as a romantic nationalist concept. TheBrothers Grimm,

    inspired by Herder's writings, put together an idealized collection of tales, which they labeled as authentically German.

    The concept of an inherited cultural patrimony from a common origin rapidly became central to a divisive question within

    romantic nationalism: specifically, is a nation unified because it comes from the same genetic source, that is because of

    race, or is the participation in the organic nature of the "folk" culture self-fulfilling?

    Romantic nationalism formed a key strand in the philosophy ofHegel(1770-1831), who argued that there was a "spirit of

    the age" orzeitgeistthat inhabited a particular people at a particular time, and that, when that people became the active

    determiner of history, it was simply because their cultural and political moment had come. Because of the Germans' role
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    in the Protestant Reformation, Hegel (a Lutheran) argued that his historical moment had seen the Zeitgeistsettle on the

    German-speaking peoples.

    In continental Europe, Romantics had embraced theFrench Revolutionin its beginnings, then found themselves fighting

    the counter-Revolution in the trans-national Imperial system ofNapoleon.The sense of self-determination and national

    consciousness that had enabled revolutionary forces to defeat aristocratic regimes in battle became rallying points for

    resistance against theFrench Empire(1804-1814). InPrussia,the development of spiritual renewal as a means to

    engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others,Johann Gottlieb Fichte(1762-1814), a disciple

    ofKant.The word Volkstum, or "folkhood", was coined in Germany as part of this resistance to Frenchhegemony.

    Fichte expressed the unity of language and nation in his thirteenth address "To the German Nation" in 1806:

    The first, original, and truly natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries. Those who

    speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long

    before any human art begins; they understand each other and have the power of continuing to make themselves

    understood more and more clearly; they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable

    whole.(Kelly, 1968, pp. 190-91)

    Only when each people, left to itself, develops and forms itself in accordance with its own peculiar quality, and

    only when in every people each individual develops himself in accordance with that common quality, as well as

    in accordance with his own peculiar quality-then, and then only, does the manifestation of divinity appear in its

    true mirror as it ought to be; and only a man who either entirely lacks the notion of the rule of law and divine

    order, or else is an obdurate enemy thereto, could take upon himself to want to interfere with that law, which is

    the highest law in the spiritual world!(Kelly, 1968, pp. 197-98)

    Nationalism and revolution[edit]

    In the Balkans, Romantic views of a connection with classical Greece, which inspiredPhilhellenisminfused

    theGreek War of Independence(1821-1832), in which the Romantic poetLord Byrondied of high

    fever.Rossini's operaWilliam Tell(1829) marked the onset of theRomantic Opera,using the centralnational

    mythunifying Switzerland; and in Brussels, a riot (August 1830) after an opera that set a doomed romance

    against a background of foreign oppression (Auber'sLa Muette de Portici)sparked theBelgian Revolutionof

    1830-1831, the first successful revolution in the model of Romantic nationalism.Verdi's opera choruses of an

    oppressed people inspired two generations of patriots in Italy, especially with "Va pensiero" (Nabucco,1842).

    Under the influence of romantic nationalism, among economic and political forces, both Germany and Italy

    found political unity, and movements to create nations similarly based upon ethnic groups would flower in the

    Balkans (see for example, theCarinthian Plebiscite,1920), along the Baltic Sea, and in the interior of Central

    Europe, where in the eventual outcome, theHabsburgssuccumbed to the surge of Romantic

    nationalism.[1]InNorway,romanticism was embodied, not in literature, but in the movement toward a national

    style, both in architecture and in ethos.[2]Earlier, there was a strong romantic nationalist element mixed

    withEnlightenmentrationalism in the rhetoric used inBritish North America,in the colonists'Declaration of

    Independenceand theUnited States Constitutionof 1787, as well as the rhetoric in the wave of revolts, inspired

    by new senses of localized identities, which swept the American colonies of Spain, one after the other, from

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    John Gast,American Progress,(circa 1872) celebratesU.S.romantic nationalism in the form of westward expansion an idea

    known as "Manifest Destiny".

    Romantic nationalism inspired the processes whereby folk epics, retoldlegendsand evenfairy tales,published

    in existing dialects, were combined with a modern syntax to create a "revived" version of a language. Romantic

    nationalists expected patriots to then learn that language and raise their children speaking that language as

    part of a general program to establish a unique identity. "Landsml", which is the foundation of a form of

    Norwegian used by 10% of the population, mostly in western Norway, was the first language to follow this

    program, and it was joined by modern Czech, Slovak, Finnish and later by Hebrew as nationalizing

    languages.Katharevousa Greekwas constructed as a form ofModern Greekdrawing on classical Greek

    morphology and vocabulary in an attempt to purify the existingdemotic Greek.

    The linguistic processes of romantic nationalism demanded linguistic culture models. Romantic historiography

    was centered on biographies and producedculture heroes.The modern Italian ofRisorgimentopatriots

    likeAlessandro Manzoniwas based on the Tuscan dialects sanctified byDanteandPetrarch.In

    English,Shakespearebecame an iconic figure (though not a modern linguistic model).

    Folk culture

    "'Good evening, uncle!' said the boy". A drawing byJohn Baueron Swedish folklore,_farbror!_H%C3%A4lsade_pojken.jpg,_farbror!_H%C3%A4lsade_pojken.jpg
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    Romantic nationalism inspired the collection offolkloreby such people as theBrothers Grimm.The view that

    fairy tales, unless contaminated from outside literary sources, were preserved in the same form over thousands

    of years, was not exclusive to Romantic Nationalists, but it fit in well with their views that such tales expressed

    the primordial nature of a people.

