2.Nautical Charts and Charts Simbols

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  • 7/28/2019 2.Nautical Charts and Charts Simbols



    chartsProjections=Conform previziunilor,The nautical chart is a 2-dimensional representation of a 3-dimensionalworld. And although this results in various distortions, as long as tworequirements are met we can use this image for navigational purposes.=Hart nautice este un 2-reprezentare tridimensional a lumii a 3-dimensionale. i, dei acest lucru duce la denaturarea diferite, atta timpct dou cerine sunt ndeplinite, putem folosi aceast imagine n scopuri

    de navigaie.1. The angles between three objects in the chart should be the same

    as the angles between the real objects which they represent.=Unghiurile ntre trei obiecte n hart ar trebui s fie la fel caunghiurile dintre obiecte reale pe care le reprezint.

    2. A straight course should appear as a straight line in the chart. = Uncurs de drept ar trebui s apar ca o linie dreapt n hart.

    To fulfil these demands a nautical chart requires parallels and meridiansthat are both straight and parallel. Moreover, the meridians will need tobe perpendicular to the parallels.= Pentru a ndeplini aceste cerinenecesit o hart nautice paralelele i meridianele care sunt ambele dreptesi paralele. Mai mult dect att, meridianele va trebui s fie perpendicularpe paralele.A well known method to create such a chart is called the Mercatorprojection after Gerard Mercator Kremer , a Flemish scholar whostudied in 's Hertogenbosch (the Netherlands) and Leuven (now Belgium)and who invented his famous projection in 1569. =O metod bine

    cunoscut de a crea o astfel de hart se numete De proiecie Mercatordup ce Gerard "Mercator"Kremer , Un savant flamand care a studiatla 's-Hertogenbosch (Olanda) i Leuven (acum Belgia) i care a inventatproiecie faimosul su n 1569.

    The Mercator chart was designed for sailors and can be constructed bywrapping a cylinder around the planet so that it touches the equator. On

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    this cylinder the surface of the earth is projected and finally the cylinderis cut open to yield the 2-dimensional chart. = Hart Mercator a fostconceput pentru marinari i pot fi construite prin ambalaj un cilindru n

    jurul planetei, astfel nct s atinge ecuator. Pe acest cilindru suprafaapmntului este proiectat i, n final cilindru este taiat deschis

    randamentului hart 2-dimensionale.But where the meridians converge on the globe they run parallel in theprojection (see chart below), indicating the distortion. Look, for example,at a high parallel. The length of such a parallel on the globe is muchsmaller than the equator. Yet, on the chart they have exactly the samelength creating a distortion which gets bigger nearer to the poles. Thefigure below shows the construction of the Mercator projection. From thisit is clear that only the vertical scales should be used for measuringdistances. = Dar, n cazul n care meridianele converg de pe glob care leconduc, n paralel de proiecie (a se vedea graficul de mai jos), care

    indic denaturarea. Uite, de exemplu, la o paralel ridicat. Lungimea unuiastfel de paralele de pe glob este mult mai mic dect ecuator. Totui, pede o hart care le-au exact aceeai lungime a crea o denaturare caredevine mai mare mai aproape de poli. n figura de mai jos aratconstrucia de proiecie Mercator. Din aceasta este clar c numaibaremele verticale ar trebui s fie utilizat pentru msurarea distanelor.

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    The vertical scale depicted on the right demonstrates thedistortion. The two little navy coloured markers have precisely the samesize, the upper one measures only 0.64 degrees (= 38.4 nm) while theother measures 1.00 degrees (= 60 nm). So, distances (in degrees or inmiles and minutes) should not only be read on the vertical scale, but alsoat approximately the same height. = scar vertical reprezentate pe

    dreapta demonstreaz distorsiuni. Marinei dou pic de culoare markeri auexact aceeai dimensiune, de sus o masoara doar 0.64 grade (= 38.4nm), n timp ce alte msuri de 1.00 grade (= 60 nm). Deci, distane (ngrade sau n mile i minute), nu ar trebui s fie citit numai pe scaraverticala, dar, de asemenea, la aproximativ aceeai nlime.

