ATESTAT engleza

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Colegiul National Calistrat Hogas Tecuci

LUCRARE DE ATESTAT LIMBA ENGLEZA

Sima Danut Clasa a XII-a A Matematica informatica Bilingv limba engleza Profesor coordonator: Marin Oana

2012

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CONTENTSIntroduction.. 3 Chapter I British Castles .. 4 1. Medieval Castles.... 4 2. The Decline of Castles... 6 Chapter II Castels from Scotland... 8 1. Edinburgh Castle.... 8 1.1. Davids Tower... 9 1.2. Half Moon Battery......... 10 1.3. The Crown Room.. 10 1.4. The One OClock Gun... 11 2. Dornoch Castle ...... 12 3. Inveraray Castle...... 15 Chapter III Castels from England....... 19 1. Eastnor Castle......... 19 1.1. The First Earl Somers.... 20 1.2. The Construction of the Castle...... 20 1.3. The Interior of the Castle....... 21 2. Warwick Castle........... 22 Bibliography.. 28

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Introduction

Britain is strewn with ruins of castles, rubble from the centuries of her existence. Castles are tangible relics of a remarkable past, a lengthy heritage etched in stone, as well as with the blood and sweat of those who built, labored, fought, and died in their shadow. Ruins stir up in us a profound awareness of those past lives. Castles have a timelessness that is awe-inspiring. That they have endured centuries of warfare and the effects of weather is a testimony to the creativity and power of their medieval owners. Most of the fortifications that we consider as 'proper' castles were built during the Middle Ages (c.1000-1500). Unlike most other buildings, such as a church, a house or an inn, they served more than one purpose. A castle was a home for its owner and family, a place where guests could be entertained and often the local centre for administration and justice, but it was also built strong enough to defend its occupants while acting as a base from which attacks on neighbors or more distant enemies could be launched. Later buildings, which are often still referred to as a castle or have the word castle in their name, served only a single purpose, as forts built purely for defense or stately homes built solely as a residence. The word castle has become a generic term used to describe many types of fortification, and there are many structures that pre-date the Middle Ages that are often referred to as castles. In the 13th century BC, the Hittites built stone walls with square towers around their capital in Turkey. The Egyptians built a fortress out of mud bricks, with massive gatehouses and square towers, to defend their southern borders, 1500 years BC. From the 16th to the 12th centuries BC, small, separate kingdoms dominated much of mainland Greece, each with its own fortified citadel. The first fortifications began to appear in Britain from the 5th century BC, with the construction of Iron Age hill-forts. Maiden Castle in Dorset is one of the most impressive examples. These great earthworks (a series of ditches and raised earth banks) were topped by a wooden wall (palisade), and usually protected a settlement. However, they proved no match for the Romans when they invaded England in the 1st century AD. They quickly overpowered the hill forts and imposed their own authority by constructing forts, built to a standard rectangular plan, across much of the country. Some were built quickly out of wood while others were more permanent structures built of brick or stone.

