9 Prepositions - ngl. ?· Prepositions of Place Common prepositions of place are

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  • UNIT

    9 Prepositions

    156

    A gargoyle looks down over the city and the Seine River in Paris, France.

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    http://ngl.cengage.com/elt
  • OBJECTIVES Grammar: To learn about prepositionsVocabulary and Spelling: To study common words with the sound of o in helloWriting: To write about things to see and do in your city

    Can you write about things to see and do in your city?

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  • 158 UnIT 9 Prepositions

    What Is a Preposition? Aprepositionisawordthatshowstherelationshipbetweenanounandotherwordsinthe

    sentence.

    Commonprepositionsinclude:after from of to before in on with

    Aprepositional phraseisaprepositionanditsnoun(orpronoun)object.prep + object prep + object prep + objectafter my class in Japan with my best friend

    Prepositionsoftenanswerwhere, when, or how.

    where? We live in Tokyo. Our apartment is near a big park.

    when? I was born in 1992. I was born on May 2nd.

    how? He likes to write with a blue pen. He likes to work by himself.

    Grammar for Writing

    The man is on a mountain in Switzerland.

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  • 159

    *Based on the General Service List, Corpus of Contemporary American English, and other corpus sources.

    20 Prepositions You Need to Know*

    1. of Whatisthenameofyourbook?

    2. to Igototheparkonceaweek.

    3. in plAce:WeliveinChina.time:IwasborninSeptember.

    4. for Thisclockisagiftforyou.

    5. with Igotothestorewithmymother.

    6. on plAce: Thepencilsareonthetable.time: IworkonMonday.

    7. at plAce: MysisterworksatUnionBank.time: Shestartsherjobat9a.m.

    8. by Welivebytheriver.

    9. from IamfromSanFrancisco.

    10. up Thisbusgoesupthatmountain.

    11. about Thisstoryisabouttwopeople.

    12. than Goldismoreexpensivethansilver.

    13. after Westudyafterschool.

    14. before Iusuallygotosleepbeforemidnight.

    15. down Sheiswalkingdownthesteps.

    16. between TheUnitedStatesisbetweenCanadaandMexico.

    17. under Myshoesareunderthesofa.

    18. since Ihaveworkedheresince2010.

    19. without Myfatherlikescoffeewithoutsugar.

    20. near Ilivenearthebeach.

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  • 160 UnIT 9 Prepositions

    ACTIVITy 1 Finding Prepositional Phrases in Sentences

    Underlinethe26prepositionalphrasesinthesesentences.Circletheprepositions.

    my Student life

    1. IamahighschoolstudentinSingapore.

    2. IgotoMayflowerSecondarySchool.

    3. Iaminmylastyearatthisschool.

    4. Ibeginmytripfromhometoschoolat7a.m.

    5. MyfriendsandIgotoschoolbybus.

    6. Ourfirstclassbeginsat8a.m.

    7. Mylastclassendsat3p.m.

    8. Afterschool,Itakeabustomyhouse.

    9. Onthetripbetweenmyschoolandmyhouse,Ilistentomusic.

    10. Ieatdinnerwithmyfamilyat7p.m.

    11. Beforedinner,Iusuallystudy.

    12. OnMondayandFriday,Istudyfrom4p.m.to7p.m.

    13. Onsomedays,Istudyafterdinner,too.

    14. IstudymoreonMondaythananyotherday.

    at, on, in: Three Common Prepositions of Time

    Commonprepositionsoftimeareat, on, and in.

    Youuseatforclocktime. Youuseonfordaysanddates. Youuseinformonths,years,

    seasons,andlongerperiodsoftime.

    at 10 oclo

    ck

    at midnigh

    t

    on Monda

    y

    on May 30

    th

    on my birt

    hday

    in

    this decad

    ein 2015

    in May

    IN

    ON

    AT

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  • 161

    ACTIVITy 2 Prepositional Phrases of Time with at, on, in

    InA,writeat, on, or intocompletetheprepositionalphraseoftime.InB,writeanoriginalsentencewitheachprepositionalphrase.

    A. 1. _____Monday

    2. _____9oclock

    3. _____midnight

    4. _____2012

    5. _____Friday

    6. _____January1st

    7. _____January

    8. _____summer

    B. 1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    ACTIVITy 3 at, on, in: Scrambled Sentences with Prepositional Phrases of Time

    Changetheorderofthewordstowriteacorrectsentence.Becarefulwithcapitallettersandpunctuation.

    1. atfrenchoclock10mybeginsclass

    2. atbostonleavesthebusfornine

    3. julyfamilyamytripintakes

    4. sundayshowisonfavoriteourTV

    5. mariaandnorahi1985bornwerein

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  • 162 UnIT 9 Prepositions

    6. birthdayisinmyjanuary

    7. igoatsleeptomidnight

    8. tuesdayandhaveclassenglishonmondaywednesdaywe

    at, on, in: Three Common Prepositions of Place

    Commonprepositionsofplaceareat, on, and in. Youuseatforspecificplaces,includingaddresses. Youuseonforstreets. Youuseinforanarea,astate,acountry,a

    continent.

