83665065 Ajanta Caves

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<p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Paintings of Ajanta Caves(2nd century BC to 6th century AD)</p> <p>S. Swaminathan</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Ajanta is a great art treasure. Its caves are a fine example of rock-cut architecture. They contain some exquisite sculptures, and more importantly, paintings of unrivalled beauty.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>In these caves can be seen the development of Art from early phase of the pre-Christian era, reaching classical perfection, falling off into mannerism and then to baroque ornamentation and, finally, lapsing into artistic decline</p> <p>Ajanta is a storehouse of information about the period: costumes, textile design, jewellery, musical heritage, court etiquette, social order, ideas of beauty and morality, customs and sense of wit.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The paintings tell us about the technical aspects of their art: preparation of the ground, execution of the painting itself, preparation of the pigments, colour-overlay, with sense of perspective, space division, harnessing of the visual and tactile senses and pacing of the narrative.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The Ajanta paintings are the earliest surviving paintings of India, religious or secular. The spirit of Ajanta influenced the religious art</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>In fact, the Ajanta painting tradition is truly an indigenous religious art tradition. The Buddha and His disciples were Indians. The Indian artist did not have to make a translation from foreign to familiar terms</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Location of Ajanta</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The caves of Ajanta are situated in the district of Aurangabad in the state of Maharashtra. Ajanta is about 100 km from Aurangabad and about 60 km from Jalgaon An extended stay at Aurangabad would be rewarding, as the equally important monuments of Ellora are only about 30 km away.</p> <p>Aurangabad</p> <p>Ellora Caves</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Mumbai</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The possible explanation for the monastic establishment at Ajanta is its proximity to the ancient trade routes.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Period of Excavation</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The earliest caves in Ajanta were excavated during the rule of the Satavahana-s, who had their capital at Pratishthana (called Paithan in Maharashtra today). During their rule there was brisk trade and commerce within the land and with the Mediterranean world, which brought in enormous riches.</p> <p>First PhaseHinayana period (2nd - 1st centuries BC)</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Caves 8, 9, 10, 13 &amp; 15A were excavated during the rule of the Satavahana dynasty During this period there was only limited sculptural activity</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The second phase was of greater artistic activity at Ajanta during the rule of the Vakataka and the Chalukya dynasties from the 4th to the 6th centuries AD.</p> <p>Second PhaseMahayana period (4th 6th centuries AD)</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Remaining caves were excavated during the rule of the Vakataka &amp; the Chalukya dynasties</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Patronage</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The rulers, the Satavahana-s, the Vakataka-s and the Chalukya-s, were themselves Hindus, but allowed Buddhism to flourish in their territory. But there was no direct royal help during almost the entire period. But the rich mercantile community, organising itself into guilds, had provided the requisite patronage.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The entire Ajanta chapter is a tribute to the religious tolerance of Hindu rulers.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Re-discovery</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The precious caves remained abandoned till 1817 when they were discovered by a company of British soldiers. Soon pioneer archaeologists were attracted to the caves that were lost to civilization for more than 1200 years.</p> <p>James Burgess and William Gill made copies of some of the paintings and exhibited in London in 1866. Unfortunately almost all of these perished in a disastrous fire. Later some copies were made by Griffiths and Lady Herringham, and published in 1896 and 1915. Under the patronage of the Nizam, the then ruler of Hyderabad, Yazdani edited and published two volumes on the paintings in 1933.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Rahula and Yashodhara meet the Buddha, Cave 17</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Mural</p> <p>Reproduction by Herringham</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Layout of the Caves</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The caves, lying deep inside the Sahyadri Hills, are hollowed out on the deep face of a horseshoe-shaped hillside with the Waghora river flowing through it</p> <p>LayoutPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>17 19</p> <p>16</p> <p>The caves are aligned 10 in a horseshoe form. 9 There are a total of 29 caves. 23 The general arrangement was not pre-planned, as they sprang up 6 sporadically in different periods. The caves are numbered 27 not on the basis of period of excavation, but on their physical location.</p> <p>2 1</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Layout of the Caves</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Here are some enchanting views of the caves</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Undoubtedly suited for uninterrupted meditation and contemplation</p> <p>A narrow pathway connects the caves to go on a pilgrimage to the highest achievement of Indian Buddhist art</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Rock-cut Architecture</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The caves of Ajanta offer an instructive field for the study of the evolution of rock-cut architecture. It is unique in the sense that it can be viewed as an enterprise of a sculptor. The cave architecture, at Ajanta and elsewhere, betrays the strong influence of wooden construction.