2005 ARRL Handbook Front Matter - For Radio Communications The ARRL Handbook Eighty-Third Edition Published by: ARRL—the national association for Amateur Radio Newington, CT 06111 USA

  • Published on
    07-Feb-2018

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Transcript

  • 2006For Radio Communications

    The ARRLHandbook

    Eighty-Third Edition

    Published by:ARRLthe national association

    for Amateur RadioNewington, CT 06111 USA

    EditorR. Dean Straw, N6BV

    Contributing EditorsSteven R. Ford, WB8IMYCharles L. Hutchinson, K8CHRick Lindquist, N1RLLarry D. Wolfgang, WR1B

    Editorial AssistantsHelen W. Dalton, KB1HLFMaty Weinberg, KB1EIB

    Technical ConsultantsMichael E. Gruber, W1MGEdward F. Hare, Jr., W1RFIZachary H.J. Lau, W1VTMichael D. Tracy, KC1SX

    Cover DesignSue FaganBob Inderbitzen, NQ1R

    ProductionMichelle Bloom, WB1ENTMichael DanielsJodi Morin, KA1JPADavid F. Pingree, N1NASJoe Shea

    CD-ROM ProductionDan Wolfgang

    ProofreaderKathy Ford

    Additional Contributors to the 2006Edition:

    Wayde S. Bartholomew, K3MFDavid J. Benson, K1SWLAlbert C. Buxton, W8NXL. B. Cebik, W4RNLJohn J. Champa, K8OCLPaul M. Danzer, N1IIDonald R. Greenbaum, N1DGJohn C. Hennessee, N1KBGeorge L. Heron, N2APBHoward S. Huntington, K9KMSylvia K. Hutchinson, K8SYLRichard M. Jansson, WD4FABShawn A. Reed, N1HOQDouglas T. Smith, KF6DXFrederick J. Telewski, WA7TZYJames L. Tonne, WB6BLDEdward E. Wetherhold, W3NQNRosalie A. White, K1STO

    Cover Info:Background: The circuit board modified by K1SWLto prototype his 60-Meter transceiver design. Thisnew project is found in Chapter 15.To the left of the Handbook CD-ROM image, thepopular HF receiver project by N1TEV (Ch. 14) isshown. To the upper left, these new antennaprojects can be found in Ch. 22.

    Cover circuit board photography for the 2006ARRL Handbook by Dan Wolfgang.

  • Copyright 2005 byThe American Radio Relay League, Inc.

    Copyright secured under the Pan-AmericanConvention

    International Copyright secured

    This work is Publication No. 6 of the RadioAmateurs Library, published by the ARRL.All rights reserved. No part of this work maybe reproduced in any form except by writtenpermission of the publisher. All rights oftranslation are reserved.

    Printed in the USA

    Quedan reservados todos los derechos

    ISBN: 0-87259-928-0 SoftcoverISBN: 0-87259-929-9 Hardcover

    Eighty-Third Edition

  • ContentsContentsContentsContentsContents

    ForewordAmateurs CodeSchematic Symbols

    Chapter 1 What is Amateur (Ham) Radio?Hobby of Diversities .................................................. 1.2Your License ............................................................... 1.3US Amateur Bands ..................................................... 1.4Ham Radio Action ...................................................... 1.5Getting Started ............................................................ 1.7Governing Regulations ............................................ 1.11Resources ................................................................... 1.15Glossary ..................................................................... 1.16

    Chapter 2 Activities in Amateur RadioAwards ......................................................................... 2.1Contests ....................................................................... 2.2Nets .............................................................................. 2.3Amateur Radio Education .......................................... 2.4Emergency Communications ..................................... 2.4Specialized Communications .................................... 2.6

    Chapter 3 SafetyAntenna and Tower Safety ........................................ 3.1Power Lines ................................................................. 3.2Electrical Wiring around the Shack .......................... 3.3Lightning/Transient Protection ................................. 3.5Grounds ....................................................................... 3.7Project: An Earth-Continuity Tester ........................ 3.9Station Power ............................................................ 3.11FCC RF-Exposure Regulations ............................... 3.12Safe Homebrewing ................................................... 3.14RF Radiation and EMF Safety ................................ 3.15Other Hazards in the Ham Shack ............................ 3.19

  • Chapter 4 Electrical FundamentalsDC Circuits and Resistance ....................................... 4.1Series and Parallel Resistances ................................. 4.3Power and Energy ....................................................... 4.6Circuits and Components ........................................... 4.8AC Theory and Reactance ....................................... 4.11Frequency and Period ............................................... 4.13Capacitance and Capacitors ..................................... 4.18Inductance and Inductors ......................................... 4.25Quality Factor (Q) of Components ......................... 4.32Calculating Practical Inductors ............................... 4.32Ohms Law for Reactance ....................................... 4.37Impedance ................................................................. 4.42Resonant Circuits ...................................................... 4.47Transformers ............................................................. 4.54

