(1973) Heraldry & Regalia of War

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    Ferjclry moWjr

    Js wjrojre grmws dmresmpfnstnhjtel jkl tfe hmcmur jkl

    rmdjkhe moejrcner jges jre omrhelormd tfe `jttceonecl `y tfeledjkls mohjdmuocjge tf eferjclry mowj r redjnks tm ouconc jkeklurnkg keel.\fe hmcmuroucrjkge modeljc rn``mks `jlgesjkl nksngknj stnccnk use tmljywfnce servnkg j `jsnhjccy oukhtnmkjcpurpmse hmktnkues tm prmvnle tfjtsekse mouknty tfjt ns jccndpmrtjktwfek dek hmde tm ojhe lejtf nkleoekhe mojcc tfey fmcl lejr.

    \fns `mmb djgknonhektcynccustrjtel nk oucc hmcmurjcdmsttfrmugfmut sfmws jhrmsssehtnmk motfe ukrtmrds. deljcsjkl `jlges jkl jrdy kjvjc jkljnrhrjot nksngknjmotwmWmrclWjrs jkl nccustrjtes tfe pjrtpcjyel `y ferjclry nk ukntnkg de knk j hmddmk hjuse

    LAE

    Mtfers nk tfns Xernes1Wjrpcjkes jk l nr@jttces m o W mrcl Wjr @jttce mo@rntjnktm kuhcejr

    rjnls1 tfe pcjkes jkl tfedek wfm ocew tfed

    \jkbs jk l Wejpmks moWmrcl Wjr NN@rek guk tm Jtmd `md`jkl tfe levecmpdekt motfe tjkb

    Wjrpcjkes jk l nr@jttces moWmrcl Wjr N

    \fe onrst wjrpcjkes jkltfenr pncmts j kew jkllejlcy hmd`nkjtnmk

    Wjrsfnps jk l Xej@jttces moWmrcl Wjr N\fe dngftnest oceets nkfnstmry `jttce omrhmktrmcmo tfe se cjkes

    \jkbs jk l Wejpmks moWmrcl Wjr NDjhfnke guk jrtnccery-jkl lejlcmhb uktnc tfejlvekt motfe tjkb

    @EEBDJK FMUXEj lnvnsnmk mo Hrmwk Yu cnsfers Nkh. Ejr.b.....JcN>AcU6 Xmutf

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    FEP C P^ P G CN MO W P

    @EEBD K FMUXE KEW ^MPB

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    ktrmlu tnmk

    \fe ferjclry mowjr tfe vnvnl, hmcmurouc lnspcjymouknomrds, deljcs,`jlges jkl `jkkers-fjs jcwjys `eek j fejvy nkluhedekttm dek tm tjbeup jrds. @uttfenr djnk oukhtnmk ns kentfer tm hmkoer gcjdmur mk tfenrwejrers, kmr jre tfey om rdere edpty lnspcjy. \fere ns nktfe dmstsmpfnstnhjtel modek, smdetfnkg motf e prndntnve. Mur jkhestmrs wekt nktm`jttce wejrnkg wjr-pjnkt. jkl wntf sfnecls jkl wejpmks ecj`mrjtecylehmrjtel1 jcc pjrt motfe rntujc wfmse purpmse wjs tm ledmkstrjte tfeukntymotfe trn`e. Nk tfe sjde wjy, dmlerk djk, wfetfer nk tfe tfnhb mo`jttce mr nk mkemotfmse sntujtnmks mohmdpcete nsmcjtnmk tfjtmhhursmorequektcy nk dmlerk wjr leep nk tfe `mwecs moj wjrsfnp nk jhtnmk, nk jtrekhf ukler sfecconre, mr nktfe hmhbpnt mojk jermpcjke wntf ekedy jnrhrjotnksngft keels j sekse monlektnty wntf hmuktry jkl hmdrjles. Nt ns tfnssekse monlektnty tfjt tfe ferjclry mowj r prmvnles.

    \fe hrmss sehtnmk mouknomrds, deljcs jkl nksngknj hmktjnkel nk tfns `mmbhjk, tfek, `e regjrlel js smdetfnkg dmre tfjk j hmccehtnmk mohmcmurouclevnhes jkl hmdpcex lnjgrjds. \fey prmvnle j cnkb `etweek tfe purecyoukhtnmkjc keel om rnddelnjte nlektnonhjtnmk jkl tfe nk`md keel modjk tmlress fndsecoomrtfe mhhjsnmk. J secehtnmk motfe prmpjgjklj motfe WmrclWjrs ns jcsm nkhculel, tm nccustrjte tfe spehnjc rmce motfe ferjclry jkl regjcnjmowj r nk ukntnkg j wfmce kjtnmknk j hmddmk hjuse.

    Elntel `y @erkjrl Ontzsndmks

    Yfme`us Cmklmk.

    \fns elntnmk @YHYu`cnsfnkg Ctl.:>78

    Yu`cnsfel `y @eebdjk Fmuse ew mrbs lnvnsnmk mo Hrmwk Yu`cnsfeos Nkh

    cc rngfts reservel Km pjrt mo tfns pu cnhjtnmk djy`e reprmluhel scmrel nk j retrnevjc systed mrtrjksdnttel nk jky omrd mr `y jky dejksecehtrmknh dehfjknhjc pfmtmhmpynkg rehmrlnkgmr mtferwnse wntfmut tfe prnmr perdnssnmk mo tfeHmpyrngft mwker ns elntnmk kmt tm `e smcmutsnle tfe UXJ k Hjkjlj

    Onrst pu`cnsfel nk Yurkecc s Fnstmry motfe Wmrcl WjrsOnrst pu`cnsfel nk tfns omrd :>78

    NX@K9 5:7 :896??