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The Team was probably drawn from the profession of carpenters, with goldsmiths and ivory-carvers joining hands with the sculptors.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The evolution of rock architecture took place during two periods: the Hinayana period of the pre-Christian era and the later Mahayana period.</p> <p>Hinayana period (2nd - 1st centuries BC)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>During the first phase the sculptural activity was limited.</p> <p>Mahayana period (4th century onwards)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>In the second phase sculptural compositions filled the facade, the shrines etc. Side by side with the excavation of new caves the existing Hinayana ones were suitably modified.</p> <p>Mahayana period Facade embellishedPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The caves of Ajanta are divided into Chaitya-s - Temples Vihara-s - Monasteries</p> <p>Chaitya-FacadePDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The entrance has a prominent arched window to light the interior Relief sculptures added in Mahayana period</p> <p>Chaitya - InteriorPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Arched roof</p> <p>Interior consists of a long vaulted nave with a pillared aisle on either side Far end is semicircular Pillared with a stupa at its aisle centre</p> <p>Stupa</p> <p>Vaulted nave</p> <p>Vihara - Plan Shrine Cells It has a congregation hall with cells for the monks on the inner sides Later a shrine was excavated at the far endPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Hall</p> <p>Entrance</p> <p>Vihara - InteriorPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Cave 1</p> <p>A colossal statue of the Buddha is seen in the sanctum On the left to the entrance is the famous painting of Padmapani</p> <p>Vihara - Interior</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Cave 2</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Sculpture</p> <p>During the first phase, the Buddha was not shown in the human form, but only through symbols, such as, the Wheel, the Bodhi Tree and the Feet of the Buddha. But during the Mahayana period sculptures and paintings of the Buddha and the Bodhi-sattva-s, were added.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The sculpture of Ajanta belongs to the great art-tradition of contemporary India. Sculpture from the 4th century AD, is remarkable for its grace, elegance, restraint and serenity.</p> <p>Maha-pari-nirvana, Cave 26PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Maha-pari-nirvana, Cave 26</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Naga King and his Consort Cave 19</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>However, the general character of the sculpture of Ajanta tends towards a certain heaviness of form, and is considered inferior to the Gupta images.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Hariti shrine, Cave 2</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Every one of the sculptures was plastered and painted But most of the plaster is now lost</p> <p>Sculpture at the Entrance, Cave 17</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Themes</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Jataka Stories The subjects of the paintings are mostly from the jataka-s, Buddhist mythological stories of the previous lives of the Master</p> <p>Jataka StoriesPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Here is a scene from the story of King Shibi, who offered his own flesh to save a pigeon</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>A Scene from Shibi Jataka, Cave 1</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Life of the Buddha Episodes from the life of the Buddha form the next important theme.</p> <p>Life of the BuddhaPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Gautama was meditating under the Bodhi tree to attain enlightenment. Mara, the Evil Spirit, made many attempts to dislodge Gautama from His resolve. Mara sent his three most beautiful daughters to distract Him. This failed. Then Mara summoned his demons to dislodge Gautama. But Gautama was calm and unmoved.</p> <p>Maras Episode, Cave 1PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Life of the BuddhaPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>On the way to Her parents house Mayadevi gave birth to Siddharta in Lumbini grove of shaala trees. Brahma, Indra and other gods descended to pay their respects to the new-born.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Maya Devi giving birth to Siddharta, Cave 2</p> <p>Solo PicturesPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Religious</p> <p>There are a few compositions of divinities, but not part of any story</p> <p>Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara Cave 1</p> <p>Solo PicturesSecularPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>A few of the solo-pictures do not seem to have any religious import.</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Lady doing her make-up, Cave 17</p> <p>DecorativePDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>The paintings in the last category are decorative and secular. They fill up all the available space on the ceilings pillars, etc.</p> <p>Mythical birds Clown</p> <p>Geometrical</p> <p>Animals</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Geometrical</p> <p>Hilarious</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Composition</p> <p>Composition of the paintings over the period</p> <p>PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>is an interesting study.</p> <p>Earlier phase (2nd - 1st centuries BC)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Narration arranged in the form of long canvass, at eye level, progressing from episode to episode</p> <p>The Raja with his retinue, Cave 10</p> <p>Later phase (4th century AD onwards)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>Later the paintings overspread the entire surface of the wall. In these paintings narratives proceed from scene to scene and from act to act harmoniously. The scenes are not separated into frames that might disturb the concentration of the viewing devotees.</p> <p>Later phase (4th century AD onwards)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com</p> <p>An interesting feature of the narration, from the earlier times, is that a strict chronology of events was not followed. In many panels scenes are grouped according to the location of the scenes. The comp...</p>