Basic of Carnatic Music

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Abhyasa gana are the basic lessons

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Index 100 rga rhaa avarhaa : : : mymavagaua s s> r! n# g# d! m! p p m!r purandara dsa - abhysa gna - (1) [15] d! g# n# r! s> s ta : diVersion 1.0The set of exercises given under the general title of Abhyasa Gana part (1) have the following sub-divisions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sarala Varase: Hechchusthayi Varase: Mandra Sthayi Varase: Janti Varase: Datu Varase: Sapta Tala Alankara: Learning the basic rendering of the seven notes in the arohana and avarohana Exercise to gradually reach the panchama in the Tara Sthayi Exercise to gradually reach the panchama in the Mandra Sthayi Exercise for rendition of double notes Exercise for rendition of swaras crossing over one or more intermediate notes Exercise for familiarisation with the seven basic talas.The above exercises were developed by the saint Purandara Dasa (1494 1564), who is called the Pitamaha (Father) of Carnatic Music. These exercises have firmly established themselves as the standard for introducing the uninitiated pupil into Carnatic Music. The names of these exercises in Kannada have been retained. It needs approx. 25 hours of class to cover this (6 months with 30-min classes twice a week)The Abhyasa Gana is rendered in the raga Mayamalavagaula. This is a very apt choice of raga due to the following reasons: 1. This is the only sampurna raga that contains four pairs of neighbouring notes, namely: sa-ri, ga-ma, pa-da, and ni-sa. Rendering this raga therefore gives control over the smallest difference of pitch between notes. 2. 3. 4. In addition, the raga also contains neighbouring notes with intervals of 2 semitones (ma-pa), and 3 semitones (ri-ga and da-ni) The raga contains swaras of the lower (komal) variety (e.g. ri, da), as well as the higher (tivra) variety (e.g. ga and ni). The raga is symmetric in its first half (sa ri ga ma) and the second half (pa da ni sa) with respect to the pitch relationship between the notes. In instruments such as the violin, this gives similar fingering on the first and second string. 5. 6. 7. The raga has few restrictions and lends itself to variations in rendering, e.g. plain, graced, gliding, repeated notes, and usage of various gamakas. The intervals sa-ga, sa-ma, etc. can be transposed to all other notes (e.g. ri-ma, ri-pa, etc.). The exercises can thus be designed as repeating patterns. The raga has antara gandhara, which gives it a steady and pleasing effect.AbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 1 of 20Swarasindhu8. 9.The first few Geetas are in raga Malahari, derived from Mayamalavagaula. Geetas are continuation of Abhyasa Gana after finishing part 1 It is an auspicious raga. Singing this raga, especially early in the morning improves concentration and sharpens the mind. All the exercises are practised in at least three speeds:1. 2. 3.Prathama Kala: Dvitiya Kala: Tritiya Kala:one swara per tala count, except for Janti and Datu Varase, where two swaras are rendered per tala count two swaras per tala count, except for Janti and Datu Varase, where four swaras are rendered per tala count four swaras per tala count, except for Janti and Datu Varase, where eight swaras are rendered per tala countThe above description is valid for Hrasva swaras (short notes). Deergha swaras (elongated notes) would of course depend on the elongation. In Tritiya kala, if the exercise ends at half the tala cycle, then the exercise is to be repeated so that it ends at the completion of the cycle next time. Note: The speed of rendition increases further in the order of 2n. However, the higher speeds are normally not part of the beginner's exercise. More advanced exercises: 1. After the pupil has progressed well in the practice of the Abhyasa Gana in the raga Mayamalavagaula, the execises may be rendered in other sampurna ragas such as Shankarabharana, Kalyani, Todi, Harikambodi, and Kharaharapriya. With the first three, all the twelve swara positions are covered. 