    Yrnktel nk @ecgnud - F Yrmmst Hne p.v.`.j. \urkfmut - @ecgnud

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    mktekts jgeLevecmpdekt motfe Ongftnkg Djk 7Fejlgejr nk Evmcutnmk 0Uknomrds motfe Onrst Wmrcl Wjr 5Deljcs motfe Onrst Wmrcl Wjr 6Jrdy Hmrps jkl Lnvnsnmkjc Ocjsfes 66Orekhf Dmtmr Uknt Nksngknj 6>Kjvjc Eksngks >Kjtnmkjc Jnrhrjot Djrbnkgs >6Nklnvnlujc Jnrhrjot Djrbnkgs 8Uknomrds motfe Xehmkl Wmrcl Wjr 6 mp J rt mo tfe Jnr Wjr 0?Deljcs motfe Xehmkl Wmrcl Wjr 0>@rejblmwk mojk Jrdy 85@jlges jkl Ocjsfes omrJcc Ehfecmks :ngft hektre Jk Ndpernjc Gerdjk nkojktrydjko tfe sjde ljte nk djrhfnkg mrler. wntf rnoce,jhb. hjkteek, jkl pnhbecfju`e fecdetr rngft J @rntnXf nkojktrydjk mo :>:?, wntf

    wnre hutcers, grekjle, gjs djsb. jkl steececdet

    @ecmw1J pjrjle m o tf e ?6tf Lurfjd CngftNkojktry nk :6?< \fe uknomrd lnspcjys cnttce

    fjkge o Md tfjt mo tfe Hrndejk Wjr, tfefjkge `enkg nk tfe wejpmks. @y :6? tfereehf-cmjlnkg rnocewjs nk gekerjc servnhe nkfe @rntnsf jrdy. \fe sfjbms jre sndncjr tmfmse mo :6:5

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    7

    ejlgejr vmcutnmk

    : Fecdet mo tfe dnl-: : tf Hektury2 vjrnjktswere wmrk `y `mtf Kmrdjks jkl Ekgcnsf jtFjstnkgs `y dmukte l bkngf ts jkl fmuse-hjrcs

    Jk Ntjcnjk h cm se f ec de t m o t fe e jrcy :7 tfHektury wntf hmktmurs lesngkel tm leoceht` cmws ormd jky lnrehtnmk8 Huttnkg lmwk t f e wengf t1 Hrmdweccn jk cm`ster-tjnc fecdet mo :?

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    Xjxmk nkojktry regndekts nk tfe Ndpernjc Gerdjk jrdy j`mut :>996 \fe :st Yrussnjk Ommt Gujrls wmre tfns typemo fjt Nk :> Mo :6tf Hektury vnktjge, tfetype wjs bept mk omr heredmknjc rejsmks> Nktfe Justrm-Fukgjrnjk jrdy. tfe YmcnsfCegnmk wmre tfe z pb up tm :>:5:9. Ufcjk cjkher regndekts mo tfe Gerdjkj rdy nk :>:< wmre tfns s tyce mo fecdet

    ::. \fe fejl-lress m o t fe Pmyjc Fmrse Jrtnccery,bkmwk js j `us `y:0. \fns Ajpjkese hjp m o tf e Onrst Wmrcl Wjrreocehts tfe dmlerknsnkg nkocuekhe mo Westerktehfkmcmgy mk tfe Ajpjkese omrhes:8. \ fns type mo pnhbecf u`e wjs wmrk `yGerdjk moonhers `etweek :6>: jkl :>: fjcdet w N t f ]lesngkel mk tfe mrlers mo. . . . j . . mocfe: c 6 N g n ] 5 Orjkh1f > 6 fjcdet wNtf . - typjtted YmNBb vnsmr Orekhf :>:5Jlrnjk

    ] fecdet U66l `y . . . . P ] k m . @jtgcjksjkl N jccjkj m 7 erdjk ctjkljrl pjtterk

    hjdmuoc6gjl f e c . N . \urclsf fjcdet js U66lmk tf e YjcectnkeOrmkt Gerdjk :>:6 :7sknper s s f ] wmngft :< N

    : : > . t y ` y ] djlemo ::O. . . . . . . . ] :>:7Lu]f jNdet

    7 N

    :9

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    knomrds m tf nrst Wmr WjrDjky motf e jrdnes wfnhf wekt tmwjr nk :>:< retjnkel tf e hmcmurouc ocjd`myjktuknomrds typnhjc motf e :>tf hektury \fese were smmk jljptel tm tf e ledjkls modmlerk wjr fmwever jk l `y :>:6 uknomrds fj l `ehmde lrj` jk l oukhtnmkjc Nk tf eomccmwnkg pjges wenccustrjte j secehtnmkmotf e uknomrds motf e djamr hmd`jtjktsjcmkg wntf j secehtnmkmotf e prmpjgjklj jkl rehruntnkg pmsters wfnhf reoceht tfeojshnkjtnmk exertel `y t fe fer jc lry jkl regjcnj mowjr

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    ?

