Arnaud Thesis

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    Hydrogen Systems Modelling,Analysis and Optimisation

    MPhil ThesisSeptember 2009

    Arnaud ETE

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    Table of contents

    ABSTRACT .......................................................... ................................................................... ............... 8

    A. INTRODUCTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT ........................................... 9

    1. Hydrogen economy ....................................................................................... 9 2. Project rationale............................................................................................. 9

    B. TECHNOLOGICAL REVIEW AND MARKET ANALYSIS ................................................10

    I. Technological review ..................................................................................... 10 1. Hydrogen production................................................................................... 10

    a. Hydrogen production from fossil fuels ................................................... 11 b. Hydrogen production from electrolysis................................................... 13 c. Hydrogen production from biomass ........................................................ 16 d. Centralised and distributed hydrogen production ................................... 17 e. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 18

    2. Hydrogen storage ........................................................................................ 19 a. Gaseous hydrogen ................................................................................... 19

    b. Liquid hydrogen ...................................................................................... 20 c. Solid hydrogen ........................................................................................ 22 d. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 24

    II. Review and selection of hydrogen systems .................................................. 26 1. Low power applications .............................................................................. 29 2. Stand-alone power system ........................................................................... 29 3. Energy buffering system ............................................................................. 31 4. Filling station with on-site hydrogen generation......................................... 32 5. Conclusions ................................................................................................. 32

    C. MODELLING ACTIVITIES .....................................................................................................34

    I. Modelling tools............................................................................................... 34 II. Description of the models and the main components................................. 36

    1. Structure of the generic systems models ..................................................... 36 2. Mathematical models .................................................................................. 42

    a. Advanced Alkaline Electrolyser.............................................................. 42 b. Compressed gas storage .......................................................................... 44 c. Multistage compressor ............................................................................ 45 d. Power conditioning unit .......................................................................... 46 e. Proton-Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) .................................... 47 f. Photovoltaic array ................................................................................... 48 g. Master level controller for SAPS ............................................................ 49

    3. Cost-benefit analysis ................................................................................... 51 a. Initial capital cost .................................................................................... 52

    b. Annualised capital cost............................................................................ 52 c. Annualised replacement cost ................................................................... 53 d. O&M (operation and maintenance) cost ................................................. 54 e. Annualised cost ....................................................................................... 54 f. Total net present cost............................................................................... 54 g. Levelized cost of energy ......................................................................... 54

    h.

    Implementing cost-benefit analysis in TRNSYS .................................... 55

    4. Analysis of the results ................................................................................. 56

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    a. Technical performance ............................................................................ 56 b. Monthly graphs ....................................................................................... 57 c. Components operation............................................................................. 58 d. Cost-benefit analysis ............................................................................... 59

    5. TRNEdit: creating distributable stand-alone TRNSED applications .......... 60

    a. Advantages .............................................................................................. 60 b. TRNSED features .................................................................................... 63

    6. Conclusions ................................................................................................. 69 III. Using the Modelling to Optimise Performance ...................................... 70

    1. Optimisation Process ................................................................................... 70 a. Options and constraints ........................................................................... 70

    b. The iterative process................................................................................ 70 2. Methodology ............................................................................................... 72

    IV. Validation of the models ........................................................................... 74 1. Techniques of validation ............................................................................. 74 2. Validation examples .................................................................................... 74

    a. PV generator ............................................................................................ 74 b. Wind turbine ............................................................................................ 76 c. Fuel cell ................................................................................................... 77 d. Control strategy ....................................................................................... 79 e. Convergence tolerance ............................................................................ 79 f. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 80

    V. Case study: the Utsira Project in Norway ................................................... 81 1. Overview of the Utsira system ................................................................ 81 2. Analysis of operational data .................................................................... 82 3. Calibrating of the system components in TRNSYS ................................ 85 4. Simulation of the current system ............................................................. 89 5. Optimisation of the system ...................................................................... 91

    CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................................................95

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ....................................................................................................................97

    REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................98

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ...............................................................................................................................102

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    Figure 48: Operational data (10-minute averages) from Utsira, 1-30 March 2007 .... 84 Figure 49: Operational data (10-minute averages) measured at Utsira on 5 March

    2007 ..................................................................................................................... 85 Figure 50: Performance of the hydrogen engine at Utsira .......................................... 86 Figure 51: Validation of the operation of the hydrogen engine at Utsira ................... 86

    Figure 52: Calibration of the Utsira electrolyser model .............................................. 87 Figure 53: Current and power curves for the Utsira electrolyser ................................ 88 Figure 54: Operation of the electrolyser at Utsira, real and simulated ....................... 88 Figure 55: Modelled operation of the electrolyser and the hydrogen eng

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