2. 3. For vocal training, the exercises - especially Janti and Datu Varase - are sung vocalising the sounds 'aa', 'ee', 'oo', and 'mm'. To gain a better control on the laya, the exercises can be rendered with a mix of kalas, such as the entire exercise completes within a whole number of tala cycles. Janti and Datu Varases as well as the Alankaras that comprise ten avartas in Prathama Kala, can be rendered as follows: 1st row in Prathama Kala => 1 Avarta 2nd and 3rd row in Dvitiya => 1 Avarta 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th row in Tritiya => 1 Avarta 8th and 9th row in Dvitiya => 1 Avarta 10th row in Prathama => 1 Avarta Thus completing the exercise in 5 avartas instead of 10. 4. Apart from above, there are several exercises by which one can gain a more precise control over the rendition of swaras. A few of these are given under the title "Swarabhyasa" at the end. 5. The above advanced exercises are to be practised by the pupil at the appropriate stage as guided by the teacher.SwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 2 of 201. saraa varase (swarvai) 1 s s> 2 s s s> s> 3 s s s> s> 4 s s s> s> 5 s s s> s> r n r r n n r r n n r r n n r r n n g d g g d d g g d d g g d d g g d d m p m m p p m m p p m m p p m m p p p m s p s> m s p s> m pa p ma m pa p ma m g d g d d g r d n g r d n g n r g n d r s n s> r pa n ma r s n s> r s r s> n s s> s> s m s> p s r s> n sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 3 of 206s s s> s>r r n n r r n n r r n n r r n n r r n ng g d d g g d d g g d d g g d d g g d d -m m p p m m p p m m p p m m p p s m s> pp p m m p p m m s p s> m r p n m r p n mm d p g m d p g m d p g g d d g g d d g -g n d r d n g r g n d r m n p r s n s> rr s> n s p s> m s r s> n s p s> m s r s> n s7s s s> s>8s s s> s>9s s s> s>10s s s> s>SwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 4 of 2011s s> d s>r n n ng r> s> dm s> r> pp s> s> m drghaswara saraa varasem n n gd d d rp p p s12s pa g gr m mg ; p p n p -m d g d m d g r p p -pa pa n m ni pa n m ga d d m p n g d g d gg ; p r d pa p r g da d rm m s p m s m p s -13sa> da g g m m r m p pp p g pa d d14s p m mSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 5 of 2015s g s> m -r m n p r d n ng p d m g pa sa> d-r m n g m p -g p d m pa m s> mm d p g -g p d r pam d p s p s16s d d s>m n gpa d rSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 6 of 202. heccusthyi varase - (1) 1 s d 2 s d d 3 s d d d 4 s d d d d 5 s d d d d dSwarasindhur n r n n r n n n r n n n n r n n n n ng s> g s> s> g s> s> s> g s> s> s> s> g s> s> s> s> s>m r> m r> r> m r> r> r> m r> r> r> r> m r> r> r> r> r>p s> p s> s> p g> s> s> p g> g> s> s> p g> g> g> s> s>d n d s> n d r> s> n d m> r> s> n d m> m> r> s> nn d n r> d n s> r> d n g> s> r> d n p> g> s> r> ds> p s> s> p s> r> s> p s> r> r> s> p s> m> r> r> s> psa> s> sa> s> s> sa> s> s> s> sa> s> s> s> s> sa> g> s> s> s> s> m> r> r> r> n r> r> r> n r> r> n r> n n; d ; s> d ; s> s> d ; s> s> s> d ; g> s> s> s> d r> n n n p n n n p n n p n p psa> m sa> d m sa> d d m sa> d d d m sa> s> d d d m n p p p g p p p g p p g p g g; r ; m r ; m m r ; m m m r ; d m m m r p p p p s p p p s p p s p s sAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 