68171435 Analog VLSI Liu Krammer Et Al

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  • Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles

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  • Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles

    Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, andRodney Douglaswith contributions from Albert Bergemont, Chris Diorio, Carver A.Mead, Bradley A. Minch, Rahul Sarpeshkar, and Eric Vittoz.

    A Bradford BookThe MIT PressCambridge, MassachusettsLondon, England

  • c

    2002 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronicor mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval)without permission in writing from the publisher.

    This book was set in Times Roman by the authors using the LATEX document preparation system.Printed on recycled paper and bound in the United States of America.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Analog VLSI : circuits and principles / Shih-Chii Liu ... [et al.] with contributions from Albert

    ISBN 0-262-12255-3 (hc. : alk. paper)1. Integrated circuits, Very large scale integration. 2. Linear integrated circuits. I. Liu,Shih-Chii.

    Bergemont ... [et al.].p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    TK7874.75 .A397 2002621.39'5dc21

    2002021915

  • This book is dedicated to the memory of our creative colleague and friend,Misha Mahowald, who was a pioneer and an inspiration in this eld.

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  • Contents

    Authors and Contributors xiiiAcknowledgments xvPreface xviiForeword xix

    1 Introduction 1

    I SILICON AND TRANSISTORS

    2 Semiconductor Device Physics - Jorg Kramer 7

    2.1 Crystal Structure 7

    2.2 Energy Band Diagrams 9

    2.3 Carrier Concentrations at Thermal Equilibrium 13

    2.4 Impurity Doping 15

    2.5 Current Densities 19

    2.6 p-n Junction Diode 24

    2.7 The Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure 35

    3 MOSFET Characteristics - Shih-Chii Liu and BradleyA. Minch 47

    3.1 MOSFET Structure 48

    3.2 CurrentVoltage Characteristics of an nFET 52

    3.3 CurrentVoltage Characteristics of a pFET 70

    3.4 Small-Signal Model at Low Frequencies 71

    3.5 Second-Order Effects 75

    3.6 Noise and Transistor Matching 80

    3.7 Appendices 81

    4 Floating-Gate MOSFETs - Chris Diorio 93

    4.1 Floating-Gate MOSFETs 93

    4.2 Synapse Transistors 98

    4.3 Silicon Learning Arrays 107

    4.4 Appendices 116

  • viii Contents

    II STATICS

    5 Basic Static Circuits - Jorg Kramer 123

    5.1 Single-Transistor Circuits 124

    5.2 Two-Transistor Circuits 127

    5.3 Differential Pair and Transconductance Amplier 133

    5.4 Unity-Gain Follower 142

    6 Current-Mode Circuits - Giacomo Indiveri and TobiasDelbruck 145

    6.1 The Current Conveyor 145

    6.2 The Current Normalizer 148

    6.3 Winner-Take-All Circuits 150

    6.4 Resistive Networks 164

    6.5 Current Correlator and Bump Circuit 168

    7 Analysis and Synthesis of Static Translinear Circuits- Bradley A. Minch 177

    7.1 The Ideal Translinear Element 179

    7.2 Translinear Signal Representations 181

    7.3 The Translinear Principle 183

    7.4 ABCs of Translinear-LoopCircuit Synthesis 195

    7.5 The Multiple-Input Translinear Element 202

    7.6 Multiple-Input Translinear Element Networks 205

    7.7 Analysis of MITE Networks 210

    7.8 ABCs of MITE-Network Synthesis 216

    III DYNAMICS

    8 Linear Systems Theory - Giacomo Indiveri 231

    8.1 Linear Shift-Invariant Systems 231

    8.2 Convolution 234

  • Contents ix

    8.3 Impulses 236

    8.4 Impulse Response of a System 237

    8.5 Resistor-Capacitor Circuits 240

    8.6 Higher Order Equations 241

    8.7 The Heaviside-Laplace Transform 243

    8.8 Linear Systems Transfer Function 244

    8.9 The Resistor-Capacitor Circuit (A Second Look) 2468.10 Low-Pass, High-Pass, and Band-Pass Filters 249

    9 Integrator-Differentiator Circuits - Giacomo Indiveriand Jorg Kramer 251

    9.1 The Follower-Integrator 252

    9.2 The Current-Mirror Integrator 256

    9.3 The Capacitor 261

    9.4 The Follower-Differentiator Circuit 263

    9.5 The diff1 and diff2 Circuits 264

    9.6 Hysteretic Differentiators 270

    10 Photosensors - Jorg Kramer and Tobias Delbruck 275

    10.1 Photodiode 275

    10.2 Phototransistor 283

    10.3 Photogate 284

    10.4 Logarithmic Photosensors 286

    10.5 Imaging Arrays 299

    10.6 Limitations Imposed by Dark Current on Photosensing 307

    IV SPECIAL TOPICS

    11 Noise in MOS Transistors and Resistors - RahulSarpeshkar, Tobias Delbruck, Carver Mead, andShih-Chii Liu 313

  • x Contents

    11.1 Noise Denition 313

    11.2 Noise in Subthreshold MOSFETs 317

    11.3 Shot Noise versus Thermal Noise 325

    11.4 The Equipartition Theorem and Noise Calculations 328

