2005 ARRL Handbook Front Matter - For Radio Communications The ARRL Handbook Eighty-Third Edition Published by: ARRL—the national association for Amateur Radio Newington, CT 06111 USA

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  • 2006For Radio Communications

    The ARRLHandbook

    Eighty-Third Edition

    Published by:ARRLthe national association

    for Amateur RadioNewington, CT 06111 USA

    EditorR. Dean Straw, N6BV

    Contributing EditorsSteven R. Ford, WB8IMYCharles L. Hutchinson, K8CHRick Lindquist, N1RLLarry D. Wolfgang, WR1B

    Editorial AssistantsHelen W. Dalton, KB1HLFMaty Weinberg, KB1EIB

    Technical ConsultantsMichael E. Gruber, W1MGEdward F. Hare, Jr., W1RFIZachary H.J. Lau, W1VTMichael D. Tracy, KC1SX

    Cover DesignSue FaganBob Inderbitzen, NQ1R

    ProductionMichelle Bloom, WB1ENTMichael DanielsJodi Morin, KA1JPADavid F. Pingree, N1NASJoe Shea

    CD-ROM ProductionDan Wolfgang

    ProofreaderKathy Ford

    Additional Contributors to the 2006Edition:

    Wayde S. Bartholomew, K3MFDavid J. Benson, K1SWLAlbert C. Buxton, W8NXL. B. Cebik, W4RNLJohn J. Champa, K8OCLPaul M. Danzer, N1IIDonald R. Greenbaum, N1DGJohn C. Hennessee, N1KBGeorge L. Heron, N2APBHoward S. Huntington, K9KMSylvia K. Hutchinson, K8SYLRichard M. Jansson, WD4FABShawn A. Reed, N1HOQDouglas T. Smith, KF6DXFrederick J. Telewski, WA7TZYJames L. Tonne, WB6BLDEdward E. Wetherhold, W3NQNRosalie A. White, K1STO

    Cover Info:Background: The circuit board modified by K1SWLto prototype his 60-Meter transceiver design. Thisnew project is found in Chapter 15.To the left of the Handbook CD-ROM image, thepopular HF receiver project by N1TEV (Ch. 14) isshown. To the upper left, these new antennaprojects can be found in Ch. 22.

    Cover circuit board photography for the 2006ARRL Handbook by Dan Wolfgang.

  • Copyright 2005 byThe American Radio Relay League, Inc.

    Copyright secured under the Pan-AmericanConvention

    International Copyright secured

    This work is Publication No. 6 of the RadioAmateurs Library, published by the ARRL.All rights reserved. No part of this work maybe reproduced in any form except by writtenpermission of the publisher. All rights oftranslation are reserved.

    Printed in the USA

    Quedan reservados todos los derechos

    ISBN: 0-87259-928-0 SoftcoverISBN: 0-87259-929-9 Hardcover

    Eighty-Third Edition

  • ContentsContentsContentsContentsContents

    ForewordAmateurs CodeSchematic Symbols

    Chapter 1 What is Amateur (Ham) Radio?Hobby of Diversities .................................................. 1.2Your License ............................................................... 1.3US Amateur Bands ..................................................... 1.4Ham Radio Action ...................................................... 1.5Getting Started ............................................................ 1.7Governing Regulations ............................................ 1.11Resources ................................................................... 1.15Glossary ..................................................................... 1.16

    Chapter 2 Activities in Amateur RadioAwards ......................................................................... 2.1Contests ....................................................................... 2.2Nets .............................................................................. 2.3Amateur Radio Education .......................................... 2.4Emergency Communications ..................................... 2.4Specialized Communications .................................... 2.6

    Chapter 3 SafetyAntenna and Tower Safety ........................................ 3.1Power Lines ................................................................. 3.2Electrical Wiring around the Shack .......................... 3.3Lightning/Transient Protection ................................. 3.5Grounds ....................................................................... 3.7Project: An Earth-Continuity Tester ........................ 3.9Station Power ............................................................ 3.11FCC RF-Exposure Regulations ............................... 3.12Safe Homebrewing ................................................... 3.14RF Radiation and EMF Safety ................................ 3.15Other Hazards in the Ham Shack ............................ 3.19

