BELIEFS PRACTICES - mrcaseyhistory of Islam was the introduction of new religious beliefs and practices. ... and no power over life, death ... (most important) of all?’

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  • BELIEFS&PRACTICESThemostobviouschangetothecultureandsocietyofArabiacausedbytheintroductionofIslamwastheintroductionofnewreligiousbeliefsandpractices.InthenameofGod,theEntirelyMerciful,theEspeciallyMerciful.AllpraiseisduetoGod,Lordoftheworlds-TheEntirelyMerciful,theEspeciallyMerciful,RuleroftheDayofJudgment.ItisYouweworshipandYouweaskforhelp.Guideustothestraightpath-ThepathofthosewhomYouhavefavored,notofthosewhohaveearnedangerorofthosewhoareastray.Source:Quran1:1-7(reciteddailyinprayer)Islamhasbeenbuiltonfivethings:testifyingthatthereisnogodworthyofworshipexceptGodandthatMuhammadistheMessengerofGod,establishingthesalah(prayer),payingthezakah(yearlycharity),makingtheHajj(pilgrimage)totheHouse(Kaaba),andfastinginRamadan.Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromSahihBukhariHadithCollection,narratedbyAbdullahibnUmarREJECTIONOFPOLYTHEISMComingintoasocietythatwasbuiltupontheworshipofmanygods,theIslamicteachingofmonotheismwouldhavebeenadramaticchange.ThiswasespeciallytrueinMecca,whichhadbeenacenterforpolytheisticworshiptowhichpilgrimstraveledyearly,bringingagreatdealoftradeandwealthtotheleadersofthecity.Andyet,insteadof[God],theyproduceforthemselvesgodsthatcreatenothing,butarethemselvescreated;thathavenopowertoharmorbenefitthemselves;andnopoweroverlife,death,orresurrection.Source:Quran25:3TRIBALISM&RACISMInpre-IslamicArabia,peopleweredividedintodifferenttribes,andinter-tribalhostilityandviolencewerenotuncommon.Peopletendedtothinkoftheirowntribeassuperiortoothers.ThisattitudeoftenextendedtothosewhowerenotArab,whowereviewedasevenlower.AllmankindisfromAdamandEve,anArabhasnosuperiorityoveranon-Arabnoranon-ArabhasanysuperiorityoveranArab;alsoawhitehasnosuperiorityoverablacknorablackhasanysuperiorityoverwhiteexceptbypietyandgoodaction.Source:ProphetMuhammad,FinalSermon,fromSahihBukhariandSahihMuslimHadithCollectionsHeisnotoneofuswhocallsfortribalism,orwhofightsfortribalism,orwhodiesfortribalism.Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromAbuDawudHadithCollection

  • COMPARISONWITHCHRISTIANITYAlthoughSouthernArabiawasmostlypolytheistic,NorthernArabia,especiallySyria,washeavilyChristianatthetime,aswasEgypt.Insomeways,IslamalignedwithChristianteachings,whileinotherways,itshowedcleardifferences.

    ChristianTextsPraytheninthisway:OurFatherinheaven,hallowedbeyourname.Yourkingdomcome,yourwillbedone,onearth,asitisinheaven.Giveusthisdayourdailybread,andforgiveusourdebts,aswealsohaveforgivenourdebtors.Andleadusnotintotemptation,butdeliverusfromevil.Source:GospelAccordingtoMatthew,6:913,NewTestamentoftheBibleOneofthe[Jewish]scribescamenearandheardthemdisputingwithoneanother,andseeingthat[Jesus]answeredthemwell,heaskedhim,Whichcommandmentisthefirst(mostimportant)ofall?Jesusanswered[quotingtheTorah],Thefirstis,Hear,OIsrael:theLordourGod,theLordisOne;youshalllovetheLordyourGodwithallyourheart,andwithallyoursoul,andwithallyourmind,andwithallyourstrength.Thesecondisthis,Youshallloveyourneighborasyourself.Thereisnoothercommandmentgreaterthanthese.Source:GospelAccordingtoMatthew,5:17,NewTestamentoftheBibleForGodsolovedtheworldthathegavehisonlySon,sothatallwhobelieveinhimmaynotperishbutmayhaveeternallife.Source:GospelAccordingtoJohn,3:1617,NewTestamentoftheBible