    \fe kuts jkl mcts modm`ncnsj tnmk tfe nkojktry lnvnsnmk

    HMPYX HMPYXN N

    cn@978DEKLN_NXNMKN NMN_NXNMKN NLN_NXNMKN NMN_NXNMKN.5>0 FMPXEX NKOJK\P^ @PNGJME JP\NCCEP^ @PNGJME PM^JC --AN r cXYMPoNECLGUKX,S HccDDUKc\NMK Hcc.CtmtK^ P J EKGNKEEPX@K N @K @K @K ?GUKX ?GUKX N?GUKX 4-4 : JP\NCCEP^ @PNGJLE ONECLHMDYJK^ AN r \cN'cccNoNECLcncDXJDN JDDUtNo\NMKHcc.CD: ONEcMHMDYJK^ ONECLJD@UCJKHEX0 DJHFNKE GUKXNKJ @J\\JCNMK X\PE\HFEP @EJPEPX NKOJK\P^ @PNGJME ?GUKX ?GUKX ?GUKX HJ_JCP^ LN_NXNMKJC \PJNK

    JP\NCCEP^ @PNGJLE XZUJLPMK JPD^ XEP_NHE HMPYX@K @K @K @K AN r

    :6Y9:c ONECL GUKXJt mUNDUKN\cMKHcc.NAc,cK

    \\ P \ P^ OMUP FMPXEM HMDYJK^X

    ******** ?GUKX?GNAKX ? X

    0 DJHFNKEGUKXNKJ @J\\JCNMK ONECMFMWN\QEP@PNGJME .-s ... NNA D\c@cJKL mSDDcD:cMKHcc:Dc NKOJK\P^ @PNGJME @J\\EP^ @J\\EP^ @J\\EP^?GuKs N?GuKs N c ~

    @K @K @K , @KXNGKJCHMDYJK^ JDDUKN\NMKHMCUDK

    FEJ_^ @J\\EP^ @ P N G L E X E H \ ~K -:

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    Hmkhejcdekt mr nspc y-tfe lnooernkg oukhtnmksmouknomrds nk >

    \fe @rntnsf bfjbn uknomrd ceot fjkl hmcudk jkl tf e Gerdjk nl grju rngft fjkl hmcudk hmdpjrel

    ojvmurj`cy jtdergnkg nktm

    sdmby.`rjhbek

    jkl wmmlel `jhbgrmukls. jkl were, ojht. jlequjte nk `ceklnk>smclNers Nktm tfe dully jkl sdmby `jttcegrmukls. \fe Orekhf uknomrd.mk tfe mtfer fjkl, wjs km c sm sjtnsojhtmry \fe fmrnzmk eu uknomrd ceot hektre hmcudk . nssuel lurnkg tfe wnkter mo :>:

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    erdjk trmmps jgektsmojk jggressnvekjtnmk s jd`ntnmks

    6

    J Gerdjk fussjrUkcnbe fns rntnsfhmukterpjrt fe motekhjrrnel j cjkhe

    s nk mtfer jrdnestfe Gerdjk hjvjcryregjrlel tfedsecves s jk ecnte `u t tferewjs tm `e cnttceshmpeom rt fed nktfehmdnkg wjr

    J Gerdjk jrtnccerydjk\fmugf cess weccequnppel nk cngft gukst fj k fns r ekh fmppmsnte kud`er fewjs wecc prmvnlel wntffejvner onecl pnehes

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    J Gerdjk nkojktrydjk Wecc trjnkel jklektfusnjstnh tfenkojktryomrdel tfe`jhb`mke mo tfeGerdjk jrdy

    J Ajger mr rnocedjkDmre cngftcyequnppeltfjk tfestjkljrlnkojktry m tfe cnketfe Ajger regndektswere usel mr sb rd nsfnkg jkl shmutnkg

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    n

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    Ceot J smclner mo tfe Gerdjk Cjklsturd\fese tfNrl cnke trmmps were Nk tfe

    prmhess mo `enkg re-equcppel sm Ntnsvnrtujccy ndpmssn`ce tm leshrn`e j

    stjkljrl uknomrd Kejrcy jcc pfmtmgrjpfnh e_Nlekhe nklnhjtes t f jt t fey

    wmre j dnxture mo mc l jk l kew eqUnpdekt. \fe s f jbm ns Xndncjr tm tfeAjger mke `u t tjccer jkl Wntf tfe

    Cjklsturd ` j lge mk NtXormkt PngftJ Gerdjk dmuktjnk smclner. \fese

    trmmps. motek spehnjccy rehrUntel ormdudts Nk @jvjrnj mr Wurtted`erg. pcjyel

    jk Ndpmrtjkt pjrt Nk tfe Xer`njkhjdpjngk \fenr uknomrds were Xndpce

    jkl oukhtnmkjc jkl uknque Nk tfeGerdjk servnhe. \fe hjp wjs j stjkljrl`ergdutze Wntf fmmbel up Xnle hurtjnks

    jkl twm ojsteknkg `uttmks Nk t fe ormkt.tfe tuknh jk l t rmusers were jcwjys

    grey. wmrk Wntf fejvy `mmts. pp XnteJ pmster lepnhtnkg tfe Bjnser jkl tf e

    persmknonhjtnmk mo tf e Gerdjk vmcbukntel nk fecpnkg tfenr smclners jhfneve aust pmcntnhjc ekls `y dncnt jry dejks.

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    \fns pmster reocehts tf e hfjkgel jttntules tmwjrls tf e wjr \f e jhhekt ns kmw mk tf e leoeksnve mk c j s tnkg mut nk hmktrjst tm tf estress pcjhel mk tf e mooeksnvejt tf e `egnkknkg mo tfe wjr \ fe f ecdet tmm j kl t fe equnpdekt reoceht tf e ledjkls mo pmsntnmkjc wjr-ojre j kl j ppej r dmlerk nk hmktrjst tm tf e uknomrds j kl equnpdekt mo :>: 7.?5 dd rnccedjle `y tfe ojhtmry.

