Beaver Brook

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<ul><li><p>Space Invaders: Japanese Knotweed and the Restoration of Beaver Brook in </p><p>Keene, New Hampshire </p><p> Nathan Cadenhead Christine Jones Bryan Lariviere </p><p>Heather Stringer </p><p>2009 </p><p>December </p><p>Keene State College Department of Geography </p><p>Faculty Sponsor: Christopher Cusack </p></li><li><p> i </p><p>This paper is dedicated to Lori and George Stringer, the parents of Heather Stringer; Kelly and </p><p>Al Lariviere, the parents of Bryan Lariviere; Deborah and Lynn Taylor, and Lawrence Jones; </p><p>parents of Christine Jones; as well as the members of 8 Spruce Street, Nathan Cadenheads </p><p>friends. Without their patience, understanding support, and love the completion of this project </p><p>would not have been possible. </p></li><li><p> ii </p><p>Acknowledgments </p><p>First and foremost we would like to give an exceptional thanks to Dr. Christopher Cusack </p><p>who has spent endless hours including weekends working with us on this capstone project, </p><p>along with preparing us for the future as geographers. His guidance, assistance, and positive </p><p>encouragement throughout this process will never be forgotten as we enter the real world. </p><p>Also we would like to thank the entire Department of Geography including Dr. Mullens, Dr. </p><p>Rydant, Professor Miller, and Dr. Brehme who have shaped our geography education up to this </p><p>position by giving us outstanding education in the realm of geography. The Department of </p><p>Geography faculty has left a lifelong impression on the entire Beaver Brook Group. </p><p>We would like to express a debt of gratitude to Mr. Will Schoefmann, of the Keene </p><p>Planning Department, for providing the group with his extensive knowledge and insight within </p><p>the realms of GIS/Geography and supplying many map layers and content information that </p><p>were used throughout this entire project. Also, a special thank you to Mr. Eric Swope, of the </p><p>Keene Wastewater Treatment Plant, for supplying helpful knowledge on river restoration plans. </p><p>We greatly appreciate Mr. Randy Fowler, for allowing us to work on his private property and </p><p>interview him. An enormous thank you to Mr. Dave Curran, City Councilor-elect Jan Manwaring </p><p>and the entire Southeast Keene Neighborhood Group for providing us with vital information to </p><p>the brook area and allowing us to conduct surveys. Thank you to Mr. William Prokop, Assistant </p><p>City Manager and Human Resources Director of the City of Keene, for providing insightful </p><p>information on the City of Keene Green Team. Warm, special thanks to our fellow Senior </p><p>Seminar class. Working together throughout the past year has been a memorial experience. </p><p>We will never forget the monumental experiences we had during the exhaustingly long hours in </p><p>the GIS lab together. Thank you Kathyrn Bills for being able to answer any question we sent </p><p>your way. To anyone we may have neglected to acknowledge, your assistance with making this </p><p>a successful project was not forgotten. Thank you. </p></li><li><p> iii </p><p>Abstract </p><p>In 2004, the City of Keene, New Hampshire, initiated a river restoration plan on one of </p><p>its local waterways, Beaver Brook. Beginning at the Three Mile Reservoir in Gilsum, New </p><p>Hampshire, the brook meanders its way through Keene before emptying into the Ashuelot </p><p>River. The goals of the City of Keene are to: improve water quality of the brook; improve and </p><p>restore aquatic riparian habitat; and provide public education and encourage public </p><p>stewardship of the brook. This study locates linkages between residents of the City of Keene </p><p>and the restoration of Beaver Brook, while providing education to the public regarding river </p><p>restoration and awareness of the invasive species Japanese Knotweed. Primary data collection </p><p>for this research involves: plotting locations of the invasive species Japanese Knotweed along </p><p>Beaver Brook using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and creating and distributing a </p><p>survey instrument to gauge attitudes and awareness of Beaver Brook. The survey was </p><p>distributed at the Source to the Sea River Clean-up, a meeting of the Southeast Keene </p><p>Neighborhood Group, and handed out door-to-door to southeast Keene residents. Of the data </p><p>that were gathered from the surveys, multiple tests were then run through SPSS (a statistical </p><p>test program that helps to define areas of significant differences and relationships between </p><p>data). Results reveal a significant difference between homeowners versus renters residing in </p><p>and around the brook and numerous values regarding Beaver Brook. A second test shows that </p><p>there is also a significant difference between age group respondents and the level of awareness </p><p>of invasive species residing along Beaver Brook. Findings of this study are intended to benefit </p><p>the City of Keene and any other municipality attempting to restore riparian habitats and </p><p>educating the public on invasive species. </p></li><li><p> iv </p><p>List of Figures Figures </p><p>1. Relative Location of Keene, New Hampshire ................................................................... 17 </p><p>2. Population Pyramid of Keene, New Hampshire ............................................................... 18 </p><p>3. Relationships That Contribute to a Sustainable City ........................................................ 20 </p><p>4. Relative Location of Beaver Brook .................................................................................... 25 </p><p>5. Blue Heron Residing in the Brook ..................................................................................... 26 </p><p>6. States Affected by Japanese Knotweed ............................................................................ 27 </p><p>7. Japanese Knotweed .......................................................................................................... 28 </p><p>8. Canopy of Japanese Knotweed ......................................................................................... 30 </p><p>9. Researcher Taking GPS Coordinates of Japanese Knotweed ........................................... 35 </p><p>10. Japanese Knotweed along Beaver Brook ......................................................................... 37 </p><p>11. Locations of Three Primary Restoration Sites .................................................................. 39 </p><p>12. Woodlawn Cemetery ........................................................................................................ 40 </p><p>13. Native Plants Planted Along Beaver Brook ....................................................................... 41 </p><p>14. Native Tree Planted Along Beaver Brook ......................................................................... 41 </p><p>15. Carpenter Field ................................................................................................................. 42 </p><p>16. Japanese Knotweed in Carpenter Field ............................................................................ 43 </p><p>17. Randy Fowlers Property ................................................................................................... 44 </p><p>18. Four Hybrid Elm Trees Along Baker Street ....................................................................... 45 </p><p>19. Parcel of Land Owned by Randy Fowler ........................................................................... 46 </p><p>20. Mowing of Baker Street .................................................................................................... 