    Chapter 5 Electrical Signals and ComponentsAnalog Glossary ......................................................... 5.1Analog Signal Processing .......................................... 5.2Analog Devices ........................................................... 5.6Practical Semiconductors ......................................... 5.17Transistor Amplifier Design .................................... 5.26Digital Fundamentals ............................................... 5.38Number Systems ....................................................... 5.39Physical Rep. of Binary States ................................ 5.41Combinational Logic ................................................ 5.42Sequential Logic ....................................................... 5.45Digital Integrated Circuits ....................................... 5.51Computer Hardware ................................................. 5.58

    Chapter 6 Real-World Component CharacteristicsLumped vs Distributed Elements .............................. 6.1Low-Frequency Component Models ........................ 6.2Components at RF .................................................... 6.10Thermal Considerations ........................................... 6.16The Thermistor in Homebrew Projects .................. 6.20Low-Frequency Transistor Models ......................... 6.23

  • Chapter 7 Component Data and ReferencesComponent Values ..................................................... 7.1Component Markings ................................................. 7.1Inductors and Core Materials .................................... 7.5Other Sources of Component Data ......................... 7.11Semiconductors ......................................................... 7.15Integrated Circuits .................................................... 7.28Vacuum Tubes .......................................................... 7.32Other .......................................................................... 7.36References ................................................................. 7.38General/Electronics/Computers .............................. 7.38Components/Equipment ........................................... 7.45Antennas/Transmission Lines ................................. 7.46Modes......................................................................... 7.50Operating and Interference ...................................... 7.52Message Handling .................................................... 7.63

    Chapter 8 Circuit ConstructionShop Safety ................................................................. 8.1Tools and their Uses ................................................... 8.1Project: A Deluxe Soldering Station ........................ 8.6Project: Soldering-Iron Temperature Control ......... 8.7Electronic Circuits ...................................................... 8.7Surface Mount Construction Techniques ............... 8.12From Schematic to Working Circuit ....................... 8.18Microwave Construction Techniques ..................... 8.22High-Voltage Techniques ........................................ 8.23Mechanical Fabrication ............................................ 8.25

    Chapter 9 Modes and Modulation SourcesIssues Common to all Transmission Modes ............ 9.1Voice Modes ............................................................... 9.2Text Modes ................................................................ 9.11Morse Telegraphy (CW) .......................................... 9.11Digital Communications .......................................... 9.15Image Modes ............................................................. 9.32Facsimile ................................................................... 9.32Slow-Scan Television (SSTV) ................................ 9.34Fast-Scan Television (ATV).................................... 9.40Radio Control (R/C) ................................................. 9.48Spread Spectrum ....................................................... 9.51High Speed Multimedia (HSMM) Radio ............... 9.55

  • Chapter 10 Oscillators and SynthesizersHow Oscillators Work......................................................... 10.2Phase Noise .......................................................................... 10.5Oscillator Circuits and Construction ...............................10.12VHF and UHF Oscillators ................................................10.28Frequency Synthesizers ....................................................10.32Phase-Locked Loops .........................................................10.33Synthesizer in an MF/HF Transceiver .............................10.49Trends in Oscillator Applications ....................................10.52

    Chapter 11 Mixers, Modulators and DemodulatorsThe Mechanism of Mixers and Mixing ............................. 11.1Practical Building Blocks .................................................11.13Testing and Calculating IMD in Receivers .....................11.20

    Chapter 12 RF and AF FiltersBasic Concepts ..................................................................... 12.1Filter Synthesis .................................................................... 12.5Designs using Software/SVC Tables ................................. 12.8Chebyshev Filter Design ...................................................12.11Quartz Crystal Filters ........................................................12.16Monolithic Crystal Filters .................................................12.18SAW Filters ........................................................................12.18Transmission-Line Filters .................................................12.19Helical Resonators .............................................................12.23Active Filters ......................................................................12.27Project: Crystal Filter Evaluation ....................................12.27Project: Band-Pass Filters for 144 or 222 MHz .............12.30Project: High-Performance Passive CW Filter ..............12.31Project: Broadcast Band Rejection Filter .......................12.35Project: A Wave Trap for Broadcast Stations ................12.36Project: Second-Harmonic-Optimized LP Filters ..........12.37Project: The Diplexer Filter .............................................12.39

    Chapter 13 EMI/Direction FindingThe Scope of the Problem................................................... 13.1Responsibility ...................................................................... 13.2EMC Fundamentals ............................................................. 13.3Cures ..................................................................................... 13.5TVI Troubleshooting Chart ................................................ 13.8Amateur Harmonics/CATV Chart ...................................13.10Project: Finding Shack Noise Sources ............................13.15Radio Direction Finding ...................................................13.17Project: The Simple Seeker ..............................................13.28Project: Active Attenuator for VHF-FM ........................13.30