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    The horizontal scale is only valid for one latitude in the chart and cantherefore only be used for the coordinates (a point, but not a line). If youdivide the surface of the earth in eight pieces, and lift one out and project

    it, you end up with the figure below. The result is thatboth A-A' and B-B' are now as long as the bottom of

    the chart and are too long. =The scar orizontaleste valabil numai pentru o latitudine n hart i poate

    prin urmare sa fi utilizat pentru coordonatele (un punct, dar nu o linie).Dac ai mpri suprafaa pmntului n opt buci, i ridicai-o afar ide proiect, vei termina cu figura de mai jos. Rezultatul este c att AA 'iBB' sunt acum, att timp ct partea de jos a hrii i sunt "prea lung".

    But there are of course other projections in use by sailors. An importantone is the Stereographic projection, which is constructed by projecting

    on a flat plane instead of a cylinder. On this chart parallels appear asslightly curved and also the meridians converge at high latitudes. So,strictly speaking, a straight course will not appear as a straight line in thechart, but the parallels remain perpendicular to the meridians. Mostoften, distortions are scarcely noticed when this projection is used tochart a small area. Like the Mercator projection, the vertical scalerepresents a meridian and should be used for measuring distances. =Darexist, desigur, altor proiecii n utilizarea de ctre marinari. Unulimportant este De proiecie Stereographic, Care este construit prinproiectarea pe un plan plat n loc de un cilindru. Pe aceast paralele hart

    apar ca usor curbat i, de asemenea, meridianele converg la latitudinimari. Deci, strict vorbind, un curs de drepte nu va aprea ca o liniedreapt n hart, dar paralelele rmn perpendicular pe meridianele. Celmai adesea, distorsiuni sunt abia observat atunci cnd aceast proiecieeste utilizat pentru a hart o suprafa mic. La fel ca i proieciaMercator, scara vertical reprezint o meridiane i ar trebui s fie utilizatepentru msurarea distanelor.

    Another projection is the Gnomeric projection on which the meridiansare again converging. But most importantly, the parallels are arcs of a

    circle while great circles appear as straight lines. On a sphere theshortest route between A and B is not a straight line but an arc (part of agreat circle). Though this is also true when you for example cross alittle bay, we use for simplification a loxodrome (a handy straight line onyour Mercator chart which does not reflect your shortest route). On aGnomeric chart this same loxodrome is an arc, while your shortest route(a great circle) ends up as a straight line. Hence, the gnomeric projection

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    is particularly useful when sailing great circles (like when you dabble incircumnavigation) and is beyond the scope of a coastal navigation course.= O alt proiecie este De proiecie Gnomeric pe care meridianele suntconvergente din nou. Dar cel mai important, paralelele sunt arce de cerc,

    n timp ce cercurile mari apar ca linii drepte. Pe o sfer mai scurt drum

    ntre A i B nu este o linie dreapt, ci un arc (parte dintr-un cerc mare).Dei acest lucru este adevrat, de asemenea, atunci cnd - de exemplu -eco-un golf mic, vom folosi pentru o simplificare loxodrome (la

    ndemn o linie dreapt pe hart dvs. Mercator, care nu reflect n celmai scurt traseu dvs.). Pe o hart Gnomeric acest loxodrome Acelailucru este un arc de cerc, n timp ce traseul cel mai scurt dvs. (un cercmare), sfrete ca o linie dreapt. Prin urmare, proiecia gnomeric estedeosebit de util atunci cnd navigheaz cercuri mari (ca de exempluatunci cnd se blci n ap n circumnavigaie) i este dincolo dedomeniul de aplicare al unui curs de navigare de coast.

    Organization of the chart=Organizaia ahrii

    Authority: The publisher responsible for the information in thechart British Admiralty Charts. =Autoritate: Publisher responsabilepentru informaiile din hart - "British Admiralty Charts".

    Title: The title gives a description of the area covered by the chart The Aegean Sea of Greece - Athens to Rhodes. = Title: Titlul ofer o

    descriere a zonei acoperite de Chart - "Marea Egee din Grecia - Atena laRhodos".

    Number: Different chart types of the same area can bedistinguished by the chart's number. = Numar: Tipuri de grafice diferitede aceeai zon se pot distinge prin numrul de hart lui.

    Projection: Most likely the Mercator projection as described above.Charts covering small areas can be constructed by stereographicprojection. = De proiecie: Cel mai probabil de proiecie Mercator aacum este descris mai sus. Grafice, care acoper domenii mici pot fi

    construite prin proiecie stereographic. Scale: For example: 1:193.000. But since the chart is distorted this

    holds only for one specific latitude in the Mercator chart. The scaleindicates how detailed the chart is (here 1 cm on the chart represents193000 cm on earth). = Scale: De exemplu: 1:193.000. Dar din momentce hart este distorsionat Acest lucru este numai pentru o latitudine

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    specifice n hart Mercator. Scara indic ct de detaliat hart este (aici 1cm pe hart reprezint 193,000 cm pe pmnt).