46 </p><p>21. Testing pH Levels in Beaver Brook .................................................................................... 47 </p><p>22. Outfalls along Beaver Brook ............................................................................................. 47 </p></li><li><p> v </p><p>23. Outfalls where pH Levels Were Tested ............................................................................. 48 </p><p>24. pH Scale ............................................................................................................................. 49 </p><p>25. Survey Research Methodology ......................................................................................... 52 </p><p>26. Distributing Surveys .......................................................................................................... 53 </p><p>27. Keene Flood 2005 ............................................................................................................. 54 </p><p>28. Relative Locations of Houses Surveyed ............................................................................ 55 </p><p>29. Homeowner versus Renter ............................................................................................... 59 </p><p>30. Sex of Survey Respondents ............................................................................................... 59 </p><p>31. Survey Respondents Awareness of Invasive Species ........................................................ 59 </p><p>32. Ages of Residents Surveyed .............................................................................................. 60 </p><p>33. Students versus Non students Surveyed .......................................................................... 61 </p><p>List of Tables </p><p>Tables </p><p>1. Top 5 Best and Worst Things About Beaver Brook ........................................................... 58 </p><p>2. SPSS Analysis Independent Samples t-test ....................................................................... 62 </p></li><li><p>Table of Contents </p><p>Dedications ....................................................................................................................... i </p><p>Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................... ii </p><p>Abstract .......................................................................................................................... iii </p><p>List of Figures ...................................................................................................................iv </p><p>List of Tables .................................................................................................................... v </p><p>Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................... 1 </p><p> Focal Questions ..................................................................................................................... 5 </p><p> Hypotheses ............................................................................................................................ 5 </p><p>Chapter 2: Literature Review ........................................................................................... 6 </p><p> Invasive Species: Japanese Knotweed .................................................................................. 7 </p><p> Control Methods ............................................................................................................... 9 </p><p> Water Quality and Aquatic Life ........................................................................................... 11 </p><p> Channelization ..................................................................................................................... 12 </p><p> Economic Costs.................................................................................................................... 13 </p><p>Chapter 3: Background to Keene, New Hampshire and Beaver Brook.............................. 16 </p><p> City of Keene Green Ethos .................................................................................................. 20 </p><p> Keene State College Green Ethos ....................................................................................... 22 </p><p> Background to Beaver Brook .............................................................................................. 24 </p><p> Japanese Knotweed ............................................................................................................ 27 </p><p>Chapter4: Primary Data Collection and Analysis ............................................................. 33 </p><p> Restoration of Beaver Brook ............................................................................................. 34 </p><p> GPS Plotting ....................................................................................................................... 34 </p><p> Three Proposed Property Parcels ...................................................................................... 38</p></li><li><p> Woodlawn Cemetery .................................................................................................... 40 </p><p> Carpenter Field.............................................................................................................. 42 </p><p> Randy Fowlers Property ............................................................................................... 44 </p><p> pH Testing Analysis ............................................................................................................ 47 </p><p>Chapter 5: Survey Methodology and Analysis ................................................................. 51 </p><p> Survey Methodology .......................................................................................................... 53 </p><p> Survey Results..................................................................................................................... 57 </p><p> Statistical Analysis .............................................................................................................. 61 </p><p>Chapter 6: Conclusions ................................................................................................... 65 </p><p> Concluding Statements ....................................................................................................... 66 </p><p> Education ........................................................................................................................ 68 </p><p> Adopting a Piece of Beaver Brook .................................................................................. 68 </p><p> Eradication of Japanese Knotweed ................................................................................. 69 </p><p> Future Research .............................................................................................................. 70 </p><p>References .................................................................................................................... 71 </p><p>Appendices ................................................................................................................... 75 </p><p> Appendix A .......................................................................................................................... 76 </p><p> Appendix B .......................................................................................................................... 78 </p></li><li><p> 1 </p><p>Chapter 1: </p><p>Introduction </p></li><li><p> 2 </p><p> Invasive species, causal agents of disrupting and damaging ecosystems, are a leading </p><p>hazard to the ecological stability of the United States. An invasive species is defined as any </p><p>plant, animal, or organism that is not native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose </p><p>intr...</p></li></ul>