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    Ceot J @cue Levnc mke mo Orjkhe s o jdmusHfjsseurs J pnks sbnccel dmuktjnk trmmps. `mve Orjkhe s djnkstjy nk tfe lesert jprnvjte mo tfe h ec e` rj te l O mr en gk Cegnmk

    ~

    n

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    C t G Y m k t < ~W 7 ~ N Cj _ U W ] ]

    ~ N 1 ~. ] Fm m r C.. U c J K . ~ . - C sr p. . tNNNNN Ne

    HNmoj cJY 12 2 2 ~ 2

    J`mve J Orekhf pmster jwjrls tfe@ecgnjk omrtress mo Cnege tf e Cegnmkl fmkkeur cm rNts reXnstjkhe t m t feGerdjks. @u t tf e rel trmusers jkl

    `cue tuknh sm pmpucjr NkOrekhfprmpjgjklj jt tf e stjrt mo tfe wj r see

    mppmsnte were fngfcy ndprjhtnhjc.jkl. `y sprnkg > 5 fjl `eek

    repcjhel `y tf e fmrnzmk `ceu uknomrd.c ot nssuel nk cjte :>::7 Nk`jttce mrler- j ousnccer dctrjncceur wntfj Hfjuhfjt 6-rkd cngft djhfnke guk.

    h~

    h.

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    Fjklberhfneos wntf dmtnosmotfns bnkl were lnstrn`utel oreecy tm ormkt-cnketrmmps.\fns mke nk jllntnmk tmgnvnkg tfe wmrls jkl dusnh motfe

    jrsenccjnse sfmws tfe ocjgs jkl fejls mostj te motfe ktekte kjtnmks. k tfeejrcy stjges mo t fe w jr pjtrnmtnhexfmrtjtnmks mo tfns bnkl ehfmel tfe oeecnkgs

    modmst motfe servnkg trmmps `ut j s t fe wjr prmgressel jk l t rekhf wjrojrehmklntnmksset nk tfns smrtmo ocjg-wjggnkg `ehjde nkhrejsnkgcy mut mo

    tmuhf wntf tfe oeecnkgsjkl dmtnvjtnmk motfe ormktcnke smclners. kpjrtnhucjr tfe pnhture motfe shjrcet-trmuserel smclners hfjrgnkg wntf suhf

    ec k dust fjve gnvek rnse tmduhf sjrlmknh hmddekt

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    `mve Mke mo tfe djky renterjtnmks moJustrm-Gerdjk `rmtferfmml1fe Bjnser jkl tfe Edpermr Orjkz Amseo nkjpprmprnjtecy orjdel nk cjurec

    cejves sdnce mu t mk tfe jccnjkhe mo t fe twm ejgces. Pngft Nktfe sfjpemo j hrmss Orjkhe s pcej tm fe r pempce tm reaeht Gerdjky s hcjnds mke r cjkl jkl `rnkg nk tfe ljwk mo fer cn`erty. \feGerdjk pempce jrerepresektel js j sdncnkgcy m`sequnmus hmdderhnjc trjveccer sdugcypmhbetnkg Orjkhe s cn`ertnes nk jhhmrljkhe wntf t fe grjkl Gerdjk lesngkmo wmrcl lmdnkj tnmk ecmw J rednkler mo Jccnel cmyjctnes`u t fjrlcymo tfenr jhfnevedekts js t fe suk set mk > 5 ecmw rngft \fe hmcmursmo tfe Ektekte1 Ajpjk ns kmw nkhculel nk tfe cnke up mk j Orekhf hmttmkshjro.

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    r jkhe s hmcmknjc trmmps

    \fe Orekhf Xpjfn. \fe Xpjfns were rehruntelormd tfe kjtnve pmpucjtnmk mo tfe OrekhfKmrtf Jornhjk hmcmky mo Jcgernj jk l weredmstcy `mrk fmrsedek. tfey were cngfthjvjcry tfe Xpjfns hjrrnel cnttcenk tfe wjy

    mo equnpdekt. `ut wfjt tfey ln l fjve wjs tfestjkljrl Orekhf hjvjcry nssue wmrk wntf tfenr

    hmcmurouc kjtnve lress. Jpjrt ormd tfenrsj`res tfey were jrdel wntf hjr`nkes entfertfe 6dd :66? Ce`ec mr tfe :6>9/>0 @ertfner

    \ fe Orekhf Qmujve. \f e Qmujves were rehrunteldmstcy ormd tfe wfnce pmpucjtnmk mo tfe Orekhf

    hmcmknes mo Kmrtf Jornhj jkl wmre tfetrjlntnmkjc uknomrd sfmwk fere nk tfe mpeknkgstjges mo t fe wjr. \fenr equnpdekt jkl sdjcc

    jrds were nlektnhjc wntf tfmse mo mrlnkjrynkojktry regndekts mo t fe cnke. jkl hmdprnselj detjc-orjdel pjhb hmktjnknkg spjre `mmts

    grejt hmjt `cjkbets jkl dess tnk jk l tf e

    stjkljrl 6dd :66?Ce`ec rnoce

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    Omr Bnkgjkl Hmuktry@ktcsf rehruntdg jkl prmpjgjklj pmsters ceklel tmstress tf e ojhNt f jt rehrunts were servdg t fenr bdg1Nkspnte mo tfns pj tkmtcH jppejc. jk l t fe ndtnjcektfusnjsd : Amd tfe rjkbs tfe vmcuktjry systed wjs`rejbnkg lmwk `y :>:?. :J pmscer stressnkg tfeNdpmrtjkhe mo tfe cjhtmry wmrber s rmcenk tf e wjr.0 Djky pempce sjw tf e Kjtnmkjc Pegnstrjtnmk Jht j s t feonrst step tm hmdpucsmry servnhe 8 J kjvjc rehrUntnkgpmster. < J Xhmttnsf rehructckg pmscer. \fe wee shrjpm pjper . wjs tf e trejty gujrjkteenkg @ecgnjkkeutrjcnty wfnhf `rmugft @ktjck dnm t fe wjr,lnsdnssel js suhf `y tf e Gerdjks.