    Horizontal geodetic datum: The definition of the relationshipbetween the ellipsoid adopted as the model of the Earth's shape, and the

    Earth itself. Though there are hundreds of datums in use, most are onlylocally valid. = Orizontale datum geodezic: Definirea relaiei dintreelipsoidal a adoptat ca model de form Pmntului, i Pmntul n sine.Cu toate c exist sute de datums n uz, cele mai multe sunt valabilenumai la nivel local.Yet, the WGS-84 datum is global in scope and positions obtained bysatellite navigation systems are usually referred to this datum. Therefore,a correction needs to be applied to a WGS-84 GPS position to agree withcharts using other horizontal datums. For example to correct WGS-84 tothe European datum, add 0,06'N , 0,04'E (style guide) to the WGS-84

    position indicated by the GPS. Fortunately, most GPS receivers may beset to display positions in several other datums besides WGS-84 andperform the calculations for you. =Cu toate acestea, WGS-84 datumeste la nivel mondial n domeniul de aplicare i poziiile obinute desistemele de navigaie prin satelit sunt, de obicei menionate la aceastdat. Prin urmare, o corecie trebuie s fie aplicat unei WGS-84 pepoziia GPS s fie de acord cu diagrame folosind datums orizontale altele.De exemplu, pentru a corecta WGS-84 pentru a datum europene, seadaug 0,06 N ', 0,04' E (Ghid de stil) Pentru a WGS-84 poziiaindicat de GPS. Din fericire, cele mai multe receptoare GPS poate fi setat

    s afieze poziii n mai multe datums pe lng alte WGS-84 i a efectuacalcule pentru tine.

    Chart sounding datum: The tidal datum to which soundings anddrying heights on a chart are referred. Often shortened to chart datumwhen it is clear that reference is not being made to a horizontal datum.Chart sounding datums are also used as reference for heights(lighthouses, mountains, bridges). Multiple datums can be used in onechart: L.A.T. for soundings and M.L. for heights. See chapter 6. = Chartdatum sondaj: Datum maree la care nlimi de sunete i uscare pe ungrafic sunt menionate. De multe ori scurtat pentru a "datum Chart"atunci cnd este clar c de referin nu se face la un datum orizontal.Graficul datums de sondare, de asemenea, sunt folosite ca referinpentru nlimi (faruri, muni, poduri). Datums multiple pot fi folosite ntr-o hart: L.A.T. pentru sunete i M.L. pentru nlimi. Vedea capitolul 6.

    Soundings & height units: Soundings and heights can be statedin - for example - metres, feet or fathoms. Today all charts worldwide are

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    metric, except for USA Hydrographic Office charts, which sometimes stilluse feet instead of the international standard. =Sunete & uniti de

    nlime: Sunete si inaltimi poate fi declarat n - de exemplu - de metri,picioare sau fathoms. Astzi, toate topurile din ntreaga lume suntmetrice, cu excepia SUA hidrografice diagrame Office, care, uneori, nc

    folosesc picioarele n loc de standard internaional.

    Horizontal scale: Natural scale at for example 40 15,3' S latitudewhere the horizontal scale can be used for measuring distances andwhere the chart scale is true. = Scala orizontal: Natural scar, la, deexemplu, 40 15,3 'latitudine S scara orizontal n cazul n care pot fifolosite pentru msurarea distanelor i n cazul n care scara hart esteadevrat.

    GPS compatibility: Most charts neither have the precision nor theresolution to fully use the (differential) GPS positioning potential.Moreover, still plenty of charts result from surveys done in the 19thcentury. =Compatibilitate GPS: Cele mai multe hri nici nu au deprecizie, nici rezoluia de a utiliza pe deplin diferenial () GPS potenialulde poziionare. Mai mult dect att, nc o multime de diagrame rezultadin anchetele efectuate n secolul al 19-lea.Also, GPS data often requires a correction for a local horizontal chartdatum before it can be used in the chart. = De asemenea, datele GPSnecesit adesea o corecie pentru un dat locale hart orizontal, naintede a putea fi utilizate n hart.