    IslamicTextsSay:HeisGod,One.God,theEternallySelf-Sufficient.Hedoesnotbeget*andwasnotbegotten*,andthereisnothingcomparabletoHim.Source:Quran112:1-4(*beget=tohaveachild)OPeopleoftheBook!Donotexaggerateinyourreligion,anddonotsayanythingaboutGodexceptthetruth.TheMessiah,Jesus,thesonofMary,istheMessengerofGod,andHisWordthatHeconveyedtoMary,andaSpiritfromHim.SobelieveinGodandHismessengers,anddonotsay,Three.Stopitisbetterforyou.GodisonlyoneGod.GlorybetoHim,Heisabovehavingason.Source:Quran4:171Thosewhobelieve,andthosewhoareJewish,andtheChristians,andtheSabeansanywhobelieveinGodandtheLastDay,andactrighteouslywillhavetheirrewardwiththeirLord(inheaven);theyhavenothingtofear,norwilltheygrieve(besad).Source:Quran2:62WhoevertrulybelievesinGodandtheLastDayshoulddogoodtohisneighbor.Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromSahihMuslimHadithCollection,narratedbyAbuHurayra

    STATUSOFWOMENBeforeIslam,thestatusofwomeninPagan(Polytheistic)Arabsocietyvaried.Somewomenwereactiveinreligion,trade,orpolitics,however,asinmostsocietiesatthetime,mostwomenhadlimitedrightsandwerenotseenasequaltomen.Arabwomencouldnotinheritpropertyandhadtoobeyamaleguardian.Amongafewtribes,unwanteddaughtersweresometimeskilledatbirthbyburyingthemaliveinthedesert,viewingthemasashameandafinancialburden.Andwhenoneofthemisinformedof[thebirthof]afemale,hisfacebecomesdark(withshame),andhesuppressesgrief.Hehideshimselffromthepeoplebecauseoftheillofwhichhehasbeeninformed.

  • Shouldhekeepitinhumiliationorburyitintheground?Unquestionably,eviliswhattheydecide.Source:Quran16:58-59Anddonotkillyourchildrenforfearofpoverty.Weprovideforthemandforyou.Indeed,theirkillingiseveragreatsin.Source:Quran17:31Indeed,theMuslimmenandMuslimwomen,thebelievingmenandbelievingwomen,theobedientmenandobedientwomen,thetruthfulmenandtruthfulwomen,thepatientmenandpatientwomen,thehumblemenandhumblewomen,thecharitablemenandcharitablewomen,thefastingmenandfastingwomen,themenwhoguardtheirprivatepartsandthewomenwhodoso,andthemenwhorememberGodoftenandthewomenwhodoso-forthemGodhaspreparedforgivenessandagreatreward.Source:Quran33:35Tellthebelievingmentolowertheirgaze(avoidstaringatwomen),andtoguardtheirprivateparts(avoidsexoutsideofmarriage).Thatispurerforthem.Godisawareofwhattheydo.Andtellthebelievingwomentolowertheirgaze,andtoguardtheirprivateparts,andnotdisplaytheirbeautyexceptwhatisnormallyvisible,andtodrawtheirheadscarvesovertheirchests,andnotexposetheirbeautyexcepttotheirhusbands,[theirnearmalerelatives,women,andyoungchildren]Source:Quran33:35

    SOCIALCLASSThecityofMeccawaslocatedalongimportanttraderoutesbetweenSyriaintheNorthandYemenintheSouth.SyriawasconnectedtothetradewiththeMediterraneanandEurope,whileYemenlinkedtotheIndianOceanandthewidertradewithAsia.Forthisreason,somepeopleinMeccabecamequitewealthy,yetmostdidnot.Asthewealthdividegrew,therewaslessandlessfocusontheneedsofthepoor.Slaverywasalsoacommonpracticeatthistime.TheQurandidnotbanslaveryoutrightbutdidlimitformsofenslavementandencouragedfreeingslavesasanactofcharity.

    Noneofyoutrulybelievesuntilhelovesforhisbrotherwhathelovesforhimself.Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromSahihBukhariHadithCollection,narratedbyAnasibnMalikRighteousishewhogivesmoney,thoughdear,tonearrelatives,andorphans,andtheneedy,andthehomeless,andthebeggars,andforthefreeingofslavesSource:Quran2:177Yourslavesareyourbrothers!Godhasplacedtheminyourcare.So,whosebrotherisunderhiscare,heshouldfeedhimwhatheeatsanddresshimhowhedresses.Anddonotburdenthembeyondtheircapacities;butifyouburdenthem,thenhelpthem(bysharingtheirextraburden).Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromSahihBukhariHadithCollectionTherearethreecategoriesofpeopleagainstwhomIshallmyselfbeaplaintiffontheDayofJudgment.Ofthesethree,oneishewhoenslavesafreeman,thensellshimandconsumesthismoney.Source:ProphetMuhammad,fromSahihBukhari&IbnMajjahHadithCollections