  • Chapter 14 Receivers and TransmittersA Single-Stage Building Block ................................................ 14.1Negative Feedback in RF Design............................................. 14.4Receiver Design Techniques .................................................. 14.14The Superheterodyne Receiver .............................................. 14.20VHF and UHF Receivers ........................................................ 14.34Project: GaAsFET Preamp for 430 MHz .............................. 14.36Project: Microwave Receiver for 10 GHz ............................ 14.41Transmitter Design .................................................................. 14.42Project: A Rock-Bending Receiver for 7 MHz .................... 14.61Project: A Wideband MMIC Preamp .................................... 14.64Project: A Binaural I-Q Receiver .......................................... 14.66Project: A Superregenerative Receiver with Squelch ......... 14.72Project: A Broadband HF Amp using MOSFETS ............... 14.74Project: A Drift-Free VFO ..................................................... 14.81Project: A Simple Regenerative HF Receiver ...................... 14.85

    Chapter 15 Transceivers, Transverters and RepeatersTransceiver Example ................................................................. 15.1Project: The Norcal SierraAn 80-15 M CW Transceiver . 15.9Project: A 10-Watt SSB Transceiver for 60-M Band .......... 15.15Transverters .............................................................................. 15.19Repeaters .................................................................................. 15.20

    Chapter 16 DSP and Software Radio DesignDSP Fundamentals .................................................................... 16.1DSP Algorithms for Radio ........................................................ 16.5Analytic Signals and Modulation............................................. 16.9Digital Speech Processing ...................................................... 16.16Interference-Reduction Techniques ....................................... 16.17Fourier Transforms .................................................................. 16.19Radio Architectures for DSP .................................................. 16.26Software Radios ....................................................................... 16.31Hardware for Embedded DSP Systems ................................. 16.32DSP System Software ............................................................. 16.34DSP Projects ............................................................................ 16.36Project A: Decimation ............................................................. 16.36Project B: FIR Filter Design Variations................................ 16.36Project C: Analytic Filter Pair Generation ........................... 16.39Project D: Newtons Method for Square Roots ................... 16.39Project E: A Fast Square-Root Algorithm ............................ 16.39Project F: A High-Performance DDS ................................... 16.41Project G: Fast Binary Multiplier in High-Speed

    CMOS Logic ................................................................... 16.42

  • Chapter 17 Power SuppliesGlossary ........................................................................................ 17.1Alternating-Current Power ......................................................... 17.2Rectifier Types ............................................................................. 17.4Rectifier Circuits ......................................................................... 17.5Filtration ..................................................................................... 17.11Regulation .................................................................................. 17.12High-Voltage Techniques ......................................................... 17.20Batteries and Charging .............................................................. 17.20Emergency Operations .............................................................. 17.24Power-Supply Projects .............................................................. 17.24Project: Series-Regulated 4.5- to 25-V Supply ...................... 17.25Project: 13.8-V, 40-A Switching Supply ................................ 17.28Project: 28-V, High-Current Supply ....................................... 17.37Project: Commercial-Quality, High-Voltage Supply ............ 17.40Project: Micro M+ Charge Controller ..................................... 17.41Project: The UPSA Universal Supply ................................. 17.44Project: A Portable Power Supply ........................................... 17.46

    Chapter 18 RF Power AmplifiersTypes of Power Amplifiers ......................................................... 18.1Design Examples ....................................................................... 18.19Project: 3CX1500D7 kW HF Amplifier ................................. 18.29Project: A 6-Meter kW Amplifier ........................................... 18.35Project: A 144-MHz Amplifier ................................................ 18.38Project: A 2-Meter Brick Amp for Handhelds ....................... 18.43

    Chapter 19 Station Layout and AccessoriesFixed Stations............................................................................... 19.1Mobile and Portable Installations ............................................ 19.13Project: Tick-2A Tiny CMOS Keyer 2 ............................... 19.17Project: Vintage Radio T/R Adapter ....................................... 19.20Project: Quick and Easy CW with your PC ............................ 19.22Project: An Expandable Headphone Mixer ............................ 19.25Project: A Simple 10-Minute ID Timer .................................. 19.26Project: Audio Break-Out Box ................................................ 19.26Project: An SWR Detector Audio Adapter ............................. 19.28Project: PC Voltmeter and SWR Bridge ................................. 19.29Project: Tandem MatchAn Accurate Directional

    Wattmeter .............................................................................. 19.31Project: Automatic Antenna Switch for Yaesu or ICOM ..... 19.37Project: A Trio of Transceiver/Computer Interfaces ............. 19.41Project: Computer-Controlled Two-Radio Switchbox .......... 19.44Project: TR Time-Delay Generator ......................................... 19.48Project: A Switched Attenuator ............................................... 19.52Project: Simple QRP TR Changeover ..................................... 19.53Project: QRP L-Match ATU .................................................... 19.54Project: QRP T-Match ATU .................................................... 19.56Project: An Ugly Transformer for Heavy-Load Stations ...... 19.57