    Corrections & edition: The chart is for example a 2009 editionbut is - when properly corrected - still valid in 2012. Corrections arepublished continuously and the changes made should be mentioned in thebottom left corner of the chart. = Corectarea & ediie: Hart este, deexemplu, o ediie 2009, dar este - atunci cnd sunt corectate - ncvalabil n 2012. Corectarea sunt publicate continuu i modificrile adusear trebui s fie menionat n colul din stnga jos a hrii.

    Information in the chart =Informaii n

    hart Depths reduced to chart datum: A sounding like 35 indicates 3

    metres of water under Lowest Astronomical Tide (when the chart datum isL.A.T.). An underlined sounding like 04 indicates a height of 40 cm aboveL.A.T.. = Adancimi reduse la hart datum: Un sondaj similar 35 indic 3 metrii jumtate de ap sub Cele mai mici Astronomic Tide (atunci cnd datum hart este "L.A.T.").Un sondaj a subliniat ca 04 indic o nlime de 40 cm de mai sus L.A.T..

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    Heights above Chart Datum on drying areas are given in metres anddecimetres. The metres figure is underlined. = Graficul de mai sus HeightsDatum pe domeniile de uscare sunt date n metri i decimetri. De metri cifr estesubliniat.Depths are given from 0.1 to 20.9 in metres and decimetres, and from

    21 to 31 in metres and half metres. Greater depths are rounded down tothe nearest safest metre (for example, 32.7 metres is rounded down to32 metres). = Adncimi sunt date 0.1 - 20.9 n metri i decimetri, i de 21 la31 metri n metri i jumtate. Adncimi mai mari sunt rotunjite n jos la cel maiapropiat metru cel mai sigur (de exemplu, 32.7 metri este rotunjit n jos la 32 demetri).The geographical position of a sounding is the centre of the depth figure.= Poziia geografic a unui sondaj este centrul din cifra adncime.

    Isobaths: Lines connecting positions with the same depth: depthcontours. = Isobaths: Linii conectarea poziii cu aceeai adncime: contururiadancime.

    Heights reduced to chart datum: Heights of for instance,lighthouses, mountains and cliffs are more often reduced to anotherdatum such as Mean High Water (M.H.W.) or Mean High Water Spring. =nlimi reduse la hart datum: nlimea de exemplu, faruri, muni i stncilesunt mai adesea reduse la o alt dat, cum ar fi de mare medie de apa (MAB) saumedie de mare apa de izvor.

    Tidal information: Details of both the vertical (see chapter 7)and the horizontal (see chapter 8) movement of the water is often

    included in the chart. =Informaiile mareelor: Detalii att vertical (a sevedea capitolul 7) i orizontal (a se vedea capitolul 8) De circulaie a apeieste adesea inclus n hart.

    Lighthouses, Buoys & marks: Lights, lateral and cardinal marks,see chapter 9. = Faruri, Buoys & mrcile: Semne de Lumini, laterale icardinal, a se vedea Capitolul 9.

    Seabed qualities: Pebbles, seaweed, rocks, wrecks, pipelines,

    sand and other seabed characteristics for anchoring. = CalitiFundul mrii: Pebbles, alge, roci, epave, conducte, nisip i alte Caracteristicilefundul mrii pentru ancorarea.

    Magnetic variation: The angle between the true North and themagnetic North varies in place and time. The local variation is indicated inthe compass card , see chapter 3. = Variaia magnetic: Unghiul dintre

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    Nord adevrat i de Nord magnetic variaz n loc i de timp. Variaiile locale esteindicat n busola card , A se vedea Capitolul 3.

    Landmarks: conspicuous positions on the shore: Churches,radio masts, mountain tops, etc. that can be used for compass bearings

    and other means of navigation, these will be put to good use in chapter4. = Repere: poziii uor vizibile, pe malul: Biserici, a pilonilor de radio, blaturide munte, etc care pot fi folosite pentru busola rulmeni i alte mijloace denavigaie, acestea vor fi puse la o bun utilizare n Capitolul 4.