    :`cs Ns tm (tertcte tfjt M o . u ~M Y . . C ~ >

    A m o ~ ~< 7 ~

    fjs `eek Pegnsterel ukler tfeKJ\NMKJC PEGNX\PJ\NMK

    Jer > 5 / ~ ~

    Q c P ~< 1 ~ ~GML XJ_E AEBNKG

    Nc w o. . .

    G. k 8PPM^ K _^

    X _ J 1 j \ \ E L

    X@ DEKOMP\FE YEPNMLMOFMX\NCN\NEX

    Hmktnkumu6 ervbce Pj t . m o ~

    Jge . . :> tm 89KM YPE_NMUXEVYEPNEKHEKEHEXX P^`mmt ANtN,,,ecc p t S c n c F m ~] o oc 1 N nr.ot(t cNt cNmt B ~

    ~ N Z N W . m 2

    F e n g f t 5 ot < nks.Hfes t . . 85 nks.

    .sepjrjtnmk UmwjkH cjt Kjvjc Pjtes8

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    `mve J rntnsf hjvjcrydjk wjs equnppel wntfj Cee Ekonecl koce sfmwk fere Nkj

    cejtfer gu k `uhbet uc fns prndjry wejpmkwjs s tncn t fe cmkg ` jd`mm cjkhe wntf j detjctnp wfnhf wjs `Mcf strmkg j kl o ce xn `c e F ej csm fjl j grmuklsfeet j fmrse `c jkbet uklertfe sjllce jk l j wjce r `mtt ce mk n `jhb

    `mve ngft J ktnsf Nkojktrydjk. sfmwk

    fere mk t fe d jr hf j kl k m t j s fe wmucl jppejrmk pjrjle \fe shjce modojktry equnpdekt

    tfe @EO Nkhculel t fe Cee Ekonecl XDCE KmDb 8 knce persmkjc jddukntnmk jk l jk ek-trekhfdg tmmc \fe dojktry fjl jcdmsthmdpcetel tfe hfjkge o rmd cej tf er tm we``nkgjkl t fe `ecc jddukntnmk pmuhfes jkl wjter`mttce hjrker were jcc djle mo we``nkg

    \fe @EO j lrmp nktfe mhejk nk terds moongftnkg strekgtf tmtfe Orekhf `uthmkhrete prmmomo@rntjnk s resmcve tmsuppmrt fer jccy

    5

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    J`mve J Gerdjk Hfrnstdjs pmster mo :>:< ecmw J kmstjcgnh rednklermo fmde mk tfe Ejsterk Ormktjs kurses amnkPussnjks jkl Gerdjks nk jHfrnstdjs truhe Pngft J Gerdjk nkojktrydjk nk tfe wnkter mo :>:

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    `mve Yrnkhess Djry s Hfrnstdjs gnK tm @rntnsf trmmps.@ cmwFngfcjkl trmmps strekgtfek tfenr `jr el wnre leoekhes urnkg tfeHfkscdjs truhe. \fe Gerdjks jremkcy :< Fngfcjkl Uknts hfjkgel ormd sfmeswntf fjco gjnters jkl stmhbnkgs tm `mmts jkl fjct puttees js tfesewere dmre suntj ce nk tfe trekhfes. Dmst uknts were jcsm nssuel wntfOneclXervnhe hjps `ut tfe rmmps preoerrel `jcjhcjvj fecdets

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    jhf smclner hjrrnelc`s moequnpdekt

    djbnkg nt lnoonhuctm get mut mo rekhf ndpmssn`cem dmve ojsterfjk scmw wjcb

    ndpmssn`ce tm rnsemr cne lmwk qunhbcy

    Every nkojktrydjk mk tf e onrst l jy mo tf eXmdde wmre ongftnkg mrler hmksnstnkg mot fe kmrd jc equnpdekt nkhculnkg steecfecdet jkl ektrekhfnkg tmmc cesstf epjhb jkl grejthmjt2 wntf rmccel grmuklsfeet wjter `mttce jkl fjversjhb nkpcjhe mo tf e pjhb mk t fe `j hb. Nk tf efjversjhb were sdjccnfnkgs dess tnktmwec sfjvnkg bnt extrj smhbs dessjge`mmb t fe ukhmksude l pmr tnmk mo tf eljys rjtnmk \wm g js f ec de ts j kl t ej rgmggces were hjrrnel jcsm wnre huttersonecl lressnkg nmlnke 009 rmukls mojddukntnmk tw m s jk l ` jg s jkl twmDnccs grekjles. \fe tmtjc wengft hjrrnelper d jk wjs j`mut ?? N`s. : tmwec .0 fmusewnoe 8 extrj smhbs. < smjp.X nrmk rjtnmks. ? preservel rjtnmks.7 h kv s fmcljcc hmktjnknkg hmd`sfjvnkg bnt eth.

