6 Steps to Building Academic Vocabulary Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pikening

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6 Steps to Building Academic Vocabulary Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pikening. Laredo Independent School District. Four Levels of Word Recognition. FULL Word Knowledge – students understand the meaning and how the word changes in context - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of 6 Steps to Building Academic Vocabulary Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pikening

  • 6 Steps to Building Academic Vocabulary Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. PikeningLaredo Independent School District

  • Four Levels of Word RecognitionFULL Word Knowledge students understand the meaning and how the word changes in contextPARTIAL Word Knowledge students know the word in context and can use it in their writingINITIAL Word Knowledge students recognize the word and can pronounce it, but do not know its meaningUNKNOWN Word student cannot read or recognize the word

  • Why teach vocabulary?

    Teaching specific terms in a specific way is probably the strongest action a teacher can take to ensure that students have the academic background knowledge they need to understand the content they will encounter in school.

  • Why teach vocabulary?

    While sight word instruction provides a background of words seen most frequently, vocabulary instruction is needed for those terms that are not necessarily frequent in typical reading, but inherent to certain genres, purposes and topics.

  • Why teach vocabulary?

    As students engage in more and more content-area reading, their knowledge of specific vocabulary terms becomes more important. Explicit vocabulary instruction is necessary to improve comprehension and fluency when engaging with nonfiction text or content related materials.

  • Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

  • Explain

  • Initial Information: Introduce New Term Provide a student friendly description, explanation, or example of the new term.Find out what they know or think they know (prior knowledge) about the term.Clarify misconceptions, build on accurate information.Help build an understanding of the term.

  • Notes:Looking up words in dictionaries is not useful for teaching vocabularyProvide a context for the termIntroduce direct experiences that provide examples of the termTell a story that integrates the termUse video as the stimulus for understanding informationAsk students to investigate the term and present the information to the class (skit, pantomime, poster, etc)Describe your own mental picture of the termFind or create pictures that explain the term

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 1

    If possible, explain, or have someone else explain the term in the students native language.Pair students or triads of students with the same language together.Solicit help from a para-professional.Provide some sort of non-linguistic representation.

  • Restate

  • Students Restate TermInformal Information Ask students to restate description, explanation or example in their own words.Provide a more natural starting point- connect prior experiences and knowledge.

  • Notes:Must be students original ideas, not parroting the teacherMonitor and correct misunderstandingsProvide more explanations or examples as necessaryHave students record these ideas in an academic notebook

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 2

    Permit students to write their own definition in their native language.Encourage students to record any related English terms with which they are familiar.

  • Show

  • Non-linguistic Representation Ask students to construct a picture, symbol or graphic representing the term.

  • Notes:Model, model, modelProvide examples of students drawings (and your own) that are rough but represent the ideasPlay PictionaryDraw examples of the termDramatize the term using speech bubblesLet them find a picture on the internet, if necessaryHave students record these ideas in an academic notebook

  • What ifStudents have trouble depicting the term?

  • Draw actual objectBlue Prints

  • Draw an exampleSingle Parent Family

  • Represent with GraphicsProblem Solving Process

  • Dramatize with cartoons an speech balloonsProblem Solving ProcessI have a new and different idea!

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 3

    Non-linquistic representation is EXTREMELY important when working with ESL students.

  • Discuss

  • Student/Term Interaction Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms.

    Allow them to work in their vocabulary notebooks.

  • Notes:Highlight prefixes, suffixes, root words that will help them remember the meaning of the termIdentify synonyms and antonyms of the termList related wordsWrite brief cautions or reminders of common confusionsTranslate the term into another language for second language learnersPoint out cognates to word in SpanishWrite incomplete analogies for students to completeAllow students to write or draw their own analogiesSort or classify wordsCompare similarities and differencesHave students record these ideas in an academic notebook

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 4

    As much as possible, allow students to work in their native language.

  • Refine and Reflect

  • Discuss Terms with OthersPeriodically ask students to discuss terms with one another.

  • Notes:Think-Pair-ShareCompare their descriptions of the termDescribe their picture to one anotherExplain to each other any new information they have learned (ahas)Identify areas of disagreement or confusion and seek clarificationStudents can make revisions to their work (notebook)

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 5

    Use triads or pairs of students with the same native language.

    Use para-professionals or parents to assist.

  • Review and Apply in Learning Games

  • Review and GamesInvolve students periodically in games that allow them to play with the terms.

    The goal is to keep new terms in the forefront of the students thinking and allow them to reexamine their understanding of the terms.

  • Notes:(As students play, walk around the room monitor and listen for misconceptions clarify as needed and check notebooks to evaluate accuracy.)PictionaryMemoryJeopardyCharadesName that Category ($100,000 Pyramid)PasswordBingo Create Skitsetc http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/vocab/strategies.html

  • Working with ESL Students: Step 6

    Use triads or pairs of students with the same native language.

    Use para-professionals or parents to assist.

  • PLAN TO IMPLEMENT:

    Schedule Timedirect instruction (steps 1-3)Students interaction time (steps 4-6)Monitor accuracy of student workKeep track of student progress