Ancient Greece500-323 B.C.E.
Greek GeographySurrounded by water.Greece is mountainousGreek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse.As a result, they fought each other a lot.
Polis city statesFor protection, localized government, and self sufficiencyMost were ruled by tyrants.
Greek religion was polytheistic.
Greek ArchitectureGreeks invented arches and columns.This obviously took advanced mathematics.
More Greek Architecture
The Greeks were the original Olympiads. Their scientists studied the best way to perform sports.
Greek InventionsThe Greeks invented dice.The Greeks invented the crane.
Political termsThere were different forms of government across Greece.Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of government ruled by a king or queen.Pericles, a good king of Athens.
AthensAthenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.Democracy, government by the people and power limited by a constitution.
SpartaSpartans valued strength and all citizens had mandatory military service. Oligarchy, government by a select few.
The PhilosophersSocrates, Plato, Aristotle What is good government?Foundation of modern political thoughtHandout
SocratesQuestioning is best method for learning?????
Plato: Wrote The RepublicA city state should be organized as:Philosopher kings
The educated masses
Aristotle: Wrote PoliticsConstitutional governments are the best! All citizens, even leaders must follow the law Citizens have not only rights but responsibilities to the state
Aristotle: Wrote PoliticsConstitutional governments are the best! All citizens, even leaders must follow the law Citizens have not only rights but responsibilities to the stateCIVIC DUTY!
Types of DemocracyDirect Democracy (town hall)
Indirect Democracy (elected representatives most common today)
Oligarchy (rule by very few)
SpartaSparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens.Military culture and warSparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a few. They had 2 kings.During the Peloponnesian War, Sparta fought Athens. Who do you think won?
Quotation #1The fundamental motif through all the centuries has been the principle that force and power are the determining factors. All development is struggle. Only force rules. Force is the first law. . . . Only through struggle have states and the world become great. If one should ask whether this struggle is gruesome, then the only answer could be or the weak, yes, for humanity as a whole, no. Instead of everlasting struggle, the world preaches cowardly pacifism, and everlasting peace. These three things, considered in the light of their ultimate consequences, are the causes of the downfall of all humanity.
Quotation #2We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
How did geography impact Greek culture?Define democracy. Give an example of a type of government that favors the use of force.Why are Greek philosophers important today?In the end, which Greek city/state has had the most influence on the modern world? Why?