Aviation Weather Student Guide NAVAL

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Text of Aviation Weather Student Guide NAVAL

NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS CNATRA P-304 (Rev 04-03)

AVIATION WEATHER STUDENT GUIDE

PRIMARY2003

AVIATION WEATHER STUDENT GUIDE PRIMARY

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INTRODUCTION In accordance with applicable military instructions, all pilots are responsible for reviewing and being familiar with weather conditions for their planned flight. Where Weather Services are available, a qualified forecaster shall conduct the weather briefings. They may be conducted either in person or via telephonic, autographic, weather vision, or approved Internet methods. In some cases pilots may have to complete the briefing and DD 175-1 Weather Briefing Forms on their own. In preparing for a flight, aircrew should always make an analysis of the weather. The pilot is negligent in the performance of duties if a weather brief is accepted that is not completely understood. The object of such a pre-brief analysis is to give the aircrew a complete picture of the weather conditions and developments that will affect flight along the route. Additionally, it enables the aircrew to discuss intelligently any apparent discrepancies in the forecast given during the weather brief itself. Once in the air, a pilot cannot always consult the forecaster or the charts to understand the reasons for unexpected changes and choose the best corrective action. At these times, the aircrew must rely on knowledge, experience, and information obtained before departure. Before going into a weather office to receive a flight weather briefing, the pilot and aircrew must know exactly what information is needed. The aircrew needs to know the local weather at the time of takeoff and during the climb to altitude, the weather to be expected while en route and the effect on aircraft performance, and the existing and forecast weather at destination and alternate airfield(s). The type of information needed will vary considerably depending upon whether the pilot is flying a jet aircraft, turboprop, piston-driven propeller aircraft (not covered in this text), or a helicopter. So how can a pilot or navigator, whose specialty is flying aircraft, be able to carry on an intelligent discussion with a professional meteorologist? Better yet, how can the aircrew make intelligent decisions about dealing with the weather once airborne? The answer lies in learning a foundation of weather knowledge that continues to grow over the course of ones career through experience and personal study. Thus, the purpose of this course in Aviation Weather is not to produce meteorologists, but rather aviators who understand the basics of weather phenomena and the weather information systems in use. Chapters One through Four, deal with the weather products available to aviatorsfrom the codes and abbreviations used to communicate weather in a precise manner, to the charts and warnings, and finally to the Flight Weather Briefing Form itself, the DD 175-1. The authors of this book hope you find this course informative and are able to use this book as a reference throughout your career. WORKBOOK SCOPE Upon completion of this unit of instruction, student aviators and flight officers will demonstrate knowledge of meteorological theory which will enable them to make intelligent decisions when confronted with various weather phenomena and hazards, as well as interpreting and using various weather products for flight planning. v

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES 1.0 Describe displayed data in Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs) and Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs). 2.0 Describe displayed data shown on various weather imagery products. 3.0 Describe displayed data on Severe Weather Watches, Military Weather Advisories, and InFlight Weather Advisories, and state the use and requirements for Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs). 4.0 Describe indicated data on the DD 175-1, Flight Weather Briefing Form, and state the sources of hazardous weather information used to complete the form. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS This course is designed to be taught by a winged Military Aviator instructor with the corresponding electronic classroom presentation. HOW TO USE THIS WORKBOOK 1. Read and become familiar with the objectives of each chapter. These objectives state the purpose of this chapter of instruction in terms of WHAT YOU WILL BE ABLE TO DO as you complete the chapter. Most importantly, your end-of-course examination is developed directly from these objectives. 2. Before the class presentation, read the information in each chapter using the objectives as a guide. Develop a list of questions about material that is unclear to you at this point. This practice will allow you to ask questions when the topic is covered during the classroom presentation, or at a later time with the instructor in a one-on-one setting. You may also wish to consult your Weather for Aircrews handbook for further information. 3. After the class presentation, re-read each chapter to ensure your comprehension of the subject material. If you desire further information, explanation, or clarification, consult your instructor. 4. Answer the questions provided in the Study Questions sections. These questions will help you recall the information presented in each chapter, and they will also serve as a practice for the examination. Check your answers to the Study Questions with those provided in Appendix E. If your answer to a question is incorrect, review the objective and information covering that subject area prior to continuing to the next chapter. Good Luck.

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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES Dates of issue for original and changed pages are: Original...0...15 Apr 03(this will be the date issued)TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 186 CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:

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INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY The following Changes have been previously incorporated in this manual: CHANGE NUMBER REMARKS/PURPOSE

The following interim Changes have been incorporated in this Change/Revision: INTERIM CHANGE NUMBER

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES............................................................................................... vii INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY ......................................................................................... viii TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................... ix TABLE OF FIGURES...............................................................................................................xi CHAPTER ONE AVIATION ROUTINE WEATHER REPORTS AND TERMINAL AERODOME FORECASTS................................................................................................... 1-1 100. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 1-1 101. LESSON TOPIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES......................................................... 1-1 102. REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 1-2 103. STUDY ASSIGNMENT.......................................................................................... 1-2 104. THE AVIATION ROUTINE WEATHER REPORT .............................................. 1-3 105. METAR FORMAT .................................................................................................. 1-4 106. REMARKS SECTION........................................................................................... 1-13 107. THE TERMINAL AERODROME FORECAST................................................... 1-17 108. CHANGE GROUP TERMINOLOGY................................................................... 1-23 109. SUMMARY OF U.S. CIVIL/MILITARY TAF DIFFERENCES ......................... 1-27 110. DETERMINATION OF CEILING IN METARS AND TAFS ............................. 1-28 111. IFR/VFR RULES FOR FLIGHT PLANNING ...................................................... 1-28 112. REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ALTERNATE ON IFR FLIGHT PLANS............... 1-28 113. USING TAFS FOR FLIGHT PLANNING ............................................................ 1-33 STUDY QUESTIONS............................................................................................................1-35 CHAPTER TWO DATA DISPLAYED WEATHER IMAGERY PRODUCTS ............ 2-1 200. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 2-1 201. LESSON TOPIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES......................................................... 2-1 202. REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 2-2 203. STUDY ASSIGNMENT.......................................................................................... 2-2 204. SURFACE ANALYSIS CHARTS .......................................................................... 2-3 205. LOW LEVEL SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS .................. 2-5 206. RADAR SUMMARY CHARTS ............................................................................. 2-8 207. NEXT GENERATION RADAR (NEXRAD) ....................................................... 2-12 208. WEATHER DEPICTION CHARTS...................................................................... 2-17 209. WINDS-ALOFT FORECASTS ............................................................................. 2-22 210. FLIGHT ALTITUDE SELECTION....................................................................... 2-25 STUDY QUESTIONS..............................................................