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    J elmunk trn`esdjkFns fejl ns hmverel

    wntf j beoonyefmukl wn t f jk g

    j lmu ce hmncmogmjt fjnr

    Pngft J smclnermo tfe NdpernjcHjdec Hmrps

    @rngjle wfnhfnkhculel @rntnXfJustrjcnjk Kew

    Qejcjkl jkl Nklnjktrmmps \fere

    wjs j hmksnlerj`celegree mo nklnvnlu-

    jcnsd nk tfelress jkl equnp-

    dekt mo ded`ersmo tfe @rngjle

    wf m motek uselJrj nteds wecc @rntnsf

    a

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    ecmw XmclNersmo tfe Nklnjk Jrdy. rmd o otongft J sepmy motfe 0kl Gurbfj PNoces. j

    sepmy tfe

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    jhbgrmukl JkNklnjk hmcudk nkOrjkhe :>:

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    `mve J @rntnsf Nkojktrydjk Nktypnhjc fm twejtfer Desmpmtjdnjgejr eot J Xnbf

    nkojktrydjk Xuez :>:5 \fe Xnbf regNdektswmre tfe stjkljrl sfnrt-tuknhs trmusers jkl

    puttees `u t wnt f j cejtfer `jklmcner jrmukl tfewjnst ngft J Gurbf j smc lner wnt f fns 898XDCE rnoce \fe `jymket wjs w mr k m k tfe ceot

    fnp t fe bubrn mk t fe rngft .

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    ppmkekts nk ornhjgft Jk KHM m o t fe Bj2sercchf Xhfutztruppe

    Gerdjk hmcmknjc trmmps wejrnkg tfe stjkljrlervnhe lress wntf trjlNtnmkjc hmrb suk fecdet.

    MYYmscte eot1 J Hmddjklm. :>:< styce \femutf Jokhjk omrhes :>:< were rjnsel ormd

    mtf tf e @rntnsf jkl Jornbjjks sehtnmks m o t fempucjtnmk \fe Jornbjjks uknts were

    mrgjknsel Hmddjklms jkl djky hjseshf djk wjsexpehtel suppcy fns mwkejpmk jkl fmrse J vjrnety mo koces were uselkhculdg Gerdjk Djusers ngft Jk Jsbjke uknomrd jkl equnpdekt wmrk `y tfesemclners were usujccy dmlnocel tm sunt tfertnhucjr hmklntnmks mo wj r2 t f e put tees jkl

    mmts cm rexjdpce. were orequektcy lnshjrlel.fns J sb jk h jr rnes fns rmccel ` cjkbet mk fnsjhb2 fns rnoce wmucl `e jk XDCE 898

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    ON ecc

    P M k U

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    J`mve Onve Ntjcnjk smclners.Ormd ceot tmrngft. jk nkojktry moonher, jk jrtnccerydjk.jkJcpnkm. jk nkojktrydjk jkl j @ersjgcnere.\ f uknomrds jre `jsnhjccy tf e > 6 ervnheLress, wfnhf `ehjde stjkljrl jt tfe `egnkknkgmo tfe wjr, jctfmugf smde uknts lnl hmktnkuetm wejr jk m`smcete pjtterk. \fe hmcmur mo tfeuknomrds nccustrjtel jpprmxndjtel hcmsecy tmtfjt mo tfe Gerdjk Ajger \fe djrbnkgs omrlnstnkgunsfnkg `etweek tfe vjrnmus jrds mo tfejrdy were tfe lnooernkg hmcmurs motfe pjthfesmk ejhf smclner s hmccjr jkl, mohmurse, tfe

    fejlgejr motfe Jcpnkn jkl @ersjgcnern. Jtonrst.equnpdekt wjs `cjhbekel cejtfer cjterkjturjc `rmwk . `uoo hjkvjs jkl `rmwk `mmts.\fe moonherlepnhtel, j hjpt jnk mo tfe ::tfPegndekt. Hjsjce @rngjle, ns typnhjc moNtjcnjk

    moonhers,wntf jcc cejtfer `cjhb, jklj `cjhbekel `ect `uhbce. @esnles tfenrlnstnkhtnvefejlgejr, tfe Jcpnkn kmrdjccy wmre dmuktjnk-eernkg `mmts, jkl seedel tm ojvmur j sdjccnsfpmnktel `ejrl. \fe dmst ukusujc tfnkg m u ~ ttfe @ersjgcnern wjs jgjnk tfe fejlgejr, wfnhfoejturel tfree greek `cjhb hmhb s oejtfers mktfe snle. Ceot \fe `jcjkhe moomrhes nk tfeNtjcnjk tfejtre nk Djy :>:5. Jctfmugf tfeNtjcnjks were supernmr nk kud`ers, tfe Justrnjksfjl jlvjktjge nk fe jvy j rtnccery jkl nk expernekhe nk dmlerk wjrojre. Pngft t p Ejrcy

    ektfusnjsd. Yejhe rnles mu t mo tfe hfjsd moljrbkess mver tfe hmkquerel omrd mow hPngfthektre \fe spnrnt mo jvnjtnmkwjthfesmver fer Ntjcnjk ocmhb.Pngft Ntjcy trndstfe ekhrmjhfnkg fjkl mo Justrnj-Fukgjry

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    md y W j

    \fe rjkge mouknomrds wmrk `y tf e Justrm-Fukgjrnjk jrdylurnkg tf e Onrst Wmrcl Wjr. fn s pjge boc rngft Onrst bocJ Wjhftdenster Wjrrjkt Moonher ormdtf e Fmkvel FussjrPegndekt, :>:< tm :>:5. Xehmkl boc J Xtj`swjhftdenster

    Wjrrjkt Moonher:s t Hcjss ormd tf e 8r l Ucjke Pegndekt,:>:< tm :>:5. fnrl boc \rmmper motf e :5tf LrjgmmkPegndekt, :>:< tm :>:5. Omurtf boc J Georenter Cjkhe-Hmrpmrjc motf e :< tm :>:5.