  • Chapter 20 Propagation of RF SignalsFundamentals of Radio Waves .............................................. 20.1Propagation Summary by Band ............................................. 20.4MUF Prediction .................................................................... 20.17Propagation in the Troposphere .......................................... 20.19Extraterrestrial Propagation ................................................. 20.24

    Chapter 21 Transmission LinesBasics ....................................................................................... 21.1Matched Lines ......................................................................... 21.3Reflections on the Smith Chart ............................................. 21.4Matching the Antenna to the Line ...................................... 21.10Matching the Line to the Transmitter ................................. 21.13Loads and Balancing Devices ............................................. 21.14Waveguides ........................................................................... 21.17

    Chapter 22 AntennasAntenna Polarization .............................................................. 22.1Dipoles and the Half-Wave Antenna .................................... 22.4Project: 135-FT Multiband Dipole ..................................... 22.11Antenna Modeling by Computer ......................................... 22.12Project: A 40/15-M Dual-Band Dipole .............................. 22.13Project: K8SYL 75/10-M Dual-Band Dipole .................... 22.14Project: W4RNL Inverted-U Antenna................................ 22.14Project: Two W8NX Multiband, Coax-Trap Dipoles ....... 22.19Vertical Antennas ................................................................. 22.23Optimum Ground Systems for Vertical Antennas............. 22.23Project: Dual-Band Verticals for 17/40M or 12/30M ...... 22.27Inverted L and Sloper Antennas .......................................... 22.28Project: 1.8-MHz Inverted L ............................................... 22.29Project: Half-Wave Vertical Dipole (HVD) ...................... 22.30Project: The Compact Vertical Dipole (CVD) .................. 22.31Project: All Wire 30-M CVD .............................................. 22.32Yagi and Quad Directive Antennas .................................... 22.33Quad Antennas ...................................................................... 22.38Project: Five-Band, Two-Element HF Quad ..................... 22.39Project: Simple Quad for 40 M ........................................... 22.42Project: Simple Loop for 28 MHz ...................................... 22.45HF Mobile Antennas ............................................................ 22.45VHF/UHF Antennas ............................................................. 22.53Project: Simple Portable Groundplane Antenna ............... 22.56Project: Dual-Band Antenna for 146/446 MHz ................ 22.57Project: A Quick Antenna for 223 MHz ............................ 22.58Project: An All-Copper 2-M J-Pole ................................... 22.58VHF/UHF Yagis ................................................................... 22.60Project: 3- and 5-Element Yagis for 6 M .......................... 22.60Project: A Medium Gain 2-M Yagi .................................... 22.61

  • Chapter 23 Space CommunicationsAn Amateur Satellite Primer ......................................................... 23.1Amateur Satellite History .............................................................. 23.4Phase 3EThe Next Generation ................................................ 23.13Project: Single Brick L-Band Amplifier .................................... 23.17Project: Double Brick L-Band Amplifier .................................. 23.17Project: Parabolic Dish Construction ......................................... 23.28Project: Helix Feed for an Offset Dish ...................................... 23.29Project: Integrated AO-40 Antenna System .............................. 23.30Glossary of Satellite Terminology .............................................. 23.34Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) ............................................................ 23.37

    Chapter 24 Web, Wi-Fi, Wireless and PC TechnologyThe World Wide Web (www)The Internet .............................. 24.1Hams Guide to Useful Internet Sites ........................................... 24.2Glossary/Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) .............................................. 24.3Glossary of Wireless Technology ................................................. 24.4Wireless Technology ...................................................................... 24.6Personal Computers in the Shack ............................................... 24.10Mode-Specific Software .............................................................. 24.12

    Chapter 25 Test ProceduresTest and Measurement Basics ....................................................... 25.1DC Instruments and Circuits ......................................................... 25.3AC Instruments and Circuits ......................................................... 25.8Project: The Microwatter ............................................................ 25.11Frequency Measurement .............................................................. 25.14Project: Marker Generator with Selectable Output .................. 25.15Project: A Dip Meter with Digital Display ............................... 25.17Other Instruments and Measurements ........................................ 25.20Project: A Wide-Range Audio Oscillator .................................. 25.20Project: Measure Inductance and Capacitance with a DVM ... 25.21Oscilloscopes ................................................................................ 25.22Project: HF Adapter for Narrow Bandwidth Scopes ................ 25.27Project: A Calibrated Noise Source ........................................... 25.27Project: Signal Generator for Receiver Testing ........................ 25.31Project: Hybrid Combiners for Signal Generators .................... 25.34Project: Compensated Modular RF Voltmeter .......................... 25.35Receiver Performance Tests ........................................................ 25.41Transmitter Performance Tests ................................................... 25.49

    Chapter 26 Troubleshooting and RepairSafety First ...................................................................................... 26.1Where to Begin ............................................................................... 26.5Testing within a Stage .................................................................... 26.9Look for the Obvious ................................................................... 26.11Typical Symptoms and Faults ..................................................... 26.12Troubleshooting Hints .................................................................. 26.17After the Repairs ........................................................................... 26.27Professional Repairs ..................................................................... 26.28

    Advertisers Index ............................................................Opposite A-1ARRL Membership FormIndexAbout the ARRLAbout the Included CD-ROM

  • ForForForForForeworeworeworeworeworddddd

    The enormously successful 2005 Edition of The ARRL Handbook hasbeen updated in this 2006 Edition. Thanks to the sharp eyes of a number ofreaders, the minor errors in the massive 2005 Edition rewrite have beenfixed.

