made by :Hala Nsour
corrected by: tyma'a al-zabn
date : 22_11_2016
Chlamydia *Chlamydia has characters between the bacteria and virus .
* We do not care about it very much because a few and old diseases of this
a contagious bacterial infection of : ex: Trachomasome still until now type , . the eye
(like volume :similar to virusThis genus has properties and characteristics *
we can't culture it in it has membrane filters ,and , it has very small size,
also it , tissue cultureal media which we use to bacteria we use to it tradition
from machineries is obligate intracellular so it use the ATP and metabolism
the host cell )
contain DNA & RNA in : (similar to bacteria characteristics and another*
)t virus contain either RNA or DNA the same time bu
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate
some types of : ( and birds) human(intracellular parasites of mammals
. ) Psittacosisspecies caused Chlamydia psittaci Parrotsbirds like
contains one medically important order chlamydiales Classification
r_ales mean orde
Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial Sexually
in humans (Lymphogranuloma venereum diseases) transmitted diseases
.)trachoma( and are the leading cause of Infectious blindness worldwide
ndness. if the trachoma isn't treatment it will lead to bli
Reported rates 3 times higher in females than in males.
susceptible to Chlamydia than males3 time more sFemale*
so its need ( DNA and RNA, and ribosomes, lack ATP contain
ays, non biosynthetic pathwlack , ) cells host the for metabolic machineries
e most important motile. Multiply in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Th
., species that we will take about this lecture are ..
) responsible for trachoma( C. Trachomatis
) Psittacosis with associated( C. psittaci
with pneunoma ) ( associated C. pneumoniae
Slide 3 min 7:00
Transmission Transmission is sexual or vertical (from the mother to fetus)
Incubation period 7-21 days (3 weeks )
Significant asymptomatic reservoir exists in the
(no symptoms appear on patient so he/she become method to transfer the
Re-infection is common why ? because the variation in antigenic structure
, consist of more than one stereotype so one infectious does not give full
immunity , can be affected with other antigenic form )
Perinatal ( ) transmission results in neonatal conjunctivitis
in 30%-50% of exposed babies .
*This bacteria is different from other type of bacteria which we mentioned
before , it has life cycle .
* it has two phases :
1_ Elementary body (EB): the infectious one by which it inter to host cell ,
not reproductive phase .
2_Reticulate body (RB):metabolic active and replication happen.
* once it inter the host cell its converted from (EB) to (RB), and when it get
out of host cell it back to (EB)
Slide 4 min 11:00
Have a complex developmental cycle The infectious form is called an Elementary Body (EB) which is
circular in form and is taken into the cell by induced phagocytosis.
Phagocytosis : when the material has a molecular weight ( )
Pinocytosis : when the material is liquid (cellular drink )
Exocytosis : ( )
Inside the phagocytic vesicle replication takes place.
Fusion In lysosome and phagocytic vesicle then the lysosomal enzyme
Over the next 6-8 hours, the EB reorganizes into the noninfectious, but
metabolically active Reticulate Body (RB) which is larger and less dense
than the EB.
For 18-24 hours the RB synthesized new materials and divides by
binary division to form Inclusion Bodies that reorganize and condense
Inclusion body :vesicle contain RB is indicate the Chlamydia infection
Inside inclusion body (RB) converted to (EB) , and then Exocytosis happen
Between 48-72 hours (three days), the cell lyses and releases the EB
which begin the cycle again.
Slide 5 min 13:16
If we want to differentiate between (EB) and (RB) :
Elementary body 0.25 - 0.3 um diameter electron-dense nucleoid Released from ruptured infected cells. Human to human & bird to human.
Reticulate Body Intracytoplasmic form 0.5 - 1.0 um Replication and growth. ( Inclusion body ) without a dense center.
*EB which inter the cell (engulfment) .>divided by binary fission .>
make inclusion body (green)..> some in the yellow still EB >Exocytosis
Chlamydia inclusion bodies
* this slide consist of inclusion body this circle above contain large amount
slide 8 min 15:15
Chlamydiaceae Family _aceae : family
Three species will be considers :
Species (genus) Disease
C. Trachomatis (many serotypes)
Trachoma, NGU, PID, neonatal conjunctivitis,
Infant pneumonia, LGV
C. Pneumoniae (TWAR) Taiwan acute respiratory agent
Pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia
(many serotypes) Psittacosis(influenza-like illness)
* many serotype mean different type of antigen that diagnosis by
*biotype : diagnosis by biochemical reactions .
*LGV (Lymphogranuloma venereum ) :
Venereum : mean sexually transmitted
( .genitalia )
* c.pneumoniae : one antigenic form (serotype) .> TWAR make
respiratory tract infection in upper and lower
* psittacosis also does not give long lasting immunity , transmitted by bird .
Slide 9 min 19:04
Clinical significance 1. Chlamydia trachomatis Caused many diseses:
1)Genital tract infection is sexually transmitted and frequently found
concomitantly( )with N. gonorrhoea (In males symptoms include
urethritis,dysuria and sometimes progresses to epididymitis( );
In females symptoms include mucopurulent cervical inflammation
(there is discharge)which can progress to salpingitis( )
and PID) , and also may lead to infertility ()
2)Inclusion conjunctivitis ( ) from inclusion body
which contain RB second phase , occurs in both newborns and adults and
a genital tract infection is the source of the infection. In new born mostly get it from mother by genital tract while delivery
In adult auto infection , if she had a disease in genital tract or other cases of
chlamydia in the hand or nails , and if she /her put her/his hand in her/his
It is self-limited conjunctivitis which heals with no scarring. Newborns
are infected during the birth process, with a mucopurulent discharge. In
adults causes an acute follicular conjunctivitis with little discharge
3)Trachoma, greatest cause of blindness in underdeveloped countries.
(Transmission is by direct contact and in poor, less developed countries,
children may be infected in the first three months of life (because they
have incomplete immune system ).
( prophylactic )
4)Lymphogranuloma venereum( ) is a venereal
disease(or sexual transmitted disease ) that occurs in poor, tropical areas.
painless lesion occurs at the site of entry with symptoms of regional
suppurative lymphadenopathy (buboes)
Slide 10 min 25:00
Mainly its a normal flora in birds ,some people love to feed the Parrot by
his/her mouth so if the parrot infected with Chlamydia it can be transmitted
to human respiratory system
naturally infects avian species causing mild to severe illness.
In man causes psittacosis (ornithosis) and is acquired by contact with an infected animal.
Infection can range from subclinical to fatal pneumonia. * its depend on the immunity of the person or the dose which he
take from Chlamydia
Most commonly causes an Atypical ()pneumonia
with fever, chills, dry cough, headache, sore throat, nausea,
* Mycoplasma pneumonia is the cause of atypical pneumonia
- This bacterium was first recognized as a respiratory pathogen, after isolation from pharyngitis case.
- Pneumonia or Bronchitis, gradual onset of cough with little or no fever. Less common presentations are Pharyngitis, Laryngitis,
* give long lasting immunity because its
have only one serotype (TWAR) = only one antigen
slide 11 min 28:15
* Proctitis: / * inguinal : > in genitalia
Slide 12 min 29:8
Pathogenesis (some of it virulence factor ) - Chlamydiae have a hemagglutinin that may facilitate attachment to
cells to the host as pili .
- An endotoxin-like toxin has been described.
Culture Not traditional culture for bacteria its tissue culture because obligate