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    \fns pjge ceoc rngft Onrst ceoc1Jk moonhermocess tfjkstjtrrjkb nk jk jrtnccery regndekt :>:5 tm :>:6 Xehmkl ceoc1 rnocedjk ormd j rnoce regndekt hjrrynkg jcpnke equnpdektjk l r ss omr dmuktjnkmus hmklntnmks :>:7 tm :>:6 fnr

    ceoc1J rnocedjk ormd jk nkojktry regndekt :>:? tm :>:6wntf jk Justrnjk steec fecdet jkl oucc wnkter equnpdektOmurtf ceoc1J Xtmrdtrmmper mo:>:6 bnttel mut wntf Gerd jksteec fecdet cngft equnpdekt respnrjtmr jk l grekjles

    . . . . . 2222 . . . . 2 . . . . .m1

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    lversjrnes nktfe jcbjks

    Wfek Justrnj jttjhbel Xer`nj nk Jugust :>::5 jkl were stjkljrl uknomrd

    `y :>:? Fns `ect jk l equnpdekt were stncc mocejtfer.

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    Ceot J @ucgjkjk moonher \fe cukch wjs grey` rmwk. t f e t rmuser s g rey Pngft J @ucgjrnjk

    nkojktrydjk. \fere were hmkXnlerj`cevjrnj tnmks `mtf nk tf e wjy tfjt tfe uknomrd wjs

    wmrk jk l Nkt fe p j rt s mo j uknomrd nssuel tme jh f d jk \fns nccustr j tnmk sfmws tf e `rmwkojtngue udomrd . t f e stjkljrl @ucgjkjk ceclservnhe uknomrd m o t fe Onrst Wmrcl Wjr @mmtswere wmrk `u c hfjrjhternstnh tfe 6ucgjrs

    were tf e mpjkbers kjccmkjc pejsjkt ommtwejr.EqUNpdekt wjs usu jccy mo t fe Gerdjk pre-:>96

    pjtterk cejtfer . @ecmw J Hzehfmscmvjbcegnmkjry wejrnkg djnkcy Pussnjk uknomrd . `u t

    wntf tf e hjp lnstdhtnve t fe c egnmk. \ fe koce,s j Ajpjkese Jsjbj. js suppcnel nk cjrge

    qujktntnes Pussnj :>:

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    Ceot J \urbnsf nkojktrydjk. \fe lesngk mo \urbnsfuknomrds wjs s t rmkgcy nkocuekhel `y Gerdjk jlvnsers\ fns smclner wejrs tfe trjlntnmkjc Bj`jcjsf fjt j Bfjbntuknh wntf ocjp lmwk hmccjr bfjbn trmusers jkl putteeswmukl o rmd tfe `mmts up Fns equnpdekt ns jcsm moGerdjk pjtterk. `mve J \urbnsf hjvjcrydjk \feuknomrd mo t fe \urbnsf hjvjcry wjs sndnc jr tm t fj t wmrk`y t fe nkojktry. \fe djnk lnooerekhes were tfe snkgcecjrge `m x pmuhf wmrk mk ent fe r snle mo tfe `ect nkstejl tf e t f ree sdjcc `mx pmuhfes . jkl t fe bkee fngf `mmtswfnhf were usujccy `cjhb. Mppmsnte \fe uknomrds mo jGreeb moonherjkl nkojktrydjk. \fe nkojktrydjk ns sfmwkwejrnkg tfe onecl servnhe uknomrd mo :>:0 `u t monek tferewjs duhf kmk hmkomrdnty js regjrls lress @y j hurnmusjssmrtdekt mo regucj tnmk jkl prnvjte hcmtfnkg tf evmcukteers djkjge1l tm jppej r dmre cnbe tfeDmktekegrnks tfjk tfe Greeb regucjr omrhes jk l wfektf e Orekhf djle jvjnc j ce j cjrge qujktnty equnpdektjk l fecdets tfe sntujtnmk wjs ourtfer hmkousel. \feywere jrdel wn tf t f e ?.5 dd Djkkcnhfer XhfmekjuerD :> 8 :< rnoce jkl were jcsm suppcnel wntf j kud`e r moOrekhf wejpmks nkhculnkg tfe 6 dd Ce`ec jkl Djkk-cnhfer @ertfner rnoces

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    mc s j t Wjr

    @eomre tfe estj`cNsf-dek t mo j Ymcnsf Xtjce,

    wfNhf joter j prm-cmkgel struggce wjs

    onkjccy rehmgknselmooNhnjccynk :>08. Ymcesservel cjrgecy nk mtfer

    dek s jrdnes. nccus-trjtel jre Ymces

    servnkg nk tf e Justrnjkcjkhers ceot . tf e

    Pussnjk hjvjcry rngft).jkl t fe Orekhf jrdy

    `ecmw .