    Coordinates and positions =Coordonate ipoziii

    A pair of nautical dividers (single handed dividers) is used to obtainprecise coordinates from the chart. This device enables you to take the

    distance between that particular position and the closest grid line. Youthen place the dividers on the scale with one end on this grid line, leavingthe other end precisely at your coordinate. Do this twice to get bothlatitude and longitude at the scale on the edge of the chart.Below are some examples. =O pereche de separatoare de nautice (separatoarede singur mn), este utilizat pentru a obine coordonatele exacte de la hart.Acest dispozitiv permite s luai distana dintre c poziia special, precum i cea maiapropiat linie de reea. Apoi loc separatoare de pe scar, cu un capt pe aceastlinie gril, lsnd la cellalt capt tocmai la dvs. de coordonate. Facei acest lucru

    de dou ori pentru a obine att latitudine i longitudine la scara pe marginea hrii.

    Mai jos sunt cteva exemple.

    Danger mark =32 06,3' N , 25 07,3' E

    Fish farm = Ferm de pete32 04,4' N , 24 54,7' E

    Anchorage = Ancorare

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    31 46,0' N , 25 04,0' E

    Church = Biseric

    31 48,4' N , 25 25,0' E

    Windmill = Moar de vnt32 01,0' N , 24 57,8' E

    Castle = Castle

    32 14,2' N , 25 29,6' E

    Water tower = Turn de ap

    31 54,9' N , 24 54,8' E

    Radio mast = Catarg cu emitor radio

    31 54,8' N , 25 10,0' E

    Beacon green = Geamandur verde

    31 52,0' N , 24 44,3' E

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    Plotting a position in the chart is done by reversing this method. = Pune lacale o poziie n hart se face prin inversarea aceast metod.

    Some chart symbols come with a little line and circle indicating theprecise location, like the Radio mast, otherwise the center of thesymbol is the precise location. = Unele simboluri hart a veni cu o linie depuin i cerc indicnd amplasarea exact, cum ar fi catarg Radio "", altfel centrulsimbol este locaia exact.

    Another possible notation of 33 28,5' E is 33 28 30" E, which howeverdoesn't easily allow for more precision like 33 28,500' E does. Also notethat in most countries a comma - and not a dot - is used as the decimalseparator. So instead of33 28.500' E, the consensus notation for marinersis 33 28,500' E. =O alt notaie posibil a 33 28,5 'E este 33 28 '30 "E, Care nsnu permite cu uurin pentru precizie mai mult ca 33 28,500 'E face. De

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    asemenea, reinei c, n cele mai multe ri o virgul - i nu un punct - este utilizatca separator zecimal. Deci, n loc de 33 28.500 'E, Notaia consens pentru marinarieste de 33 28,500 'E.

    Distances = Distane

    To measure the distance

    between, for instance, these two oil rigs, we will again need our dividers.Remember, we can only use the vertical scale. = Pentru a msura distanadintre, de exemplu, aceste dou platforme petroliere, Vom avea nevoie din nouseparatoare nostru. Amintii-v, putem folosi doar scar vertical.

    We first take a convenient distance like 10' (10 nautical miles) on thevertical scale using the middle latitude. Then we start walking with thedividers from the southern oil rig to northern one. Finally, we adjust thedividers to measure the small remaining part at its own height, i.e. itsown latitude . =Mai nti s ia o distan convenabil ca 10 '(10 mile marine) pe

    scara vertical utiliznd latitudine de mijloc. Apoi vom ncepe de mers pe jos, cuseparatoare de la platforma petrolier de sud la unul de nord. n cele din urm,vom ajusta separatoare pentru a msura mic parte rmase la nlimea propriilesale, adic latitudine propriile sale .The image shows that the total distance is 37 nautical miles. = Imagineaarat c distana total este de 37 de mile marine.

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    Courses = Cursurile sailingissues.com

    So, now we can measure distances and both plot and read out positions,

    but we also need directions. For example we need to find the course fromsafe-water buoy A to safe-water buoy B. To accomplish this we may useparallel rules as shown in this chart below: = Deci, acum putem msuradistanele i att complot i de citire poziii, dar avem nevoie, de asemenea direcii.De exemplu, avem nevoie pentru a gsi n condiii de siguran de la cursul de apgeamandur Un la ap potabil-colac de salvare B.. Pentru a realiza acest lucru amputea utiliza normele paralele aa cum se arat n prezenta graficul de mai jos:

    First you line this instrument up with the two buoys. Then follows theintriguing part in moving the device to the compass rose without losingits alignment. Finally, when one of the rules is aligned with the heart ofthe compass card, you can read course A B. In this example: 170.=Mai nti, linie de acest instrument de sus cu cele dou balize. Apoi urmeaz parteade intrigant n micare aparatul la compas a crescut fr a pierde alinierea acesteia.