    A brand-new, high-power HF linear amplifier project by Jerry Pittenger,K8RA, has been added to this 2006 Edition. Feast your eyes on Jerrysbeautiful workmanship building a full-featured amplifier using the new3CX1500D7 power triode. This rugged new Eimac tube has a 50-W griddissipation, making it capable of withstanding almost any condition ofdrive or tuning.

    Once again, we are including the fully searchable CD-ROM containingall of the almost 1200 pages of the printed book. Readers have been veryenthusiastic about the instant search capabilities they have when theyload the Handbook on their hard drives.

    Whether you want to tackle projects using surface-mount components orlearn how a computer can enhance many aspects and areas of yourAmateur Radio pursuits, this Handbook has something for everyone.

    So, whether you prefer to open this comprehensive reference book onyour workbench, in your favorite reading chair, or using the CD drive ofyour computer, enjoy all that this 2006 Edition Handbook has to offer.

    David Summer, K1ZZExecutive Vice PresidentNewington, ConnecticutSeptember 2005

  • The Amateurs CodeThe Radio Amateur is:

    CONSIDERATEnever knowingly operates in such a way as to lessen thepleasure of others.

    LOYALoffers loyalty, encouragement and support to other amateurs, local clubs,and the American Radio Relay League, through which Amateur Radio in the UnitedStates is represented nationally and internationally.

    PROGRESSIVEwith knowledge abreast of science, a well-built and efficientstation and operation above reproach.

    FRIENDLYslow and patient operating when requested; friendly advice andcounsel to the beginner; kindly assistance, cooperation and consideration for theinterests of others. These are the hallmarks of the amateur spirit.

    BALANCEDradio is an avocation, never interfering with duties owed to family,job, school or community.

    PATRIOTICstation and skill always ready for service to country and community.

    The original Amateurs Code was written by Paul M. Segal, W9EEA, in 1928.

  • The ARRLAt Your Service

    You can send e-mail to any ARRL Headquarters employee if youknow his or her name or call sign. The second half of every Head-quarters e-mail address is @arrl.org. To create the first half, simplyuse the persons call sign. If you dont know their call sign, use the firstletter of their first name, followed by their complete last name. Forexample, to send a message to John Hennessee, N1KB, RegulatoryInformation Specialist, you could address it to jhennessee@arrl.orgor N1KB@arrl.org.

    If all else fails, send e-mail to hq@arrl.org and it will be routedto the right people or departments.

    Technical Information ServiceThe ARRL answers questions of a technical nature for ARRL

    members and nonmembers alike through the Technical Informa-tion Service. Questions may be submitted via e-mail(tis@arrl.org); Phone (860-594-0214); Fax (860-594-0259); ormail (TIS at ARRL, 225 Main Street, Newington, CT 06111). TheTIS also maintains a home page on www.arrl.org/tis. See theComponent Data and References chapter (page 7.11) of thisHandbook for more details. Also, please note that the TechnicalInformation Server or Info Server service previously available viae-mail has been discontinued.

    ARRL ON THE WORLD WIDE WEBYoull find ARRL at: www.arrl.org/At the ARRL Web page youll find the latest W1AW bulletins,

    a hamfest calendar, exam schedules, an on-line ARRL PublicationsCatalog and much more. Were always adding new features, socheck it often!

    Members-Only Web FeaturesAs an ARRL member you enjoy exclusive access to our Members-

    ARRL Headquarters is open from 8 AM to 5 PM Eastern Time, Mondaythrough Friday, except holidays. Call toll free to join the ARRL or order ARRLproducts: 1-888-277-5289 (US), M-F only, 8 AM to 8 PM Eastern Time.