7 of 20heccusthyi varase - (2) 1 s s> n p2 s s> n pa r r> dm r r> dg g>p m g ga> p m d gm r> d gm p r> nm p r> ni m p d s>d p d s>n n d d n n d d s> s> pn s> s> pn sa> r>m s> sa> ri> m s> p n s> p n ; s> dd ; s> da d p nnp p sa> d p m sa> d p m n mg n mg ; s>g r ; sa> g r m s n m sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 8 of 203. mandra sthyi varase 1 s> g 2 s> g g 3 s> g g g 4 s> g g g g s> n r n r r n r r r n r r r r n d s d s s d s s s d s s s s d p n< p n< n< p n< n< n< p n< n< n< n< p m s m s s m d< s s m d< d< s s m g r g s r g n< s r g p< n< s r g r g r n< g r s n< g r d< s n< g r s m s s m s n< s m s n< n< s m s sa s sa s s sa s s s sa s s s s sa n< n< n< r n< n< r n< r r ; g ; s g ; s s g ; s s s g ; r r r m r r m r m m sa p sa g p sa g g p sa g g g p sa m m m d m m d m d d ; n ; p n ; p p n ; p p p n ; m m m s> m m s> m s> s>SwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 9 of 204 jai varase (yugma swarvai) 1 s s> 2 s g p n p 3 s r g m p s> n d p m s s> s g p n p s r g m p s> n d p m r n r m d d m r g m p d n d p m g r n r m d d m r g m p d n d p m g g d g p n p g g m p d n d p m g r g d g p n p g g m p d n d p m g r m p m d s> m r r g m p d n d p m g m p m d s> m r r g m p d n d p m g p m r m s> d m s r g m p s> n d p m p m r m s> d m s r g m p s> n d p m d g g p n p g r g m p d n d p m g d g g p n p g r g m p d n d p m g n r m d d m r g m p d n d p m g r n r m d d m r g m p d n d p m g r s> s p n p g s m p d n s> p m g r s s> s p n p g s m p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 10 of 204s r g m p s> n d p ms r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p mr g m p d n d p m g rgmpdndpmg-r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p mgmpdndpmgrs r g m p s> n d p ms r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m gr g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p mg m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g-s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p ms r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p mr g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m gr g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m gg m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g rg m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g rm p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r sm p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s5s r g m p s> n d p mSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 11 of 205. du varase - (1) 1 s r g m p s> n d p m 2 s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 12 of 20du varase - (2) 1 m p d n s> p m g r s 2 s r g m p s> n d p m m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r s r g m p s> n d p m g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r s m p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 13 of 203s r g m p s> n d p mm p d n s> p m g r sg m p d n d p m g rm p d n s> p m g r sr g m p d n d p m gg m p d n d p m g rs r g m p s> n d p mr g m p d n d p m gs r g m p s> n d p mg m p d n d p m g rr g m p d n d p m gg m p d n d p m g rs r g m p s> n d p mr g m p d n d p m gg m p d n d p m g rm p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 14 of 206. sapta ta alakra1 2 3 4 The seven talas included in Abhyasa Gana Part 1 are the most basic talas to be first introduced to the pupil The 'signature' of each tala is expressed in terms of 'anga' and 'jati'. The angas are parts of the tala. The tala is built by joining all the angas or parts together in a defined sequence. The angas used in these basic seven talas comprise "Laghu", "Druta", and "Anudruta". (Other advanced angas are 