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    n cele din urm, atunci cnd unul dintre reguli este aliniat cu inima de pe cartelade busola, putei citi curs Un -- B.. n acest exemplu: 170 .Besides the parallel rules there are other types of instruments available,notably the Breton plotter - also known as a Portland Course Plotter -

    which features an adjustable rose. =Pe lng normele paralele exist i alte

    tipuri de instrumente disponibile, n special Breton plotter -, de asemenea, cunoscutca un Curs de Portland de plotter - care se caracterizeaz printr-o reglabil acrescut.

    Selection of chart symbolsDanger line in general = Linie de pericol, ngeneral,

    Wreck, least depth unknown but usuallydeeper than 20 metres = Wreck de metri,cel necunoscut profunzime, dar de obicei, maiprofund dect 20

    Visible wreck = Epav zilei

    Wreck of which the mast(s) only are visible atChart Datum = Wreck din care cu catargul (i)numai sunt vizibile la Chart Datum

    Wreck, least depth known obtained bysounding only = Wreck, cel adncimeacunoscut obinute prin sondaj doar

    Wreck, least depth known, swept by wire dragor diver = Wreck, cel adncime cunoscute,mturat prin drag fir sau Diver


    Rock which covers and uncovers, height aboveChart Datum = Rock, care acoper idescoper, nlime de mai sus Chart Datum

    Rock awash at the level of Chart Datum =Rock acoperit de ap la nivel de Chart Datum

    Underwater rock of unknown depth, dangerousto surface navigation = Underwater rock de

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    adncime necunoscute, periculoase pentrunavigaie de suprafa


    Underwater rock of known depth, dangerousto surface navigation = Underwater rock de

    adncime cunoscute, periculoase pentrunavigaie de suprafa

    Remains of a wreck, or other foul area, non-dangerous to navigation but to be avoided byvessels anchoring, trawling etc. = Rmne deo epav, sau n alte domenii fault, non-periculoase pentru navigaie, ci pentru a fievitate de ctre navele de ancorare, pescuitul

    cu traule, etc

    Depth unknown, but considered to have a safeclearance to the depth shown = Depthnecunoscut, dar considerate a avea unclearance-ul n condiii de siguran laadncimea afiate

    Sounding of doubtful depth; Existencedoubtful; Reported, but not confirmed =

    Sondarea de adncime dubioase; Existenadubioase; raportate, dar nu a confirmat

    Position approximate; Position doubtful =Poziia aproximative; Poziia ndoielnic

    orWind turbine = Turbine eoliane

    Chimney = Co de fum

    Tower; radio/television tower = Tower; radio /turn de televiziune

    Monument = Monumentul

    Marina - boat harbour = Marina - Harbour

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    Mosque, minaret = Moscheea, minaret

    Silo = Siloz

    Tanks = Tancuri

    Placeholder examples: Church (Ch) Tower(Tr) Hotel Cupola (Cu) Chimney (Chy).CAPITALS indicate that the landmark isconspicious. = Exemple Substituent: Biserica(Ch) Tower (Tr) Hotel Cupola (Cu) de seminee(Chy).CAPITALELE indic faptul c reperul este

    conspicious.Quarrie, mine = Min

    Major light; minor light = Lumina majore;lumina minoreMai multe despre lumini n capitolul 9=More on lights in chapter 9

    Limit of safety zone around offshoreinstallation = Limita de zon de siguran n

    jurul instalaie offshore

    Position of tabulated tidal stream data withdesignation A; Tidal levels data a =Poziia tabelate datelor din flux mareelor cudenumire "A"; Tidal de date niveluri de "A"

    Green or black buoys (symbols filled black): G= Green ; B = Black = Verde sau negrugeamanduri (simboluri umplut negru): G=Verde; B. = Negru

    Single coloured buoys other than green andblack: Y= Yellow ; R = Red = Unic de culoarebalize, altele dect verde i negru: Y=Galben; R = Rou

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    Multiple colours in horizontal bands, the coloursequence is from top to bottom = Culorimultiple n benzi orizontale, secvena culoriloreste de sus n jos

    Multiple colours in vertical or diagonal stripes,the darker colour is given first. W= White =Culori multiple n dungi verticale saudiagonal, de culoare mai nchis este datprimul. W= AlbMore on buoys in chapter 9 = Mai multedespre balize n capitolul 9