    Banka

    t Union

    Street

    at 335 Ma

    in

    on Main S

    treet

    in the Unit

    ed States

    in Florida

    in Orlando

    IN

    ON

    AT

    ACTIVITy 4 Prepositional Phrases of Place with at, on, in

    InA,writeat, on, or intocompletetheprepositionalphraseofplace.InB,writeanoriginalsentencewitheachprepositionalphrase.

    A. 1. _____UnionBank

    2. _____PineStreet

    3. _____277PineStreet

    4. _____LosAngeles

    5. _____California

    6. _____theUnitedStates

    7. _____MinnesotaUniversity

    8. _____ShoesforLess

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  • 163

    B. 1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    ACTIVITy 5 Writing Two Related Sentences

    Usethecityandcountryineachitemtowritetwosentences.

    Step 1. Inthefirstsentence,addthewordswe livetotellwhereyouandyourfamilylive.

    Step 2. Inthesecondsentence,tellthelocationofthecity.Usethewordsis a cityinyoursentence.

    Becarefulwithcapitalization,punctuation,articles,andprepositions.

    1. athensgreece

    2. osakajapan

    3. rabatmorocco

    4. limaperu

    5. seattleunitedstates

    6. dubaiunitedarabemirates

    7. chihuahuamexico

    8. amsterdamnetherlands

    We live in Athens. Athens is a city in Greece.

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  • 164 UnIT 9 Prepositions

    ACTIVITy 6 Writing about the Location of Places on a Map

    Writeat or ontocompletetheprepositionalphraseofplace.Thenwriteasentencewiththeprepositionalphrasetotellthelocationofthebusinessonthemap.

    A Business map of Downtown

    1. 105MapleStreet(TimsBookstore)

    2. MapleStreet (PrettyFlowers)

    3. PineStreet (tworestaurants)

    4. 101PineStreet (GoldThings)

    5. 101MapleStreet (FirstCityBank)

    Tims Bookstore is at 105 Maple Street.

    at

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  • 165

    6. 107PineStreet (ShoesforLess)

    7. MapleStreet (mybankandthepostoffice)

    8. PineStreet (GoldThings,FunToys,ShoesforLess)

    Word Order: Place and Time in the Same Sentence WhenanEnglishsentencehasbothaprepositionalphraseofplaceandaprepositionalphraseof

    time,youusuallyputplace before time.(Aneasywaytorememberthisisp comes before tinthealphabet:place before time.)

    Examples of Place before Time

    I go to my office. (place)

    I go at 7 a.m. (time)I go to my office at 7 a.m.

    He studies at 8 oclock. (place)

    He studies in the library. (time)He studies in the library at 8 oclock.

    ACTIVITy 7 Scrambled Sentences with Prepositional Phrases of Place and Time

    Changetheorderofthewordstowriteacorrectsentence.Becarefulwithcapitallettersandpunctuation.

    1. wetowentinlondon1999

    2. supermarketsaturdayvegetablesatmotheronmybuysthemorning

    3. thethemelissalibraryinatafternooniandstudy

    4. onestudentslunchinfromeatnoontothecafeteriaoclock

    5. wanttoinewstudyenglishinyorkin2020

    6. inwetomoveapartmentnovemberwillanother

    place

    place

    time

    time

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  • 166 UnIT 9 Prepositions

    Word Order: Beginning a Sentence with a Prepositional Phrase Asentencecanbeginwithaprepositionalphrase. Youuseacommaafteraprepositionalphrasethatbeginsasentence. Youdonotuseacommaforprepositionalphrasesattheendofasentence.

    At the Beginning of the Sentence At the End of the Sentence

    In Japan, people drive on the left side of the road. People drive on the left side of the road in Japan.

    In April, Japanese students start school. Japanese students start school in April.

    Whenwritersbeginasentencewithaprepositionalphrase,theywanttoemphasizethatinformation.Thebasicmeaningisthesameaswhentheprepositionalphraseisneartheendofthesentence.

    ACTIVITy 8 Writing Sentences that Start with Prepositional Phrases

    Writeeachsentenceagain.Movethelastprepositionalphrasetothebeginningofyournewsentence.Becarefulwithcapitalization,wordorder,andpunctuation.

    1. MysisterhasEnglishclassonMonday.

    2. Lynn,Jane,andKarenusuallytakebus28onTuesdayandThursday.

    3. YoucanseeabettermapofAsiaonpage237.

    4. AdjectivescomebeforenounsinEnglish.

    5. KevinandIhaveaveryimportantmeetingat7oclocktonight.

    6. U.S.citizenshavetogetatouristvisaforRussia,China,andBrazil.

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  • 167

    Common Preposition Combinations after Verbs, Adjectives, and nouns

    Sometimesaverb,anadjective,oranounrequiresacertainprepositionafterit.Youmustmemorizethesewordcombinations.

    Verbs

    1. listen to At night, I listen to music.

    2. look at My brother like