'Guru', 'Pluta', and 'Kakapada') The palm gestures for counting the above angas are as follows: Laghu: Druta: Anudruta: A pat with the palm of the hand (one count), followed by continuation of the count with fingers, starting with the little finger. A pat and a wave of the palm, constituting two counts A pat of the palm constituting one count (half a Druta)The written symbols for the angas are as follows: Laghu: Druta: Anudruta: 5 A vertical line 'I' followed bya number indicating the count (3,4,5, or 7), for example I5 A circle as shown: O A half circle as shown: UThe jati defines the number of counts in the laghu part. The following jatis are used in the basic seven talas: Trishra jati: Chaturashra jati: Khanda jati: Mishra jati: Having three counts in the Laghu part (I3) Having four counts in the Laghu part (I4) Having five counts in the Laghu part (I5) Having seven counts in the Laghu part (I7)The fifth jati is called Sankirna jati, comprising nine counts in the Laghu part. But this is not used in the seven basic talas of Sapta Tala Alankara 6 While practising vocal music, the Sapta Tala Alankaras should be sung at an even pace, synchronised to the appropriate palm gestures for the tala. For instrumental practice, the tala count is maintained using suitable hands-free techniques as shown by the teacher 7 8 The alankaras should be practised in three speeds, as with the preceding exercises The chaturashra jati triputa tala (commonly known as "adi" tala) is not included in the basic seven talas, since all preceding exercises are already set to this tala, and the pupil would be familiar with it by now.SwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 15 of 201. caturara jti dhruva ta aga : akarakla : I4 s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s g m p d n d p m g r I4 O2 I4 I42. caturara jti mahya ta aga : akarakla : I4 s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g I4 g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g I4 g m p d n d p m g r r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m I4 O2 I44 + 2 + 4 + 4 =14 O2 r g m p d n d p m g4 + 2 + 4 =10 O2 r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g I4 g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 16 of 203. caturara jti rpaka ta aga : akarakla : O2 s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g O2 I44. mira jti jhape ta aga : akarakla : m p d n s> p m g r s s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r I7 U1 O25. trira jti tripua ta aga : akarakla : U1 r g m p d n d p m g s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r O2 ma pa da ni sa> pa ma ga ri sa s r g m p s> n d p m I3 r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r s r g m p s> n d p m I7 U1 O22+4=6 I4 g m p d n d p m g r7 + 1 + 2 = 10 I7 s r g m p s> n d p m7 + 1 + 2 = 10 O2 r g m p d n d p m g g m p d n d p m g r O2 m p d n s> p m g r sSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 17 of 206. khaa jti aa ta aga : akarakla : I5 s r g m p s> n d p m ri ga ma pa da ni da pa ma ga ga ma pa da ni da pa ma ga ri sa ri ga ma pa sa> ni da pa ma I5 I5 O2 O27. caturara jti ka ta aga : akarakla : O2 ma pa da ni sa> pa ma ga ri sa s r g m p s> n d p m r g m p d n d p m g I4 g m p d n d p m g r m p d n s> p m g r s I4 45 + 5 + 2 + 2 = 14 I5 r g m p d n d p m g ga ma pa da ni da pa ma ga ri O2 ma pa da ni sa> pa ma ga ri saSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 18 of 207. swarbhysa 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clear rendering, with each note at its precise place is most important. Speed may be gradually increased to the extent possible without losing precision