15 Environment (pollution, health protection, safety)
95106477 Catalytic mlneral metal alloy contalnlng feldspar for emlsalon control devlcsa Taylor, J. H. USPat. lJS.5,387,565, Feb. 1995. The device contains a catalytic mineral metal-alloy capable of reducing pollutants in the combustion gases generated from an internal combustion engine, as well as from other cornbusted solid and liquid fossil fuels such as coal, and is also useful for treating combustion gases generated from the incineration of landfill garbage and tyre rubber, among others. The cata- lytic material is highly resistant to deactivation or poisoning from contami- nants in the combusted material such as leaded gasoline.
95lo647a Causes and course of Incidents with suddenly released large volumes of coal mine gases Koppe, U. and Kunz, E. Glue&auf-Forschungsh., 1995, 56, (l), 5-8. (In German) Reports on a study of the incidents of suddenly release large volumes of firedamp in the last 5 years which were classified into 5 categories accord- ing to conditions of origin for a more effective prevention. Examples, detection, and prevention measures are given for each incident category.
95106479 Cellular concrete seals abandoned mlne shafts Coal, Jun. 1995, 100, (6),
A short report on sealing o P 60. underground minq in the USA.
96lQ64aO Changlng needs and attltudea towards the envlron- ment. Demand and supply of envlrohmental consulting and englneerlng Burtscher, K. .I. Cleaner Prod., 1994, 2, (3). 229-233. The Inter&i
B linary Centre for -Comparat& Research in the Social Sci-
ences assesse the integration of ecological objectives within the activities of small and intermediate firms. Although firms which are innovative in general tend to pursue innovative strategies with respect to the environ- ment, clean technologies are rarely perceived within the context of eco- nomic objectives. Services related to environmental concerns: however, are assigned a major role when ecological exigencies need to be Integrated into technological and organizational innovations. They may initiate ways and means to respond to environmental concerns by pointing towards opportu- nities which individual comnanies mav be unable to identifv unless thev receive some degree of extdrnal assitance. It is only to a lcmited extend, however, that environmental consulting and planning actually meet their potential role.
96/06481 Chemometrlcal data treatment to study the envl- ronmental pollution around lignlte power plants Stratis. J. A. et al.. Toxicol. Environ. Chem.. 1995. 47. Ill. 71-76. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical clustering is appliedto it;di the structure of the analysis data obtained from particulate matter collected from five sampling stations around lignite power plants near Kozan/, Greece. Sam- pling stations and polluting trace metals were treated as objects of classifi- cation, and presents the conclusions on the sampling location and polluting species combination.
95lQ64a2 Chinese mlne ventilation Tien, J. C. Coal, Jun. 1995, 100, (a), 51-53. Reports that in 1993, more than 95% of Chinas total 1.115 billion metric tons of raw coal was mined underground using mainly longwall mining. When compared to the United States, Chinas coal deposits are deep, gassy, and Varied with many complex mining conditions. k a result of t6e challenging geology, engineers over the years have developed many unique and sophisticated methods to ventilate Chinas expandmg under- ground coal mines.
95106483 Chlorlne in equals dloxln out?....lta not that slmple ~~$J+~W. M. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, Aug. 1995, 14, (2),
The issuk of whether ynd how the chlorine content of combusted fuels may influence emissions of PCDD/DFs is examined. It is suggested that ele- mentary plots of data that compare PCDD/DFs emission factors to levels of chlorine in combusted fuels may lead to development of unsubstantiated conclusions, mask underlying dynamical processes that may be of more profound significance, and have the potential to inordinately influence pol- icies concerning materials and energy use and management.
sslo64a4 Clean technology In the production of eplchlorohydrln Bijsterbosch, J. W. et al., J. Cleaner Prod., 1994, 2, (3), 181-184. The conventional production of epichlorohydrin takes place via ally1 chlo- ride and dichlorohjrdrin. A major-disadvadtage of this chemical process is the formation of a large amount of chlorinated organic by-products, which are found partially in the voluminous effluent. In order to reduce this emission to surface water, measures have to be taken. Technical measures varying from end-of-pipe techniques to alternative processes have been evaluated. Application of end-of-pipe techniques is not the optimal solu- tion for emission reduction, either technically or economically. Results from in-process measures focused on reduction of the amount of waste water and contaminants are more promising. However, the development of an alternative route is necessary in order to obtain a process with minimal emissions and minimal costs.
