Alternative Textile Cleaning Processes and Alternative Textile Cleaning Processes and Spotting Chemicals:

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  • Alternative Textile Cleaning Processes Alternative Textile Cleaning Processes and Spotting Chemicals: and Spotting Chemicals: gg

    Will They Really Be Safer?Will They Really Be Safer?

    Katy Wolf, Ph.D.y Institute for Research and

    Technical Assistance

  • INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND S U O S CS U O S C TECHNICAL ASSISTANCETECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

    NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 1989• NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 1989

    • ASSISTS COMPANIES, WHOLE INDUSTRIES IN ADOPTING

    SAFER ALTERNATIVES

    – EMPHASIS ON SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES

    • IDENTIFIES, DEVELOPS, TESTS, DEMONSTRATES

    ALTERNATIVES

    • EXPERIENCE IN CLEANING , DRY CLEANING, PAINT

    STRIPPING, COATINGS AND ADHESIVES

  • BACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUND

    • 5,000 TEXTILE CLEANERS IN CALIFORNIA

    • ROUGHLY TWO-THIRDS OF CLEANERS USE PERCHLOROETHYLENE (PERC)

    – ONE-THIRD HAVE CONVERTED TO ALTERNATIVES

    • PERC IS A CARCINOGEN

    – LISTED ON PROP 65

    – ON HAP AND TAC LISTS

    LISTED RCRA WASTE– LISTED RCRA WASTE

    • MANY CLEANERS USE POG SPOTTING CHEMICALS

    – PERC OR TCEPERC OR TCE

  • BACKGROUND CONT’DBACKGROUND CONT’DBACKGROUND CONT DBACKGROUND CONT D

    • TCE, LIKE PERC, IS A CARCINOGEN • REGULATIONS, TRENDS AFFECTING PERC USE IN DRY

    CLEANING – SCAQMD REGULATION BANS PERC USE IN DRY CLEANING INSCAQMD REGULATION BANS PERC USE IN DRY CLEANING IN

    2020 – CARB REGULATION BANS PERC USE IN 2023

    LANDLORDS GENERALLY WILL NOT RENEW LEASE FOR– LANDLORDS GENERALLY WILL NOT RENEW LEASE FOR PERC CLEANERS

    • REGULATIONS AFFECTING PERC, TCE USE IN SPOTTING CHEMICALS – NONE YET, BUT SOME ARE LIKELY

  • PERC DRY CLEANING PROCESSPERC DRY CLEANING PROCESSPERC DRY CLEANING PROCESSPERC DRY CLEANING PROCESS

    • PERC HAS NO FLASH POINT AND IT HAS A BOILING POINT OF 250 DEGREES FOF 250 DEGREES F

    • PERC IS AGGRESSIVE ON SOILS AND MAY DAMAGE DELICATE ITEMS

    • PERC DRY CLEANING PROCESS – PERC, DETERGENT, WATER – GARMENTS ARE OFTEN SPOTTED TO REMOVE STAINSGARMENTS ARE OFTEN SPOTTED TO REMOVE STAINS – GARMENTS WEIGHED AND PUT INTO MACHINE WHEEL – WASH STEP, EXTRACTION STEP AND DRY STEP

    TYPICAL CYCLE IS 45 MINUTES– TYPICAL CYCLE IS 45 MINUTES – GARMENTS REMOVED, ARE SOMETIMES POST-SPOTTED AND

    FINISHED

  • Typical PERCTypical PERC Machine

  • PERC DRY CLEANING PERC DRY CLEANING PROCESS CONT’DPROCESS CONT’D

    • PERC MACHINES ARE DRY-TO-DRY CLOSED LOOP• PERC MACHINES ARE DRY-TO-DRY CLOSED LOOP – CONTAIN AN INTERNAL REFRIGERATED CONDENSER

    – USE DISTILLATION AND FILTRATION

    • EMISSIONS OCCUR FROM – LEAKS IN THE EQUIPMENT

    – PERC IN DRUM AFTER CYCLE

    • WASTE STREAMS STILL BOTTOMS– STILL BOTTOMS

    – SPENT FILTERS OR SLUDGE

    – SEPARATOR WATER

  • FOCUS OF DISCUSSIONFOCUS OF DISCUSSIONFOCUS OF DISCUSSIONFOCUS OF DISCUSSION

    • IRTA PROJECTS

    – CARB/EPA PROJECT ON PERC DRY CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    – DTSC PROJECT ON HYDROCARBON ALTERNATIVE