There is no adherence to any Tala cycle. A steady and intuitive laya/rhythm has to be maintained. Short notes can be rendered more rapidly, and long notes elongated further as compared to the notation given below, but a steady laya is required To be practised initially in Mayamalavagaula. Can be practised later in Harikamboji, Kharaharapriya, Todi, and Kalyani For voice training, the exercises should be additionally practised in Akara, Ikara, Ukara, and Mkara (i.e., vocalising 'aa', 'ee', 'oo', and 'mm' ) These exercises are to be practised by the pupil at the appropriate stage as guided by the teacher. 1. swarajna abhysa This exercise helps to build a congnition of the relationship of the various notes to Sa. [1] sri s>ni [2] sa sa> srga s>nda srsa s>nsa> srgma s>ndpa srgsa s>ndsa> srgmpa s>ndpma srgmsa s>ndpsa> srgmpda s>ndpmga srgmpsa s>ndpmsa> srgmpdni s>ndpmgri srgmpdsa s>ndpmgsa> srgmpdnsa> s>ndpmgrsa srgmpdnsa s>ndpmgrsa> srgmpdnsa> s>ndpmgrsa2. ruti swarbhysa This exercise trains to jump precisely between the invariant srutis sa, pa. In instrumental practice, the exercise may be extended to two octaves or more [1] sass [2] sass papp sspa sa>s>s> sspa sa> ; spsa> sa>s>s> sa>s>s> papp s>s>pa sass s>s>pa sa ; sa>psaSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 19 of 203. swara saskaraa abhysa These exercises helps to render swaras in a crisp and well intonated manner. Improves precision of fingering when playing an instrument. Each pattern may be repeated many more times than indicated, for practice. E.g. sars sa sars sa sars sa ... [1] sa_r_s_ sa sa>_r>_s>_ sa> [2] sa_r_s_sa_ _r_s_sa_ _r_s_ sa pa_d_p_pa_ _d_p_pa_ _d_p_ pa sa>_r>_s>_sa>_ _r>_s>_sa>_ _r>s>_ sa> ma_p_m_ma_ _p_m_ma_ _p_m_ ma [3] sr pd s>r> mp [4] srg s>r>g> g_r_r_s_ s n_d_d_p_ p g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> d_p_p_m_ m m_g_g_r_r_s_ s m>_g>_g>_r>_s>_ s> rg dn ns> gm ri_g_r_ ri ni_s>_n_ ni ga_m_g_ ga da_n_d_ da ri_g_r_ri_ _g_r_ri_ _g_r_ ri da_n_d_da_ _n_d_da_ _n_d_ da ni_s>_n_ni_ _s>_n_ni_ _s>_n_ ni ga_m_g_ga_ _m_g_ga_ _m_g_ ga m_g_g_r_ r s>_n_n_d_ d r>_s>_s>_n_ n p_m_m_g_ g rgm p_m_m_g_g_r_ r dns> ns>r> r>_s>_s>_n_n_d_ d g>_r>_r>_s>_s>_n_ n gm ns> dn rg p_m_m_g_ g r>_s>_s>_n_ n s>_n_n_d_ d m_g_g_r_ r ma_p_m_ ma pa_d_p_ pa pa_d_p_ pa ma_p_m_ ma ga_m_g_ga_ _m_g_ga_ _m_g_ ga ni_s>_n_ni_ _s>_n_ni_ _s>_n_ ni da_n_d_da_ _n_d_da_ _n_d_ da ri_g_r_ri_ _g_r_ri_ _g_r_ ri mp s>r> pd sr d_p_p_m_ m g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> n_d_d_p_ p g_r_r_s_ s mpd n_d_d_p_p_m_ m s>r>g> srg gm ns> dn rg m>_g>_g>_r>_s>_ s> m_g_g_r_r_s_ s mp s>r> pd sr d n_d_d_p_ p d_p_p_m_ m g> m>_g>_g>_ r> g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> n s>n_n_d_ d n_d_d_p_ p g m_g_g_r_ r g_r_r_s_ s pdn s>_n_n_d_d_p_ p da_n_d_ da ga_m_g_ ga ni_s>_n_ ni ri_g_r_ ri sa>_r>_s>_ sa> sa_r_s_ sama_p_m_ma_ _p_m_ma_ _p_m_ ma sa>_r>_s>_sa>_ _r>_s>_sa>_ _r>s>_ sa> pa_d_p_pa_ _d_p_pa_ _d_p_ pa sa_r_s_sa_ _r_s_sa_ _r_s_ sagmp d_p_p_m_m_g_ g ns>r> dns> g>_r>_r>_s>_s>_n_ n r>_s>_s>_n_n_d_ dpdn s>_n_n_d_d_p_ p mpd n_d_d_p_p_m_ m [5] sr pd s>r> mp g m_g_g_r_ r g_r_r_s_ s n s>n_n_d_ d n_d_d_p_ p g> m>_g>_g>_ r> g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> d n_d_d_p_ p d_p_p_m_ mgmp d_p_p_m_m_g_ g rg dn ns> gmrgm p_m_m_g_g_r_ rm p_m_m_g_ g m_g_g_r_ r s> r>_s>_s>_n_ n s>_n_n_d_ d r> g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> r>_s>_s>_n_ n p d_p_p_m_ m p_m_m_g_ gp d_p_p_m_ m p_m_m_g_ g r> g>_r>_r>_s>_ s> r>_s>_s>_n_ n s> r>_s>_s>_n_ n s>_n_n_d_ d m p_m_m_g_ g m_g_g_r_ rSwarasindhuAbhyasaGana_1-Mayamalavagaula-Purandaradasa-vers.1.0-Page 20 of 20

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