Ancient Egypt Mr. Koch Forest Lake High School World History A

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Text of Ancient Egypt Mr. Koch Forest Lake High School World History A

Ancient Egypt

Ancient EgyptMr. KochForest Lake High SchoolWorld History ANile RiverProvides life to EgyptSupports animal life, irrigation/siltFlood cycle gave Egypt its seasonsFlood timePlanting timeHarvesting timeFlows north and prevailing winds blow south aids transportation

EgyptSurrounded by deserts that isolate and protect

Cataracts Waterfalls or rapidsProtected from invaders from south

Upper EgyptSouthern part of the Nile RiverEnds at the last cataractLower EgyptDelta region of the Niletriangular marsh land that formed deposits of silt

Old Kingdom (2700 BC -2200 BC)Pharaohs organized strong central govt Claimed divine supportAbsolute power, owned all land in the kingdomVizier = pharaohs chief advisorsThousands of scribes carried out his instructions.

Old Kingdom (2700 BC -2200 BC)The Pyramid AgeEternal tombsBuilt without tools or the wheelExample of the strength of the empire Only period they were builtWhy did they stop?

Great Pyramid for Pharaoh Khufu at GizaBase was size of 10 football fields480 feet tall2 million stone block2.5 tons eachTook 20 years to buildGreat Pyramid for Pharaoh Khufu at Giza

Middle Kingdom (2200 BC -1700 BC)Armies occupy Nubia, export goldExpand trade to Middle East, CreteMany problemsCrop failuresPower struggles & corruption Cost of pyramid buildingHyksos invade 1700 BCOccupied Delta regionUsed horse drawn chariots (awed Egyptians)100 years before new family rises and force Hyksos out of Egypt

New Kingdom (1600 BC -1000 BC)Empire grows to peak of power/territoryVery powerful rulersHatshepsut Female ruler (1503 BC 1482 BC)Expanded tradeRule with same powers as menRamses IIRuled as far north as SyriaFought the Hittites of Asia MinorDecline began after his rule

Tutankhamen1361-1352 BCBecomes pharaoh at age 8.He dies at age 18.Buried with everything he would need in the afterlifeChariots, weapons, toys, furniture, jewelry, games, and foodSolid gold coffinHis tomb and riches discovered by Howard Carter in 1922.Why significant?The only pharaoh to be found with all riches intact.

Tutankhamens Burial Chamber

Tutankhamens Burial Chamber

Tutankhamens Burial Chamber

Tutankhamens Burial Chamber

Egyptian CivilizationEgyptian CivilizationPolytheistic ReligionAmon-ReSun godChief godPharaoh Viewed as a godClosely linked to Amon-ReOsiris = god of the afterlifeGod of the NileJudged souls of the deadIsis = wife of OsirisAppealed to womenTaught women how to grind corn, raise children, and weave cloth

Egyptian CivilizationBelief in the afterlifeDead souls ferried across lake of fire to Osiris to be judgedHeart weighed against feather of truthWorthy souls entered Happy Field of Food to spend eternitySinners fed to the Eater of the DeadBook of the DeadGave instructions on how to live your life in order to pass Osiris judgmentGives us detailed values of Egyptians

Egyptian CivilizationAfterlife ContdMummification = preservation of the deadEmbalmers removed brain through nostrils and most internal organsCavities filled with spicesBody dried and wrapped in linens

Anubis: god of embalming

Egyptian CivilizationFarmersVast majority of populationHad to serve Pharaoh in the off season Building palaces, pyramids, and tombsWomen worked fields with menRaised childrenMore rights then the rest of the ancient world

Egyptian CivilizationWritten RecordsHieroglyphics = Egyptian picture writingKept important recordsIdeograms = pictures that symbolize idea or actionAdded later by scribesDemotic = simple form of writing for everyday useDeveloped by scribesPapyrus = paper like writing material from plant that grew on the banks of the NileMore convenient then carving hieroglyphicsStone carvings still used for official records

Egyptian CivilizationRosetta StoneBlack stone Same message in three scriptsHieroglyphsDemoticGreekDeciphered by Jean Champollin in early 1800s