    Lighted marks on multicoloured charts, GPS

    displays and chart plotters. A yellow colouredlobe indicates a White light! Also note thatbeacons (here the rightmost symbol with thegreen light) has an upright G, instead of anoblique G= Semne luminoase pe graficemulticolore, display-uri GPS i plottere hart.Un lob galben indic o lumin alb! Deasemenea, reinei c balize (aici simbolul dincaptul din dreapta cu lumina verde) are o G

    n poziie vertical, n loc de un oblice G

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    Glossary = Mercator projection: Most coastal nautical charts are constructed

    with this method. Angles are true and distances can be measured usingthe vertical scale. = De proiecie Mercator: Cele mai multe de coast diagramenautice sunt construite cu aceast metod. Unghiurile sunt adevrate i distanelepot fi msurate utiliznd scar vertical.

    Stereographic projection: Used for chart covering small areas.

    Like the Mercator projection use the vertical scale to measure distances.= De proiecie Stereographic: Folosit pentru hart care acoper domenii mici. Lafel ca i proiecia Mercator utilizarea scar vertical pentru a msura distanele.

    Gnomeric projection: Used for vast areas. Great circles appear asstraight lines on the chart. = De proiecie Gnomeric: Folosit pentru zonevaste. Cercurile Great apar ca linii drepte pe hart.

    Great circle navigation: The shortest course on earth betweentwo positions is a great circle; for circumnavigating and ocean crossings.

    = Mare de navigare cerc: Cel mai scurt curs pe pmnt, ntre dou poziii este uncerc mare; pentru circumnavigating i punctele de trecere a oceanului.

    Loxodrome: A line which makes the same angle with all meridians.Theoretically not the shortest route, but a handy straight line on aMercator chart. = Loxodrome: O linie care face acelai unghi, cu toatemeridianele. Teoretic, nu cel mai scurt traseu, dar la ndemn o linie dreapt pe ohart Mercator.

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    Horizontal geodetic datum: Defines the relationship between theellipsoid adopted as the model of the Earth's shape, and the Earth itself.Coordinates which refer to, for instance, AIA should be correctedbefore plotting them in a chart based on another horizontal datum. Ifyour GPS receiver consistently disagrees with known positions by a

    constant amount and direction, then check that you have set it to displaythe correct horizontal datum. = Orizontale datum geodezic: Defineterelaia dintre elipsoidal a adoptat ca model de form Pmntului, i Pmntul nsine. Coordonate care se refer la, de exemplu, AIA ar trebui s fie corectate

    nainte de a le pune la cale ntr-o hart bazat pe un alt datum orizontal. n cazul ncare receptorul GPS n mod constant nu este de acord cu poziiile cunoscut de osum constant i direcie, apoi verificai c ai setat pentru a afia Datum corectorizontal.

    Chart sounding datum: The tidal datum (fictitious plane) to whichsoundings, heights, elevations and drying heights on a chart are referred.= Chart datum sondaj: Datum mareelor (avion fictive), la care sunete, inaltimi,

    nlimi creteri i uscare pe un grafic sunt menionate.

    Vertical scale: Distances in nautical miles or minutes (') should bemeasured at the same latitude on the vertical scale. = Scar vertical:Distante n mile marine sau de minute ( ") ar trebui s fie evaluate la aceeailatitudine pe scara verticala.

    Corrections: Each chart is liable to corrections which are publishedby either a national body or the publisher of the nautical chart. =Coreciile: Fiecare hart este de natur s corecii, care sunt publicate de ctre unorganism naional sau editorul hrii nautice.

    The seabed - where to anchor=Pe fundul mrii - ncazul n care, pentru a ancora

    Since a good anchor digs itself into the seabed we're interested in morethan just the upper layer. Shells, weed and sea grasses might prevent ananchor from grabbing. But once through, the anchor can dig itself into thelower sandy, mud, peat, cobbles, stony or clay bottom, each withdifferent holding characteristics, requiring different anchor types. =Dinmoment ce o ancor bun sap ea nsi n fundul mrii, sunteminteresati mai mult dect doar stratul superior. Manta, buruieni i plantede mare s-ar putea mpiedica o ancor de la grabbing. Dar, odat prin,

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    ancora se poate sape ea nsi n mai mic de nisip, noroi, turb, cobbles,piatr sau lut partea de jos, fiecare exploataie cu caracteristici diferite,care necesit diferite tipuri de ancora.

