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AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria Animalia Fungi ProtistaPlantae 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 1500 0 1000 Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere Oldest definite fossils of eukaryotes First multicellular organisms Appearance of animals and land plants Colonization of land by animals Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Millions of years ago ARCHEAN PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. 1. Fossils 2. Genetics 3. Physiology

AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria AnimaliaFungiProtistaPlantae 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 1500 0 1000 Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of

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Slide 2 AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria AnimaliaFungiProtistaPlantae 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 1500 0 1000 Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere Oldest definite fossils of eukaryotes First multicellular organisms Appearance of animals and land plants Colonization of land by animals Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Millions of years ago ARCHEAN PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. 1. Fossils 2. Genetics 3. Physiology The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. 1. Fossils 2. Genetics 3. Physiology Slide 3 AP Biology Archaebacteria & Bacteria Classification Old 5 Kingdom system Monera Protists Plants Fungi Animals Prokaryote Eukaryote Slide 4 AP Biology Classifying Life Molecular data challenges 5 Kingdoms Monera was too diverse 2 distinct lineages of prokaryotes Protists are still too diverse not yet sorted out Slide 5 AP Biology 3 Domain system Domains = Super Kingdoms Bacteria Archaea extremophiles = live in extreme environments methanogens halogens thermophiles Eukarya eukaryotes protists fungi plants animals Slide 6 AP Biology Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom Bacteria Slide 7 AP Biology Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaebacteria Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Common ancestor Slide 8 AP Biology Bacteria live EVERYWHERE! Bacteria live in all ecosystems on plants & animals in plants & animals in the soil in depths of the oceans in extreme cold in extreme hot in extreme salt on the living on the dead Slide 9 AP Biology Bacterial diversity rods and spheres and spirals Oh My! Slide 10 AP Biology Prokaryote Structure Unicellular bacilli, cocci, spirilli Size 1/10 size of eukaryote cell 1 micron (1um) Internal structure no internal compartments no membrane-bound organelles only ribosomes circular, naked DNA not wrapped around proteins prokaryote cell eukaryote cell Slide 11 AP Biology Variations in Cell Interior aerobic bacterium cyanobacterium (photosythetic) bacterium internal membranes for photosynthesis like a chloroplast (thylakoids) internal membranes for respiration like a mitochondrion (cristae) Slide 12 AP Biology Prokaryote Cell Wall Structure peptide side chains cell wall peptidoglycan plasma membrane protein Gram-positive bacteria Gram-negative bacteria peptidoglycan plasma membrane outer membrane outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides cell wall peptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chains lipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharides Slide 13 AP Biology Prokaryotic metabolism How do bacteria acquire their energy & nutrients? photoautotrophs photosynthetic bacteria chemoautotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen heterotrophs live on plant & animal matter decomposers & pathogens Slide 14 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Mutations bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes binary fission error rate in copying DNA 1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation Genetic recombination bacteria swap genes plasmids small supplemental circles of DNA Slide 15 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Transformation Taking in DNA from the environment Cell surface receptors recognize closely related DNA and take it in! Griffith experiment, showing genetic material could be transferred Slide 16 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Transduction Bacteriophages Specialized viruses that infect bacteria only Take DNA from one bacteria to another Like a mosquito carrying a parasite Slide 17 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Conjugation Two bacteria are temporarily joined by a pilus One way only Slide 18 AP Biology Bacteria as pathogens Disease-causing microbes plant diseases wilts, fruit rot, blights animal diseases tooth decay, ulcers anthrax, botulism plague, leprosy, flesh-eating disease STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia typhoid, cholera TB, pneumonia lyme disease Slide 19 AP Biology Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary) Life on Earth is dependent on bacteria decomposers recycling of nutrients from dead to living nitrogen fixation only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids plant root nodules help in digestion (E. coli) digest cellulose for herbivores cellulase enzyme produce vitamins K & B 12 for humans produce foods & medicines from yogurt to insulin Slide 20 AP Biology Any Questions??