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Chapter I British Castels

1. Medieval castlesIn medieval Europe the first castles appeared in the 9th century, when the Carolingian empire was collapsing as a result of Viking and Magyar raids. As central authority disintegrated, nobles fought for power and territory. They built castles so that they could control and defend their land. These castles started out as simple, wooden structures, relying on natural defenses such as rivers or hills, but soon builders were adding earthworks - mounds, banks and ditches - for extra defense. Earthworks could be mounds, called mottes, or round, raised enclosures, called ring works. A motte was topped by a wooden tower; while a ring work contained buildings protected by a wooden palisade. In each case earth was dug from the perimeter area, leaving a protective ditch. The fragmentation of land into separate estates or domains, and the manner in which they were ruled, led to the development of feudalism. The most powerful men, the counts, dukes and kings, controlled more than one estate. They would keep some of the land for themselves and give control of the rest to other lords. In return these lords promised to provide knights for their overlord's wars and for the garrisoning of their overlord's castles. In theory, a person's allegiance was always to their overlord, however there were constant battles for land and power and some men became almost as powerful as their overlord. Castles played an important part in European warfare, and William the Conqueror brought this knowledge with him. He built his first defensive structure within the walls of the old Roman Fort at Pevensey where his invasion force had landed. He then continued to build castles to defend his line of retreat and within two weeks of landing had built castles at Hastings and Dover. After his victory at the battle of Hastings he went to London where he was crowned King of England, on Christmas Day 1066. The period of Norman castle building had begun. As William's forces spread across the county they built castles as a means to subdue and control the populace. William claimed all the land as his own but gave grants of land (fiefs) to the Norman lords that had provided him with military assistance during the invasion. In order to prevent any of them achieving the level of power that he had acquired in France, he gave them many separate estates spread across the country so that it would be difficult for any one lord to join all his forces together in a single power base. In order to protect and control their new lands the lords built castles on each of their estates. By the time of William's death, in 1087, there were 86 Norman castles in England. The early castles were mainly 'ring works' or 'motte and baileys' which were quick to construct. A 'motte and bailey' castle consisted of a large mound, or motte, where possible based on solid rock, and made of compacted rubble and earth, topped with a wooden tower. It provided a look-out post, as well as adding tactically important height if the castle was attacked. The 'bailey' was a large, level enclosed area beside the motte, surrounded by an earthwork bank and ditch, topped with a timber palisade. The bailey often contained a hall, buildings for livestock, a forge and armory, and a chapel. Due to the use of wood in their construction, these castles were particularly vulnerable to fire. Many of these early wooden castles were later rebuilt in stone making use of the 4

old earthworks. Stone castles needed more workers, were more expensive, and took much longer to build than wooden ones, but they were fireproof and much more secure. The first stone castles were usually centered on a large tower. The earliest known stone tower was built at Dou-laFontaine, France, in c.950. In 1079, work started on a great stone tower at London, now known as the White Tower, at the Tower of London, and at a similar time at Colchester Castle. The great stone tower, donjon, or keep was much stronger than its timber predecessor, and its height gave defending soldiers a good view and better line of fire. A great tower provided secure storage for money and documents as well as offering more comfortable accommodation for the nobles. Castle builders turned the unique character of each site to their advantage, and keeps were built too many different designs, including rectangular, circular, square, multi-sided and D-shaped. At Portchester, the Norman keep was built inside the walls of an existing Roman fort. Others, like Chepstow, turned natural features such as sheer cliffs to their advantage, using the added protection they provided on one or more of the castle's flanks. A variation on the standard keep was the shell keep. A tall circular wall was built around the top of a motte, and all the most important buildings were placed inside, against the walls of the shell. The best example is Restormel Castle in Cornwall, and others can be seen at Totnes in Devon and Lewes Castle in Sussex. Curtain walls with projecting towers (so that the area in front of the walls could be shot at by defenders in the towers) became a standard of castle design. A great tower was not a necessity with this type of defense because a hall and other rooms could be built inside the courtyard, or in the wall towers or gatehouse. The weakest part of these castles was

the gateway and great effort was made to reinforce this part of the castle. The barbican was developed as a way to strengthen the entrance, by adding more defenses in front of it, often a long corridor with multiple gates and portcullises, and holes above that defenders could use to fire on attackers below. 5

During the 13th century, fortifications built to a concentric design began to appear. These castles had an inner circuit of curtain walls completely encircled by an outer circuit of walls that were built low enough to allow an unobstructed line-of-fire from the inner walls. Beyond the outer walls, moats and further defenses were often constructed. The idea may have come from knights who had seen the twin walls of the city of Constantinople during the crusades. Concentric castles had two main advantages: firstly, attackers had to get through more barriers; secondly, defending archers could stand on more than one set of walls, thus unleashing more firepower. Good examples of concentric castles can be seen at Beaumaris and Caerphilly in Wales, and at Dover Castle in Kent, generally considered to be the first British castle to feature a concentric design. Once the Normans were firmly establish