    If you have a question, try one of these Headquarters departments . . .Telephone Electronic Mail

    Joining ARRL 860-594-0338 membership@arrl.orgQST Delivery 860-594-0338 circulation@arrl.orgPermission Requests 860-594-0229 permission@arrl.orgPublication Orders 860-594-0355 pubsales@arrl.orgAmateur Radio News 860-594-0222 n1rl@arrl.orgRegulatory Info 860-594-0236 reginfo@arrl.orgExams 860-594-0300 vec@arrl.orgEducational Materials 860-594-0230 ead@arrl.orgCCE/EmComm 860-594-0340 dmiller@arrl.org CoursesContests 860-594-0232 contests@arrl.orgTechnical Questions 860-594-0214 tis@arrl.orgAwards/VUCC 860-594-0288 awards@arrl.orgDevelopment Office 860-594-0397 mhobart@arrl.orgDXCC 860-594-0234 dxcc@arrl.orgAdvertising 860-594-0207 ads@arrl.orgMedia Relations 860-594-0328 newsmedia@arrl.orgQSL Service 860-594-0274 buro@arrl.orgScholarships 860-594-0397 foundation@arrl.orgEmergency Comm 860-594-0265 emergency@arrl.orgClubs 860-594-0292 clubs@arrl.orgHamfests 860-594-0262 hamfests@arrl.org

    Only Web features. Just point your browser to www.arrl.org/mem-bers/ and youll open the door to benefits that you wont find any-where else.

    QST Product Review Archive. Get copies of QST product re-views from 1980 to the present.

    QST/QEX searchable index (find that article you were lookingfor!)

    Previews of contest results. See them here before they appearin QST!

    Access to your information in the ARRL membership data-base. Enter corrections or updates on line!

    Stopping by for a visit?We offer tours of Headquarters and W1AW at 9, 10 and 11 AM,

    and at 1, 2 and 3 PM, Monday to Friday (except holidays). Specialtour times may be arranged in advance. Bring your license and youcan operate W1AW anytime between 10 AM and noon, and 1 to3:45 PM!

    Would you like to write for QST?Were always looking for new material of interest to hams. Send

    a self-addressed, stamped envelope (2 units of postage) and ask fora copy of the Authors Guide. (Its also available via the ARRLWeb page at www.arrl.org/qst/aguide/.)

    Press Releases and New Products/BooksSend your press releases and new book announcements to the

    attention of the QST Editor (e-mail qst@arrl.org). New productannouncements should be sent to the Product Review Editor (e-mail reviews@arrl.org).

    ARRL Amateur Radio News on the WebThe primary focus of the ARRL Web site, www.arrl.org, is

    Amateur Radio news and general-interest features and columnsavailable to all. This is the Amateur Radio communitys mostcomprehensive and immediate source for news and information onissues of importance and interest to radio amateurs.

    The ARRL LetterThe ARRL Letter has become the Leagues flagship Amateur

    Radio news medium. The Letter is a weekly news summary forthose who want to be on top of whats happening in the world ofAmateur Radio. ARRL members can request Friday e-mail deliveryvia their Member Data Page. Its also available to all on the Web,www.arrl.org/arrlletter. The ARRL Letter is published 50 times ayear.

    ARRL Audio NewsAnother way to keep up with fast-moving events in the ham commu-

    nity is to listen to the ARRL Audio News. Its as close as your telephoneat 860-594-0384, or on the Web at www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/.

    Interested in Becoming a Ham?Just pick up the telephone and call toll free 1-800-326-3942, or

    send e-mail to newham@arrl.org. Well provide helpful adviceon obtaining your Amateur Radio license, and well be happy tosend you our informative Prospective Ham Package.

    mailto:membership@arrl.orgmailto:circulation@arrl.orgmailto:permission@arrl.orgmailto:pubsales@arrl.orgmailto:n1rl@arrl.orgmailto:reginfo@arrl.orgmailto:vec@arrl.orgmailto:ead@arrl.orgmailto:dmiller@arrl.orgmailto:contests@arrl.orgmailto:tis@arrl.orgmailto:awards@arrl.orgmailto:mhobart@arrl.orgmailto:dxcc@arrl.orgmailto:ads@arrl.orgmailto:newsmedia@arrl.orgmailto:buro@arrl.orgmailto:foundation@arrl.orgmailto:emergency@arrl.orgmailto:clubs@arrl.orgmailto:hamfests@arrl.orghttp:@arrl.orgmailto:jhennessee@arrl.orghttp:N1KB@arrl.orgmailto:hq@arrl.orghttp:www.arrl.orghttp:newham@arrl.org

    Introduction to the CD-ROM EditionUsing this CD-ROMFull-Text SearchingARRL on the Internet

    Front MaterialCover I (Front)Cover IITable of ContentsForewordAmateurs CodeSchematic SymbolsThe ARRLAt Your Service

    Chapter 1What is Amateur (Ham) Radio?Hobby of DiversitiesYour LicenseUS Amateur BandsHam Radio ActionGetting StartedGoverning RegulationsResourcesGlossary

    Chapter 2Activities in Amateur RadioAwardsContestsNetsAmateur Radio EducationEmergency CommunicationsSpecialized Communications

    Chapter 3SafetyAntenna and Tower SafetyPower LinesElectrical Wiring around the ShackLightning/Transient ProtectionGroundsProject: An Earth-Continuity TesterStation PowerFCC RF-Exposure RegulationsSafe HomebrewingRF Radiation and EMF SafetyOther Hazards in the Ham Shack

