Are these items Popular Music? Which of these Examples are popular music Why? Why not?

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  • Are these items Popular Music?Which of these Examples are popular musicWhy?Why not?

  • Possible Definitions Popular= widely liked or supportedPopular=of the peoplePopular Music as one genre of a trio: folk, art, popular

  • Widely liked?What about unpopular popular musical genresWhat about popular art music styles?How do we measure thisDifferent kinds of use and engagementMarket is too diverse, so impact and use may differ with different genresWhat about Non-commodity forms of music

  • Commercially oriented music?Music produced for mass marketThis compares PM with folk forms associated with face-to-face communitiesWhat about Amateur performers?What about Pre-modern societies?

  • Folk music?Idea emerged in 19th centurydas Volk (the folk) first used by German writer Johann Herder late 1700sIdea of the folk as carriers of national spiritFolk as a purified people (a romantic fantasy)

  • Popular vs folkthe folk are not the mob of the streets, who never sing or compose, but shriek and mutilate (Herder 1778)Quotes from Hubert Parry (English composer) form English Folk Song Society(1899) (popular is cheap, low, corrupting) Music hall is an enemy at the door of folk music which is driving it outproduct of overgrown town, like sham jewellery, shoddy clothes, commonest rowdyism

  • History of term popular musicFirst use in English in 19th CEg William Chappells Popular Music of the Olden TimeNot widely used in current sense before 1930sequivalent terms not always in other languages

  • Possible characteristics of Popular MusicDistribution: usually mass cf sectionalStorage: usually recordingsMusic theory and aesthetics: ?Composer/author often collective?Music that has some relationship to an industry:Commercial/creativity contrast

  • Definition offered by Simon Frith in Symposium Can we get rid of the Popular in Popular Music (Popular Music 2005)

    *Music made commercially in a particular kind of legal (copyright) and economic (market) system; *Music made using an even-changing technology of sound storage; *Music significantly experienced as mass mediated;*Music primarily made for social and bodily pleasure; *Music which is formally hybrid

  • History of Commercial popular music First mass music industry: Sheet music industryNineteenth century: large English music publishersSpread of the Upright Piano: Emergence of the drawing room ballad

  • Entertainment and Popular MusicNineteenth century popular theatreMinstrel show: based on negro impersonatorsNovelty acts, grotesques, comedies, spectaculars

  • RecordingEdison invents phonograph in 18771877 Berliner invents disc medium1890s a commercial domestic playing machine developedCommercial recordings start around 1900

  • Early recordings soloists and singers: eg Caruso, Nellie Melba,Most Popular performers: theatrical performersDuration of 1 side=3 minutesElectric recordings: developed from 1919, but become standard from 19251934: magnetic tape developed by BASF Germany

  • 1948: PVC vinyl developed: advantages over shellac: microgroove recording12 LP recording: initially for classical recordings. First concept LPs mid 1950sDevelopment of overdubbing techniques and tape based studio recording

  • 1965 : cassette developed, patented by Phillips1979: The Walkman revolution begins1981: MTV video support of pop music1982: CD technology1988: CD passes vinyl

  • 1989: DAT tape invented1992: Minidisc technology1996 the DVD standard set1998 MP3 developed2001- iPod developed >> iTunes and mass internet marketing of music

  • Aesthetics of Popular MusicDoes Popular Music have its own aesthetic systemFrequently cited characteristics: 1. Entertainment music2. Secular (non-sacred music)3. Intuitive appreciation?4. Bodily or hedonistic appreciation?

  • Anti-aesthetics of Popular MusicEg Theodor Adorno:German political philosopher and composerPopular music isDebasedStandardisedServes to stupefy, subdue or dominate the masses

  • Standardisation?Popular music and standardisation:Song forms:32 ballad formverse/chorus/bridge/chorusRepetitive structuresEg Riff structures in rockRepetitive dance beat patternsImprovisatory forms tend to use patterns and structures

    1Played about 15 items on the birnt Cds genres 1 and genres 2, and the CD with the items of the O fortuna straiognt and dance remix

    As most of thjese were popular under some definitionI asked for srundetns who thought one was not popular and why they thought so, then asked for another who was pre3pared to defenc dthe poularity of the item.

    Ionly covered a smalll part of then paterial in this group of slides ; inclueing;History of term; cjhappel, use

    Cpoxssible meanings;As given;Qualities of popular music in the broad cuerrent sense as listed in TaggSheet music industry as first popular music industryRecoding : inventionsDevelopment of disc78 rpm 3 minute 10 discDevelopmen tof plastics after the war for shellac leads aot micrgoroove recording: LP recording 30mins /side

    34567289Upright piano: form early 1800s with numerous models and patents developed through the 19th C10Minstrel show

    Developed form 1820s, first perfomers were white imitators of black stereotypes in music and dialect, often derogatory or with a sense of the the outlandish style: typical of attitudes to subordinate cultures,

    Develoed into mistrel show, numerous acts, humerous songs, dances , theatrucakl displays,Using instruments assocaited with plantation slave musicians: but the the actual connection was fairly shakey.

    Howeer it set up styles of Fascinations and imitationi of blacjk musical styles and forsmPpopular theatreSentimental depictions of slave life: natural simple down home attitudes: eg the songs of stephen foster

    From the psot civil war (1860s) development of black minstrel troupes: so they became the way for balcker entertianers to 1311121314151617181920