    11.5 Noise Examples 333

    12 Layout Masks and Design Techniques - Eric Vittoz,Shih-Chii Liu, and Jorg Kramer 341

    12.1 Mask Layout for CMOS Fabrication 341

    12.2 Layout Techniques for Better Performance 346

    12.3 Short List of Matching Techniques 351

    12.4 Parasitic Effects 353

    12.5 Latchup 355

    12.6 Substrate Coupling 356

    12.7 Device Matching Measurements 359

    13 A Millennium Silicon Process Technology - AlbertBergemont, Tobias Delbruck, and Shih-Chii Liu 361

    13.1 A typical 0.25 m CMOS Process Flow 361

    13.2 Scaling Limits for Conventional Planar CMOSArchitectures 373

    13.3 Conclusions and Guidelines for New Generations 382

    14 Scaling of MOS Technology to SubmicrometerFeature Sizes - Carver Mead 385

    14.1 Scaling Approach 386

    14.2 Threshold Scaling 394

    14.3 Device Characteristics 395

    14.4 System Properties 402

    14.5 Conclusions 402

  • Contents xi

    Appendix A:Units and symbols 407

    References 415Index 429

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  • Authors and Contributors

    Albert BergemontMaxim Integrated Products3725 North First Street,San Jose, CA 951341350U.S.A.

    Tobias DelbruckInstitute of Neuroinformatics,ETH/UNIZWinterthurerstrasse 1908057 Zurich, Switzerland

    Chris DiorioDepartment of Computer Scienceand EngineeringThe University of Washington114 Sieg Hall, Box 352350Seattle, WA 98195U.S.A.

    Rodney DouglasInstitute of Neuroinformatics,ETH/UNIZWinterthurerstrasse 1908057 Zurich, Switzerland

    Giacomo IndiveriInstitute of Neuroinformatics,ETH/UNIZWinterthurerstrasse 1908057 Zurich, Switzerland

    Jorg KramerInstitute of Neuroinformatics,ETH/UNIZWinterthurerstrasse 1908057 Zurich, Switzerland

    Shih-Chii LiuInstitute of Neuroinformatics,ETH/UNIZWinterthurerstrasse 1908057 Zurich, Switzerland

    Carver A. MeadDepartment of Computation andNeural SystemsCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadena, CA 91125U.S.A.

    Bradley A. MinchDepartment of Electrical EngineeringCornell University405 Phillips HallIthaca, NY 148535401U.S.A.

    Rahul SarpeshkarResearch Laboratory of ElectronicsMassachusetts Institute ofTechnologyCambridge, MA 02139U.S.A.

    Eric VittozChief ScientistAdvanced MicroelectronicsCenter for Electronics andMicrotechnologyJaquet-Droz 12007 NeuchatelSwitzerland

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  • Acknowledgments

    This book was written by a small group of authors who represent the work of afar larger community. We would like to acknowledge our colleagues who havecontributed to the advance of concepts and circuits in neuromorphic engineer-ing; in particular, John Lazzaro, Massimo Silvilotti, John Tanner, KwabenaBoahen, Paul Hasler, Steve Deweerth, Ron Benson, Andre van Schaik, JohnHarris, Andreas Andreou, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, and many others. We es-pecially wish to thank the following people for their help in the completionof this book: Andre Van Schaik, Regina Mudra, Elisabetta Chicca, and RalphEtienne-Cummings for their constructive comments in earlier versions of thebook; Samuel Zahnd for putting together the material for the example circuitson the website; Adrian Whatley for ensuring the integrity of the bibliography,David Lawrence for dealing with computer mishaps, Mietta Loi for enteringsome of the material in the book, Kathrin Aguilar-Ruiz for dealing with legaldetails, Claudia Stenger for her endless patience with all sorts of requests, andDonna Fox for always providing the answers for difcult requests. We alsothank Sarah K. Douglas for the cover design of this book. The work in thisedging eld has been supported by progressive funding organizations: Na-tional Science Foundation, Ofce of Naval Research, Gatsby Charitable Foun-dation, Swiss National Science Foundation, Whitaker Foundation, Departmentof Advanced Research Projects Agency, and our various home institutions. Wealso acknowledge Mike Rutter for his enthusiasm in starting this project, andBob Prior for seeing the project to its completion.

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  • Preface

    The aim of this book is to present the collective expertise of the neuromor-phic engineering community. It presents the central concepts required for cre-ative and successful design of analog very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) cir-cuits. The book could support teaching courses, and provides an efcient intro-duction to new practitioners who have some previous training in engineering,physics, or computer science.

    Neuromorphic engineers are striving to improve the performance of arti-cial systems by developing chips and systems that process information collec-tively using predominantly analog circuits. Consequently, our book biases thediscussion of analog principles and design towards novel circuits that emulatenatural sign