    TheBrothers Grimmwere criticized because their first edition was insufficiently German, and they followed the

    advice. They rejected many tales they collected because of their similarity to tales byCharles Perrault,which

    they thought proved they were not truly German tales;Sleeping Beautysurvived in their collection because the

    tale ofBrynhildrconvinced them that the figure of the sleeping princess was authentically German. They also

    altered the language used, changing each "Fee" (fairy) to an enchantress or wise woman, every "prince" to a

    "king's son", every "princess" to a "king's daughter".[3]Discussing these views in their third editions, they

    particularly singled outGiambattista Basile'sPentameroneas the firstnationalcollection of fairy tales, and as

    capturing Neapolitan voice.[4]

    The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leadingthem to similarly believe that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of

    cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the RussianAlexander Afanasyev,the NorwegiansPeter

    Christen AsbjrnsenandJrgen Moe,and the EnglishmanJoseph Jacobs.[5]

    Many artists and writers also drew on their native countries folklore and folktunes for their own work to express

    their nationalism.

    National epics

    "The Bard" byJohn Martin:a romantic vision of a single Welsh bard escaping a massacre ordered by Edward I of England,

    intended to destroy Welsh culture

    Main article:National epic

    The concept of a "national epic", an extensively mythologized legendary work of poetry of defining importance to

    a certain nation, is another product of Romantic nationalism. The "discovery" ofBeowulfin a single manuscript,
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    first transcribed in 1818, came under the impetus of Romantic nationalism, after the manuscript had lain as an

    ignored curiosity in scholars' collections for two centuries. Beowulfwas felt to provide people self-identified as

    "Anglo-Saxon"with their missing "national epic",[6]just when the need for it was first being felt: the fact that

    Beowulf himself was aGeatwas easily overlooked. The pseudo-Gaelic literary forgeries of "Ossian"had failed,

    finally, to fill the need for the first Romantic generation.

    The first publication ofThe Tale of Igor's Campaigncoincided with the rise in Russian national spirit in the wake

    of theNapoleonic warsandSuvorov's campaigns in Central Europe. The unseen and unheardSong of

    Rolandhad become a dim memory, until the antiquaryFrancisque Micheltranscribed a worn copy in

    theBodleian Libraryand put it into print in 1837; it was timely: French interest in the national epic revived among

    the Romantic generation. In Greece, theIliadandOdysseytook on new urgency during theGreek War of


    Many other "national epics,"epic poetryconsidered to reflect the national spirit, were produced or revived under the

    influence of Romantic nationalism: particularly in theRussian Empire,national minorities seeking to assert their ownidentities in the face ofRussificationproduced new national poetry either out of whole cloth, or from cobbling together

    folk poetry, or by resurrecting older narrative poetry. Examples include

    theEstonianKalevipoeg,FinnishKalevala,PolishPan Tadeusz,LatvianLplsis,ArmenianSasuntzi

    DavitbyHovhannes Tumanyan,andGeorgianThe Knight in the Panther's Skin.

    Frankfurt Assembly

    The Frankfurt Assembly was the first freely electedparliamentfor all ofGermany.[1]Session was held from 18 May

    1848 to 31 May 1849 in thePaulskircheatFrankfurt am Main.Its existence was both part of and the result of the"March

    Revolution"in the states of theGerman Confederation.

    After long and controversial debates, the assembly produced the so-calledFrankfurt

    Constitution(Paulskirchenverfassungor Paulskirche Constitution, actuallyVerfassung des Deutschen Reiches) which

    proclaimed a German Empire based on the principles ofparliamentary democracy.Thisconstitutionfulfilled the main

    demands of theliberalandnationalistmovementsof theVormrzand provided a foundation ofbasic rights,both of

    which stood inoppositiontoMetternich'ssystemofRestoration.The parliament also proposed aconstitutional

    monarchyheaded by ahereditary emperor(Kaiser). ThePrussiankingFriedrich Wilhelm IVrefused to accept the office

    of emperor when it was offered to him on the grounds that such a constitution and such an offer were an abridgment of

    the rights of the princes of the individual German states. In the 20th century, however, major elements of the Frankfurtconstitution became models for theWeimar Constitutionof 1919 and theBasic Law for the Federal Republic of

    Germanyof 1949.

    The German National Assembly was attended by some six hundred delegates and held its firstmeetings in the Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church) in Frankfurt-am-Main on May 18th. These social

    backgrounds of these delegates was overwhelmingly that of middle or upper class universityeducated professors, teachers, magistrates, lawyers, mayors, civil servants or businessmen,writers and noblemen. There was only one delegate, a pole, of peasant origin and only fifteencould be regarded as lower middle-class (e.g. postmasters or customs officers).,_Frankfurt,_Frankfurt,_Frankfurt,_Frankfurt
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    For this occasion the elegant elliptical interior of the Paulskirche was draped in German-nationalcolours with an imposing large-scale painting representing "Germania" being prominentlydisplayed.

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    This work, by the artist Paul Veit, depicted Germania as a female figure standing against a

    background where beams of sunlight shone through the tricolour fabric of the national flag.

    Germania was wearing a crown of oak leaves and had a pair of shackles lying close to her feet

    that had evidently been recently discarded.

    In this political and cultural atmosphere Heinrich von Gagern was elected as President, (orSpeaker), of the National Assembly and in his opening speech suggested that :-

    "We wish to create a constitution for Germany, for the whole empire. The call and the authority

    for this creation lie in the sovereignty of the nation...Germany will be one...Unity she wishes,

    unity she will have."

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    It was said that "The sun never sets on the British Empire." By this time, Britain's colonial territories spanned the world,

    and during the late 1800s Britain expanded their territorial possessions to include Egypt, Kenya, and South Africa.

    In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies.

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