95/064as Cleaner production and UNDO Luken, R. A. J. Cleaner Prod., 1994, 2, (3), 163-166. Even though there were many similar-sounding themes and works at the Stockholm (1972) and Rio (1992) conferences, there are two fundamental differences for industrial development between the plans of actions elabo- rated by the two conferences. One difference is the message, i.e. the nature of the industrial environmental problem. The new message assigns priority to pollution prevention over pollution control because it IS a more efficient and effective response to emerging environmental concerns. The other dif- ference is the media, i.e. the majorforces of development as well as envi- ronmental management agencies must be actively involved in meeting emerging environmental concerns. As the lead organization in the UN system for industrial development UNIDO is cooperating with many devel- oping countries to implement Agenda 21 of the Rio Conference.
96106486 The climate change agenda: An Indian perapectlve Achanta, A. N. (ed.), Outreach Cell, Tata Energy Research Institute, Darabari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, 11ooO3 India, Rs 400/- US $62.00. The book covers a range of subjects that are part of the cause and effect chain covering the phenomenon of climate change in India. An expression of the work done at TERI, it covers a gamut of information on sources and measurements of benefit analyses o P
reenhouse gas em&ions, their potential impacts! cost- the abatement strategies, and the requisite policy Issues,
methodologies, and instruments.
95106487 Climate change and natural gas - a reallatlc aaaeaament Linden, H. R. Energy World, Jul.-Aug. 1995, (230), 17-18. The article is an abridged version of a paper presented at the 19th World Gas Conference held June 1993 in Milan, which did not appear in any formal proceedings.
95106488 Climate change and vector-borne dlaeaaea. A global modelling perapectlve $a;~; W. J. et al., Global Environmental Change, 1995, 5, (3),
General circulation model-based scenarios of anthropogenic global climate change are used for the assessment of potential changes in areas vulnerable to malaria and xhistosomiasis transmission. The study shows that the transmission potential of both vector-borne diseases is very sensitive to climate changes on the periphery of the present endemic areas and at hiaher altitudes within these areas. The health imnact will be most nro- noinced in populations living in the less economically developed temper- ate areas in which endemicity is low or absent.
95/064a9 CO, taxer and duties Schulz, W. and Welsch, H. Energy & Environment, 1995,6, (2), 159-166. The Federal Government is aiming for a reduction of the total CO, emis- sions of the whole of Germany by the year 2005 of 25-30%. Oneof the political instruments that is to be applied for achieving this target is a CO, duty or tax. But even the most basii questions regarding the design of thii tax still remain a uoint of conflict. Furthermore It is unclear in what rela- tionship this kind of duty is meant to be with the European combined energy/CO, tax which since has been suggested. The paper examines firstly a proposal of CO, duties for the power station sector, one differenti- ated &c&dihg to the efficiency level ofthe power station and to the energy source, and secondly will show the results of simulations of CO,, duties and energy taxes in models of the economy.
95lO6490 Coke-plant wastewater treatment by immoblllzed acclimated bacteria Xia, H. er al., China Environ. Sci., 1994, 5, (4), 344-349. Describes how bacteria degrading three recalcitrant organics contained in coke-plant wastewater were acclimated and then immobilized with PVA on non-woven cloth. A study was made of the degradation characteristics of these organics and the improvement of COD removal of raw coke-plant wastewater by using the immobilized acclimated bacteria.
95106491 Comments on the orlglnal paper by W. Kempton, P.P. Cralg and C.R. Kuennen Global climate change: European policy-makers vlew of how aclence enters the polltlcal process Boehmer-Christiansen, S. Energy & Environmen& 1995, 6, (3), 253-255. The author comments that the paper is valuable because it describes the human tendencv to explain differences of nolicv not as caused bv interest or perception, b;ut with reference to culturai steriotypes. This reveals igno- rance about how different geo-political systems work.
458 Fuel and Energy Abstracts November 1995