    Chapter 4Electrical FundamentalsDC Circuits and ResistanceSeries and Parallel ResistancesPower and EnergyCircuits and ComponentsAC Theory and ReactanceFrequency and PeriodCapacitance and CapacitorsInductance and InductorsQuality Factor (Q) of ComponentsCalculating Practical InductorsOhms Law for ReactanceImpedanceResonant CircuitsTransformers

    Chapter 5Electrical Signals and ComponentsAnalog GlossaryAnalog Signal ProcessingAnalog DevicesPractical SemiconductorsTransistor Amplifier DesignDigital FundamentalsNumber SystemsPhysical Representation of Binary StatesCombinational LogicSequential LogicDigital Integrated CircuitsComputer Hardware

    Chapter 6Real-World Component CharacteristicsLumped vs Distributed ElementsLow-Frequency Component ModelsComponents at RFThermal ConsiderationsThe Thermistor in Homebrew ProjectsLow-Frequency Transistor Models

    Chapter 7Component Data and ReferencesComponent ValuesComponent MarkingsInductors and Core MaterialsOther Sources of Component DataSemiconductorsIntegrated CircuitsVacuum TubesOtherReferencesGeneral/Electronics/ComputersComponents/EquipmentAntennas/Transmission LinesModesOperating and InterferenceMessage Handling

    Chapter 8Circuit ConstructionShop SafetyTools and their UsesProject: A Deluxe Soldering StationProject: Soldering-Iron Temperature ControlElectronic CircuitsSurface Mount Construction TechniquesFrom Schematic to Working CircuitMicrowave Construction TechniquesHigh-Voltage TechniquesMechanical Fabrication

    Chapter 9Modes and Modulation SourcesIssues Common to all Transmission ModesEmission ClassificationsEmission Modulation and Transmission CharacteristicsMajor Modulation SystemsInternetworkingRadio Control (R/C)Voice ModesImage ModesSpread SpectrumMultimedia Systems

    Chapter 10Oscillators and SynthesizersHow Oscillators WorkPhase NoiseOscillator Circuits and ConstructionVHF and UHF OscillatorsFrequency SynthesizersPhase-Locked LoopsSynthesizer in an MF/HF TransceiverTrends in Oscillator Applications

    Chapter 11Mixers, Modulators and DemodulatorsThe Mechanism of Mixers and MixingPractical Building BlocksTesting and Calculating IMD in Receivers

    Chapter 12RF and AF FiltersBasic ConceptsFilter SynthesisDesigns using Software/SVC TablesChebyshev Filter DesignQuartz Crystal FiltersMonolithic Crystal FiltersSAW FiltersTransmission-Line FiltersHelical ResonatorsActive FiltersProject: Crystal Filter EvaluationProject: Band-Pass Filters for 144 or 222 MHzProject: High-Performance Passive CW FilterProject: Broadcast Band Rejection FilterProject: A Wave Trap for Broadcast StationsProject: Second-Harmonic-Optimized LP FiltersProject: The Diplexer Filter

    Chapter 13EMI/Direction FindingThe Scope of the ProblemResponsibilityEMC FundamentalsCuresTVI Troubleshooting ChartAmateur Harmonics/CATV ChartProject: Finding Shack Noise SourcesRadio Direction FindingProject: The Simple SeekerProject: Active Attenuator for VHF-FM

    Chapter 14Receivers and TransmittersA Single-Stage Building BlockNegative Feedback in RF DesignReceiver Design TechniquesThe Superheterodyne ReceiverVHF and UHF ReceiversProject: GaAsFET Preamp for 430 MHzProject: Microwave Receiver for 10 GHzTransmitter DesignProject: A Rock-Bending Receiver for 7 MHzProject: A Wideband MMIC PreampProject: A Binaural I-Q ReceiverProject: A Superregenerative Receiver with SquelchProject: A Broadband HF Amp using MOSFETSProject: A Drift-Free VFOProject: A Simple Regenerative HF Receiver

    Chapter 15Transceivers, Transverters and RepeatersTransceiver ExampleProject: The Norcal SierraAn 80-15 M CW TransceiProject: A 10-Watt SSB Transceiver for 60-M BandTransvertersRepeaters

    Chapter 16DSP and Software Radio DesignDSP FundamentalsDSP Algorithms for RadioAnalytic Signals and ModulationDigital Speech ProcessingInterference-Reduction TechniquesFourier TransformsRadio Architectures for DSPSoftware RadiosHardware for Embedded DSP SystemsDSP System SoftwareDSP ProjectsProject A: DecimationProject B: FIR Filter Design VariationsProject C: Analytic Filter Pair GenerationProject D: Newtons Method for Square RootsProject E: A Fast Square-Root AlgorithmProject F: A High-Performance DDSProject G: Fast Binary Multiplier in High-Speed CMOS Logic

