Advanced Embedded ARM Processor

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    1V.Sathishkumar7/13/2012

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    What this session is about

    A principled, scientific approach to designing andimplementing embedded systems

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    ConceptSpecification

    HW/SWPartitioning

    Hardware Components

    Software Components

    Estimation -Exploration

    Hardware

    Software

    Evaluation (area, power, performance, reliability, security, )

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    Whats an Embedded System?

    Embedded systems =

    information processing systems thatinteract with physical processes and are

    embedded into a larger product

    Two types of computing

    Desktop produced millions/year

    Embeddedbillions/year

    Non-Embedded Systems

    PCs, servers, and notebooks

    The future of computing!

    Automobiles, entertainment,

    communication, aviation, handheld

    devices, military, medical equipment

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    Embedding a computer

    CPU

    mem

    input

    output analog

    analog

    embedded

    computer

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    Embedded System = Cyber Physical System

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    Areas

    According to forecasts, future ofIT characterized by terms such

    as

    Disappearing computer,

    Ubiquitous computing, Pervasive computing,

    Ambient intelligence,

    Post-PC era,

    Cyber-physical systems. Basic technologies:

    Embedded Systems

    Communication technologies

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    Extending the motivation:

    Embedded systems and Ubiquitous computing

    Ubiquitous computing: Information anytime, anywhere.Embedded systems provide fundamental technology.

    Communication

    Technology

    Optical networking

    Network management

    Distributed applications

    Service provision

    UMTS, DECT, Hiperlan, ATM

    Embedded

    Systems

    RobotsMulticore processing

    Control systems

    Feature extraction and

    recognition

    Sensors/actuators

    A/D-converters

    Pervasive/Ubiquitous computing

    Distributed systems

    Embedded web systems

    Real-time

    Dependability

    Qualityof

    service

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    An Example Embedded System

    Digital Camera Block Diagram

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    Components of Embedded Systems

    Analog Digital Analog

    Memory

    Coprocessors

    Controllers

    Converters

    Processor

    Interface

    Software(Application Programs)

    ASIC

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    Components of Embedded Systems

    Analog Components

    Sensors, Actuators,

    Digital Components

    Processor, Coprocessors, Memories, Buses

    Controllers, Application Specific Hardwares

    Converters

    Analog-to-Digital (A2D), D2A,

    Software Operating systems

    Middleware

    Applications (MPEG-x, GSM-kernel, )7/13/2012 13V.Sathishkumar

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    Automotive Electronics Platform Example

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    Automotive Electronics Market Size

    8.9Market

    ($billions)

    10.5 13.1 14.1 15.8 17.4 19.3 21.0

    0

    200400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

    Cost of Electronics / Car ($)

    90% of future innovations in vehicles:based on electronic embedded systems

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    Toyota Autonomous Vehicle Technology Roadmap

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    What can go wrong: BMW 745i

    2, 000, 000 LOC

    Windows CE OS

    53 8-bit P

    11 32-bit P

    7 16-bit P

    Multiple Networks

    Buggy!

    improper synchronization between two digital electronic controlunits

    would stall the engine and lead to a catastrophic accident in some

    cases

    Recent Toyota break/acceleration fiasco

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    BMW 850i, contd.

    brake

    sensor

    brake

    sensor

    brake

    sensor

    brake

    sensor

    ABShydraulic

    pump

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    Digital Convergence Mobile Example

    Broadcasting

    TelematicsImaging

    Computing

    CommunicationEntertainment

    One device, multiple functions

    Center of ubiquitous media network

    Smart mobile device: next drive for semicon. Industry7/13/2012 19V.Sathishkumar

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    Mobile graphics/games

    Millions of units

    Jon Peddie Research

    Handheld Multimedia Devices report

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    900

    2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    MM phones

    Non 3D MM phones

    Native API based phones

    Resolution today ~176x208 480x320In Japan, QVGA (320x240) is the norm

    Nokia series 90 is 640x320; Nokia N93 is 320x200

    Sony Ericsson S700i, M600i, K800i: 240x320

    IPhone, IPod Touch is 480x320

    Latest IPhone 4 has 960x640

    To 1024x768 and

    beyond in the future

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    Device Shrinkage: Macs

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    Growing Importance of ES

    the global mobile entertainment industry is now worth some $32 blnpredicting average

    revenue growth of28% for 2010[www.itfacts.biz, July 8th, 2009]

    Spending on GPS units exceeded $100 mln during Thanksgiving week, up 237% from 2006

    More people bought GPS units than bought PCs, NPD found. [www.itfacts.biz, Dec. 6th,2007]

    , the market forremote home health monitoring is expected to generate $225 mln

    revenue in 2011, up from less than $70 mln in 2006, according to Parks Associates..

    [www.itfacts.biz, Sep. 4th, 2007]

    Accessing the Internet via a mobile device up by 82% in the US, by 49% in Europe, fromMay 2007 to May 2008[www.itfacts.biz, July 29th, 2008]

    The future is embedded Embedded is the future!

    Foundation for the post PC era

    .. embedded chips form the backbone of the electronics driven world in which

    we live ... they are part of almost everything that runs on electricity[Mary Ryan,EEDesign, 1995]

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    Characteristics Application Specific

    Applications are known a priori

    Optimize for cost, area, power, and performance

    Digital Signal Processing

    Signals are represented digitally

    Reactive

    Reacts to changes in the systems environment

    Real-time

    Compute certain tasks before deadline

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    Characteristics Reliability

    Probability of system working correctly provided that is

    was working at t=0

    Maintainability

    Probability of system working correctly dtime units

    after error occurred.