    Mud, for instance will provide better holding than peat - which is oftentoo watery - yet usually we cannot pick the seabed. = Noroi, de exemplu,va oferi care dein mai bine dect turb - care este adesea prea apos -dar, de obicei, nu putem alege fundul mrii.

    Moreover, the seabed might even beunusable for anchoring, as is the case with cables, telephone lines orpipelines, which will be indicated on the nautical chart as illustrated on

    the right. = Mai mult, fundul mrii ar putea fi chiar inutilizabil pentruancorare, aa cum este cazul existenei cablurilor, liniilor telefonice saude conductelor, care vor fi indicate pe hriile nautice aa cum esteilustrat n imaginea de pe dreapta (cazul nostru-mai jos).

    Other reasons why anchoring may beforbidden are an explosives dump area or a historic wreck, or simplybecause anchoring will block the passage. Also the seabed might be foul,which is indicated on nautical charts by a #, marking perhaps old chainsor simply polluted ground below. = Alte motive de ce ancorare poate fi

    interzis sunt un explozivi cargo zon sau o epav istoric, sau pur isimplu pentru c ancorarea va bloca trecerea. De asemenea, pe fundulmrii ar putea fi fault, care este indicat pe hrile nautice de ctre un #,Marcarea lanuri, probabil, vechi sau pur i simplu la sol poluat de mai

    jos.Likewise you should avoid naval (submarine) exercise areas, naturereserves, precious coral and areas with divers down (see the A flag and

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    diver down flag). = n acelai mod trebuie s evitai naval (submarin)zone exercit, rezervatii naturale, coral preioase i zonele cu divers n

    jos (a se vedea "Un" pavilionul i "scufundtor n jos" pavilionul).

    Types of seabed=S Sand= Nisip

    M Mud=

    Cy, Cl Clay= Lut

    G Gravel=

    Co Coral=

    Cb Cobbles=

    Sn Shingle= indril

    P Pebbles=

    St Stones= Pietre

    Rk, RkyRock, Rocky= Roci

    Ch Chalk=

    Sh Shells= Scoici

    Wd Weed= Buruienilor

    S/MTwo layers (example: sand over mud) = Dou straturi(de exemplu: nisip peste noroi)

    Kelp= Varec

    Spring in seabed= Izvoare pe fundul mrii

    Qualifying terms= Qualifying termeniNote that lowercase letters are used for these qualifying terms. = Reineic litere mici sunt utilizate pentru aceti termeni de calificare.

    s small= mic

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    f fine=

    m medium=mediu

    c coarse=grosiere

    h hard=tare

    sm small=mic

    bk broken=sparte

    v volcanic=vulcanic

    Thick mud, clay and sand will provide good holding, as will pebbles once

    the anchor is deep enough. = Noroi gros, lut i nisip va oferi exploataiebun, aa cum se va pietricele, o dat ancora este suficient de adnc.

    A rocky seabed might perhaps provide even better holding, but alsoincreases the risk of a permanent mooring when the chain or anchor itselfgets jammed under a heavy boulder. = Un fundul mrii stancoase s-arputea oferi, poate, care deine chiar mai bine, dar, de asemenea, creteriscul de acostare permanente n cazul n lan sau ancor n sine esteblocat sub un bolovan greu.

    Therefore, especially when dealing with rocks, the use of a trip line ortripping line is recommended to enable you to retrieve your anchor.=Prin urmare, mai ales atunci cnd se ocup cu pietre, utilizarea unuilinie de cltorie sau tripping linie de este recomandat pentru a vpermite s preluai ancora dumneavoastr.

    Thick layers of shells are rather useless: at least with seaweed and grassthe anchor has a chance to penetrate into the more suitable layersunderneath. = Straturi groase de scoici sunt destul de inutile: cel puin cualge marine i iarb ancora are o ans de a ptrunde n straturile maipotrivite dedesubt.

    Anchoring course : =

    Seabed - where to anchor=Anchors & anchor parts=Anchoring techniques=

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    Mediterranean mooring=Anchoring tips & glossary=

    Bareboat requirements=Choosing a charter yacht=Catamarans & monohulls=Prevent seasickness=Greek sailing areas=When to sail in Greece=Yacht charter provisioning=Itineraries Ionian=Itineraries Argo-Saronic=Itineraries Cyclades=Itineraries Dodecanese=One-way itineraries=Flights & ferries=Last minutes & budget=Sailing Greece & Turkey=