  • Chapter 4 Electrical FundamentalsDC Circuits and Resistance ....................................... 4.1Series and Parallel Resistances ................................. 4.3Power and Energy ....................................................... 4.6Circuits and Components ........................................... 4.8AC Theory and Reactance ....................................... 4.11Frequency and Period ............................................... 4.13Capacitance and Capacitors ..................................... 4.18Inductance and Inductors ......................................... 4.25Quality Factor (Q) of Components ......................... 4.32Calculating Practical Inductors ............................... 4.32Ohms Law for Reactance ....................................... 4.37Impedance ................................................................. 4.42Resonant Circuits ...................................................... 4.47Transformers ............................................................. 4.54

    Chapter 5 Electrical Signals and ComponentsAnalog Glossary ......................................................... 5.1Analog Signal Processing .......................................... 5.2Analog Devices ........................................................... 5.6Practical Semiconductors ......................................... 5.17Transistor Amplifier Design .................................... 5.26Digital Fundamentals ............................................... 5.38Number Systems ....................................................... 5.39Physical Rep. of Binary States ................................ 5.41Combinational Logic ................................................ 5.42Sequential Logic ....................................................... 5.45Digital Integrated Circuits ....................................... 5.51Computer Hardware ................................................. 5.58

    Chapter 6 Real-World Component CharacteristicsLumped vs Distributed Elements .............................. 6.1Low-Frequency Component Models ........................ 6.2Components at RF .................................................... 6.10Thermal Considerations ........................................... 6.16The Thermistor in Homebrew Projects .................. 6.20Low-Frequency Transistor Models ......................... 6.23

  • Chapter 7 Component Data and ReferencesComponent Values ..................................................... 7.1Component Markings ................................................. 7.1Inductors and Core Materials .................................... 7.5Other Sources of Component Data ......................... 7.11Semiconductors ......................................................... 7.15Integrated Circuits .................................................... 7.28Vacuum Tubes .......................................................... 7.32Other .......................................................................... 7.36References ................................................................. 7.38General/Electronics/Computers .............................. 7.38Components/Equipment ........................................... 7.45Antennas/Transmission Lines ................................. 7.46Modes......................................................................... 7.50Operating and Interference ...................................... 7.52Message Handling .................................................... 7.63

    Chapter 8 Circuit ConstructionShop Safety ................................................................. 8.1Tools and their Uses ................................................... 8.1Project: A Deluxe Soldering Station ........................ 8.6Project: Soldering-Iron Temperature Control ......... 8.7Electronic Circuits ...................................................... 8.7Surface Mount Construction Techniques ............... 8.12From Schematic to Working Circuit ....................... 8.18Microwave Construction Techniques ..................... 8.22High-Voltage Techniques ........................................ 8.23Mechanical Fabrication ............................................ 8.25

    Chapter 9 Modes and Modulation SourcesIssues Common to all Transmission Modes ............ 9.1Voice Modes ............................................................... 9.2Text Modes ................................................................ 9.11Morse Telegraphy (CW) .......................................... 9.11Digital Communications .......................................... 9.15Image Modes ............................................................. 9.32Facsimile ................................................................... 9.32Slow-Scan Television (SSTV) ................................ 9.34Fast-Scan Television (ATV).................................... 9.40Radio Control (R/C) ................................................. 9.48Spread Spectrum ....................................................... 9.51High Speed Multimedia (HSMM) Radio ............... 9.55

  • Chapter 10 Oscillators and SynthesizersHow Oscillators Work......................................................... 10.2Phase Noise .......................................................................... 10.5Oscillator Circuits and Construction ...............................10.12VHF and UHF Oscillators ................................................10.28Frequency Synthesizers ....................................................10.32Phase-Locked Loops .........................................................10.33Synthes