    Safety

    Not harmful for user

    Security

    Confidential and authentic communication7/13/2012 24V.Sathishkumar

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    Real-Time Systems

    A systems where correctness depends onlogical results and the time the results areproduced

    Safety-critical: incorrect operation leads to human loss Mission-critical: incorrect operation leads to failed mission

    J.A. Stankovic et al. Strategic Directions in Real-Time and7/13/2012 25V.Sathishkumar

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    ICS212 Lecture 2Popular Embedded Application

    Domains

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    Aerospace

    Flight control

    Stability: real-time differentialfeedback loops

    Positioning & navigation

    GPS, INS

    Instrumentation Data acquisition, display,

    processing, and archive

    Radar

    Communication

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    Automobiles

    Engine management

    Fuel, ignition, timing

    Emission control

    Instrumentation

    Data acquisition, display,

    processing, and archive Safety & stability

    Airbags, active control

    Entertainment & comfort

    Radio, A/C,

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    Robotics

    Implies autonomous operation

    N physical degree of freedom

    Artificial intelligence

    Control heavy

    Mission oriented Repair, search, rescue, investigate,

    and perform physically difficult tasks

    l

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    Process Control

    Industrial automation

    Plant monitoring and production control

    Similar to control systems but with emphasis onmanagement

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    Sensor Nets

    Many sensor nodes each

    capable of sensing,computation/storage, andcommunication

    Structure safety

    Search and rescue

    Military use Energy Efficient

    Distributed Modern Sensor Nodes

    UC Berkeley: COTS Dust

    UC Berkeley: COTS DustUC Berkeley: Smart Dust

    UCLA: WINS Rockwell: WINS JPL: Sensor Webs

    l i di

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    Multimedia

    An exercise in

    Signals, analog to digital conversion,quantization, sampling, processing, anddigital to analogue conversion

    Information theory, entropy, Huffman codes,compression, lossless compression

    Images, audio, video

    Virtual Reality Quality of service

    Think lots of data (formats and standardstoo)!

    C El i

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    Consumer Electronics

    Home appliances

    Yesterdays appliances: addcomputation

    Tomorrows appliances: addnetworking (Internet)

    Office electronics

    Integration

    Electronic paper (filing, printing,sending, and receiving)

    Home/office automation

    Common fantasy about theautomated home or office of thefuture with lights and appliances that

    operate by themselves or withminimal effort

    N k C

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    Network Components

    Stitching LANs

    Bridge

    Connects two parts of the same network

    Router Link networks using different network

    identities

    Extending ports Switch

    Transmit to recipient only

    Hub Transmit to all

    Handle large volume of highlystructured data with littletransformation

    M di l I

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    Medical Instruments

    Perform diagnosis

    (screening/evaluation) Data collection

    Appraisal of that data

    Developing a plan of action

    Observation or monitoring

    Sensing and instrumentation Accuracy and precision

    Other applications: Radiation therapy

    Artificial hearts, arms, legs,

    E B i

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    E-Business

    Information processing

    systems ATM

    Cash registers

    Scanners

    Credit-card readers

    Often the interface behind a

    database

    Automation and convenience

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    Bomb Detection & Localization

    Stadium with Sensors Deployed

    Google Earth Illustration of Localization System

    Automatic Camera Feed

    ~12 Static

    XSM Motes

    (positions

    known )

    Guard moves with an

    XSM Mote, tracked byRIPS technology

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    Architecture

    Rad level servlet and

    camera glue code

    Tracking service and

    user interface

    Nextel/

    Internet

    Mote network

    Camera control

    node (Linux)Jumbotron

    controller

    VGA to NTSC

    adapter

    Rad detector,mobile phone

    mote

    Internet

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    Summary of Application Domains

    Looked at a number of application domains

    Large amount of overlap between these domains

    Often each domain has associated standards,design methodologies, and certification programs

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    Embedded System Design Challenges

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    Low cost

    Light weight

    Reliability

    Low power

    Portable

    Complexity

    Ease of use

    Mixed digital/analog requirements

    Shrinking time-to-market

    Short product lifetime

    Real-time processing

    Inherent concurrency

    HW/SW co-design

    Secure

    Embedded System Design Challenges

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    High end: Embedded Processors!

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    1,000,000,000

    Number

    ofTransistors

    100,000,000

    10,000,000

    1,000,000

    100,000

    10,000

    1000

    1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

    4004 8008

    8080

    8086

    286

    386

    486

    Pentium 4

    Pentium II

    Pentium

    Pentium III

    NVIDIA NV30 GPU

    SonyGraphic Synthesizer

    NVIDIA NV40

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    Intel

    SonyGraphic Synthesizer

    IBMPower4

    NVIDIA NV25 GPU

    NVIDIA NV20 GPU

    AMDAthlon XP

    IntelCentrino

    NVIDIA NV35 GPU

    ATIRadeon X800

    MotorolaG4

    High-end: Embedded Processors!

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    Embedded programming

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    Embedded programming

    Do You Need to Know This Stuff ?

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    Computer Engineers You will build and oversee the

    building of these systemsAll close to he hardware code resembles this

    The concern for correctness and predictability of embedded

    systems code is simply a more critical form of what we want

    for all codeElectrical Engineers You will build and oversee the

    building of these systems.You have to work with the computer guys

    You have to be able to talk to them

    You may have to teach them

    You may have to take over for them

    Computer scientistsyoull know to do this or only

    work on web applications (and the like)7/13/2012 44V.Sathishkumar

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