    – DTSC/EPA PROJECT ON SPOTTING CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES

    • ALTERNATIVES TO PERC IN DRY CLEANING

    • ALTERNATIVES TO PERC, TCE SPOTTING CHEMICALS

  • ALTERNATIVES TO ALTERNATIVES TO PERC DRY CLEANINGPERC DRY CLEANING

    • HYDROCARBON • PURE DRY • GREEN EARTH • GLYCOL ETHER• GLYCOL ETHER • TRADITIONAL WET CLEANING • ICY WATER • GREEN JET • CARBON DIOXIDE • OTHER

    – n-PROPYL BROMIDE SOLVAIR– SOLVAIR

  • HYDROCARBONHYDROCARBONHYDROCARBONHYDROCARBON • HYDROCARBON SOLD BY THREE MANUFACTURERS

    – MOST WIDELY USED ALTERNATIVEOS US – SYNTHETIC ISOPARAFFIN – SOLVENT IS VOC BUT PROBABLY NOT HIGH IN TOXICITY

    HIGHER FLASH POINT (>140 DEGREES F) THAN TRADITIONAL– HIGHER FLASH POINT (>140 DEGREES F) THAN TRADITIONAL PETROLEUM SOLVENTS

    – CLASS III A SOLVENT SO MACHINES GENERALLY HAVE NITROGENNITROGEN

    – BETTER “HAND” THAN PERC – DISTILLATION PERFORMED IN VACUUM

    LONGER CYCLE TIME THAN PERC– LONGER CYCLE TIME THAN PERC – BACTERIA GROWTH

  • Hydrocarbon y Machine

  • HYDROCARBON CONT’DHYDROCARBON CONT’DHYDROCARBON CONT DHYDROCARBON CONT D

    MANY CLEANERS USE TONSIL WITH HYDROCARBON• MANY CLEANERS USE TONSIL WITH HYDROCARBON

    – TONSIL IS ABSORBENT

    – BLEEDING, DISTILLATION, DETERGENT, BACTERIA

  • Hydrocarbon TonsilHydrocarbon Tonsil Machine

  • PURE DRYPURE DRYPURE DRYPURE DRY

    • VARIATION OF HYDROCARBON• VARIATION OF HYDROCARBON

    • USES ADDITIVES

    – PFC

    – HFC

    – REQUIRES SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT

  • GREEN EARTHGREEN EARTHGREEN EARTHGREEN EARTH

    • DECAMETHYLCYCLOPENTASILOXANEDECAMETHYLCYCLOPENTASILOXANE

    – VMS CALLED D5

    – HIGHER FLASH POINT THAN HYDROCARBON

    • LESS AGGRESSIVE CLEANER THAN PERC

    – BETTER HAND THAN PERC

    • CYCLE TIME LONGER THAN PERC AND HYDROCARBON

    • D5 NOT CLASSIFIED AS A VOC

    • D5 CAUSED CANCER IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    – OEHHA INDICATED MECHANISM NOT VIABLE

  • GLYCOL ETHERGLYCOL ETHERGLYCOL ETHERGLYCOL ETHER • NOT CLEAR WHAT GLYCOL ETHER IS USED • IN PRINCIPLE, IS “BEST” ALTERNATIVE FROM CLEANING