    Chapter 17Power SuppliesGlossaryAlternating-Current PowerRectifier TypesRectifier CircuitsFiltrationRegulationHigh-Voltage TechniquesBatteries and ChargingEmergency OperationsPower-Supply ProjectsProject: Series-Regulated 4.5- to 25-V SupplyProject: 13.8-V, 40-A Switching SupplyProject: 28-V, High-Current SupplyProject: Commercial-Quality, High-Voltage SupplyProject: Micro M+ Charge ControllerProject: The UPSA Universal SupplyProject: A Portable Power Supply

    Chapter 18RF Power AmplifiersTypes of Power AmplifiersDesign ExamplesProject: 3CX1500D7 RF Linear AmplifierProject: A 6-Meter kW AmplifierProject: A 144-MHz Amplifier

    Chapter 19Station Layout and AccessoriesFixed StationsMobile and Portable InstallationsProject: Tick-2A Tiny CMOS Keyer 2Project: Vintage Radio T/R AdapterProject: Quick and Easy CW with your PCProject: An Expandable Headphone MixerProject: A Simple 10-Minute ID TimerProject: Audio Break-Out BoxProject: An SWR Detector Audio AdapterProject: PC Voltmeter and SWR BridgeProject: Tandem MatchAn Accurate Directional WattmeterProject: Automatic Antenna Switch for Yaesu or ICOMProject: A Trio of Transceiver/Computer InterfacesProject: Computer-Controlled Two-Radio SwitchboxProject: TR Time-Delay GeneratorProject: A Switched AttenuatorProject: Simple QRP TR ChangeoverProject: QRP L-Match ATUProject: QRP T-Match ATUProject: An Ugly Transformer for Heavy-Load Stations

    Chapter 20Propagation of RF SignalsFundamentals of Radio WavesPropagation Summary by BandMUF PredictionPropagation in the TroposphereExtraterrestrial Propagation

    Chapter 21Transmission LinesBasicsMatched LinesReflections on the Smith ChartMatching the Antenna to the LineMatching the Line to the TransmitterLoads and Balancing DevicesWaveguides

    Chapter 22AntennasAntenna PolarizationDipoles and the Half-Wave AntennaProject: 135-FT Multiband DipoleAntenna Modeling by ComputerProject: A 40/15-M Dual-Band DipoleProject: K8SYL 75/10-M Dual-Band DipoleProject: W4RNL Inverted-U AntennaProject: Two W8NX Multiband, Coax-Trap DipolesVertical AntennasOptimum Ground Systems for Vertical AntennasProject: Dual-Band Verticals for 17/40M or 12/30MInverted L and Sloper AntennasProject: 1.8-MHz Inverted LProject: Half-Wave Vertical Dipole (HVD)Project: The Compact Vertical Dipole (CVD)Project: All Wire 30-M CVDYagi and Quad Directive AntennasQuad AntennasProject: Five-Band, Two-Element HF QuadProject: Simple Quad for 40 MProject: Simple Loop for 28 MHzHF Mobile AntennasVHF/UHF AntennasProject: Simple Portable Groundplane AntennaProject: Dual-Band Antenna for 146/446 MHzProject: A Quick Antenna for 223 MHzProject: An All-Copper 2-M J-PoleVHF/UHF YagisProject: 3- and 5-Element Yagis for 6 MProject: A Medium Gain 2-M Yagi

    Chapter 23Space CommunicationsAn Amateur Satellite PrimerAmateur Satellite HistoryProject: Single Brick L-Band AmplifierProject: Double Brick L-Band AmplifierProject: Parabolic Dish ConstructionProject: Helix Feed for an Offset DishProject: Integrated AO-40 Antenna SystemGlossary of Satellite TerminologyEarth-Moon-Earth (EME)

    Chapter 24Web, Wi-Fi, Wireless and PC TechnoloThe World Wide Web (www)The InternetHams Guide to Useful Internet SitesGlossary/Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)Glossary of Wireless TechnologyWireless TechnologyPersonal Computers in the ShackMode-Specific Software

    Chapter 25Test ProceduresTest and Measurement BasicsDC Instruments and CircuitsAC Instruments and CircuitsProject: The MicrowatterFrequency MeasurementProject: Marker Generator with Selectable OutputProject: A Dip Meter with Digital DisplayOther Instruments and MeasurementsProject: A Wide-Range Audio OscillatorProject: Measure Inductance and Capacitance with a DVMOscilloscopesProject: HF Adapter for Narrow Bandwidth ScopesProject: A Calibrated Noise SourceProject: Signal Generator for Receiver TestingProject: Hybrid Combiners for Signal GeneratorsProject: Compensated Modular RF VoltmeterReceiver Performance TestsTransmitter Performance Tests

    Chapter 26Troubleshooting and RepairSafety FirstWhere to BeginTesting within a StageLook for the ObviousTypical Symptoms and FaultsTroubleshooting HintsAfter the RepairsProfessional Repairs

    Back MaterialAdvertisingARRL Membership FormIndexAbout the ARRLCover IIICover IV

    Template Packages

Recommended

View more >