    STANDPOINT – SOLVENT AND WATER SOLUBLE COMPONENTSSOLVENT AND WATER SOLUBLE COMPONENTS

    • AGGRESSIVE CLEANER • WATER SEPARATION DIFFICULT • DO NOT NEED TO SPOT • CYCLE TIME IS LONG

    G CO S OC• GLYCOL ETHERS ARE VOCs • TOXICITY NOT CLEAR

  • TRADITIONAL WET CLEANINGTRADITIONAL WET CLEANING

    • RELIES ON WATER AND DETERGENT

    • WASHER AND HUMIDITY CONTROLLED DRYER

    – GARMENTS REMOVED WITH RESIDUAL MOISTURE CONTENT

    • AGGRESSIVE CLEANING METHOD

    • USED WITH TENSIONING EQUIPMENT FOR FINISHING

    – FINISHING LABOR IS HIGHER

    • NOT ACCEPTED BY INDUSTRY AS EXCLUSIVE ALTERNATIVE

  • TraditionalTraditional Wet Cleaning Equipment

  • ICY WATERICY WATER

    • SIMILAR TO WET CLEANING

    • USES WASHER WITH REFRIGERATED CONDENSER, LOWER AGITATION

    • DRIES IN COLD AIR

    • CAN USE TRADITIONAL FINISHING EQUIPMENT

    – GARMENTS EASIER TO FINISH

    • EQUIPMENT MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE

  • GREEN JETGREEN JET

    • RELIES ON WATER AND DETERGENT

    • USES SPRAY OF WATER/DETERGENT RATHER THAN IMMERSION

    – FINISHING MUCH EASIER THAN FOR WET CLEANING

    • VERY NON-AGGRESSIVE CLEANING

    – BETTER AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNOLOGY

  • Green Jet MachineGreen Jet Machine

  • CARBON DIOXIDECARBON DIOXIDE

    • USES CARBON DIOXIDE AND DETERGENT FOR CLEANING

    • MACHINES OPERATE UNDER 700 PSI PRESSURE

    • NON-AGGRESSIVE CLEANER

    • SHORT CYCLE TIME

    • EQUIPMENT VERY EXPENSIVE

  • CarbonCarbon Dioxide Equipment

  • OTHEROTHEROTHEROTHER

    • n-PB – REPRODUCTIVE TOXIN, CAUSES NERVE DAMAGE, MAY BE

    CARCINOGEN

    – USED IN PERC MACHINE

    – AGGRESSIVE CLEANER

    – UNSTABLE TO HYDROLYSISUNSTABLE TO HYDROLYSIS

    • SOLVAIR – COMBINATION OF GLYCOL ETHER AND CARBON DIOXIDE

    – AGGRESSIVE CLEANER

    – EQUIPMENT VERY EXPENSIVE

  • CONCLUSIONS FOR TEXTILECONCLUSIONS FOR TEXTILECONCLUSIONS FOR TEXTILE CONCLUSIONS FOR TEXTILE CLEANING ALTERNATIVESCLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    • WET CLEANING, CARBON DIOXIDE BEST PROCESSES FROM OVERALL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL STANDPOINT – NOT ACCEPTED OR EXPENSIVE – REQUIRE TECHNICAL AND COST IMPROVEMENTS

    • MUCH OF INDUSTRY ADOPTING HYDROCARBON• MUCH OF INDUSTRY ADOPTING HYDROCARBON – NEXT GENERATION LIKELY TO BE WET CLEANING, CARBON

    DIOXIDE SOME ALTERNATIVES CLEARLY DANGEROUS• SOME ALTERNATIVES CLEARLY DANGEROUS – D5 – nPB

  • HAZARDOUS WASTEHAZARDOUS WASTEHAZARDOUS WASTE HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERNATIVESCHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERNATIVES • NONE ARE LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    • WASTE STREAMS UNLIKELY TO BE HAZARDOUS WASTE

    BY REASON OF CLEANING SOLVENT

    • WASTE STREAMS MAY EXHIBIT AQUATIC TOXICITY

    – DETERGENTS

    • WASTE STREAMS MAY BE HAZARDOUS BECAUSE OF

    SPOTTING CHEMICALS

  • WASTE STREAM SAMPLINGWASTE STREAM SAMPLING

    • TESTED WASH AND RINSE EFFLUENTS TWICE WITH LACSD – FOUR CLEANERS USING WATER-BASED SYSTEMS

    • TESTED STILL BOTTOMS / SLUDGE AND SEPARATOR WATER• TESTED STILL BOTTOMS / SLUDGE AND SEPARATOR WATER WITH LACSD – GREEN EARTH, HYDROCARBON AND GLYCOL ETHER CLEANERS

    • TESTED STILL BOTTOMS WITH LACSD – CARBON DIOXIDE CLEANER

    TESTED STILL BOTTOMS / SLUDGE AND SEPARATOR WATER• TESTED STILL BOTTOMS / SLUDGE AND SEPARATOR WATER WITH DTSC – EIGHT HYDROCARBON CLEANERS

  • WASTE STREAM ANALYSIS RESULTSWASTE STREAM ANALYSIS RESULTSWASTE STREAM ANALYSIS RESULTS WASTE STREAM ANALYSIS RESULTS • PERC OR TCE FOUND IN FIRST ROUND SAMPLES FROM

    THREE CLEANERS USING WATER-BASED PROCESSESTHREE CLEANERS USING WATER-BASED PROCESSES

    • PERC OR TCE FOUND IN SECOND ROUND SAMPLES FROM TWO CLEANERS USING WATER-BASED PROCESSES

    • NO TOXIC VOLATILE OR SEMI