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    fe jpjkese smclnerPngft1 J Ajpjkese nkojktrydjk nk fns `jsnhstjkljrl nssue uknomrd hjrrynkg jk JrnsjbjDm lec 86 :> 5 ? Xdd koce \fe hmcmur motf euknomrd fjl `eek h fjkgel o rmd `cue t m greekjs j resuct mo tfe cessmks cejrkel ormd tfePussm Ajpjkese Wjr mo :>9

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    ussnjk smclners omrdnlj`cenklnvnlujccy `ut hmccehtnvecyncc mrgjknsel jkl pmmrcyequnppel

    J Pussnjk nkojktrydjk jrdel wntf tf eD 6> DmnsnkKjgekt 7 ?0 dd rnoce

    ctfmugf shj``jrlsweoe nssuel nt wjshmddmk prjhtnhe tmfjve tfe `jymketperdjkektcy onxel\fe b tt c mr sdmhbs fmwk nk `mtf

    nccustrjtnmks wj s jhjdpjtgk uknomrdwmrk `y jcc `rjkhfesmo tf e Pussnjk jrdy

    t; J Pussnjk hjvjcrydjk \fe hjvjcry werenssuel wntf entfer tf eD 6> l r jgmmk rnocemr tf e D :>:9 Dmnsnk-Kjgekt `mtf 7 ?0 dd

    gjnk tf e b tt c nssfmwk `u t mtferwnsetfere wjs cnttcestjkljrlnsjtnmk mouknomrds jk l equnp-dekt nk tf e Pussnjkj rdy lurnkg tfnspernml mo re-mrgjknsjtnmk

    1

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    `mve \fe Hmssjhbs omrdel t fe grejter pjrt PussNj s eooehtnve hjvjcry omrhes. @mrk fmrse-dek. tfey were omrdnlj`ce jlversjrnes. \feywere rekmwkel rnoce sfmts. `u t rejccy hjde nktmt fenr mwk wfek tfey hfjrgel wntf tfenr sj`res.\mugf. fjrly dek tfey were hjpj`ce mo cnvnkgmoccfe hmuktry. \fe uknomrd wjs `jsel mk tfetrjlntnmkjc Hmssjhb hcmtfnkg. Ceot J Pussnjk

    jrtnccerydjk wejrnkg tfe lnstnkhtnve ljrb greektrmusers ngft J Pussnjk hjvjcry moonhernk

    stjkljrl ctkncmrd.

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    KE PEX\ PEHPUN\NKG X\ \NMK

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    Ceot J ongftnkg sergejkt nk tf e Jdernhjknkojktry wejkkg t fe ongftnkg lress jlmptel

    cjte > 7 Fe fjs j @rntnsf steet fecdet jkl@rnccsf-styce gjs djsb hjse jkl puttees. \fe

    revmcver hjrkel wmucl fjve `eek entfer j Hmct 6 lrjwk `y Gemrge

    Fjrlnkg

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    Jdernhj tfeljugfter moEurmpehrmssel tfe mhejk tm

    wrest fer dmtfer

    m Ew

    ormd tfefudncnjtnmk motfrjcclmd jkl tmsjve hnvncnsjtnmk.

    E

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    ktjgmknsts nk Dexnhm tfelnshnpcnkel jkl `etter equnppel

    trmmpsmotfe Ukntel tjtesjgjnkst tfe nrregucjr hjvjcry

    moDexnhm lnvnlel js duhfjgjnkst ejhf mtfer js jgjnkst

    tfe nkvjlnkg dernhjks

    jrceot Jk Jdernhjk hjvjcry trmmper. Ceot j`mve J Dexnhjk `mrler rjnler.@ytfenr very kjture tfe rjnlers were nklepeklekt mo jkyhektrjc jutfmrnty.jkl were js duhf trmu`ce tm tfe vjrnmus Dexnhjk gmverkdekts js tm tf e

    Ukntel Xtjtes. Ceot`ecmw Yjshujc Mrmzhm. Djlerm s omrder hfneo gekerjcj kl j `ntter er1 edy mo _nccj. ecmw \fe hece`rjtel Yjkhfm _nccj

    fmclnkg t fe Fmthfbnss djhfnke guk wntf mke mo fns omccmwers. ngftJ mtfer ojdmus ongure- Edncnjkm Qjpjtj. ormd Dexnhm s smutferk prmvnkhe

    77

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    JPDHMPYX

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    k sngks mr sewk mk uknomrds.@jsnhjccy tfere were onve

    ypes mo`jlge mr sngk nk usen k t fe Onrst Wmrcl Wjr1

    Lnstnkhtnve sngks w nt f k mjrtnhucjr mrngnk mr dejknkg2\errntmrnjc sngks suhf js tf e

    tfnstce mo tf e >tf Xhmttnsf)Lnvnsnmk1

    Hypfer sngks2uks mk tfe GMG s kjde2 jkl@jttce fmkmur sngks, suhf jse ud`reccj mo tf e 5

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    Orekhf t r Uknt Nksngknj

    n

    rm ceot tm rngft tm p tm `mttmd Xehtnmk sjkntjnre 09, Xehtnmk sjkntjnre :0

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    Jctfmugf tf e kjvnes m o t fe Onrs t Wmrcl Wjrpresektel j l r j` sng ft nk tfenr grey ` jsnhpjnkt shfedes, t fe o cjg s t f jt ejhf wmre wereektnrecy lnooerekt. Usujccy. e jhf k jvy f j lt f ree types mo ocjg , jpjrt ormd sngkjccnkgmkes. Onrst, kmrdjccy Wmrk mk tfe ajhbstj to jttf e `mws, wjs tf e ajhb t fe kjtnmkjc ocjg mr jvjrnjtnmk mont . \f e mtfer twm types, ocmwkormd djst fej l, y j rl j rd mr sterk, were tf e kjvjceksngk (tfe kjvy s ocjg) jk l tf e hmddjkl oc jgmot fe moonher hmddjklnkg j o ce e t mr squjlrmk.Ceot Eksngks mo t fe Onrs t Wmrcl Wjr. PngftLressel mverjcc- t fe @rntnsf oceet `eomre t fe

    wjr. Ojr rngft @rntnsf kjvjc ocjgs. ecmw FDX jkmpus ocynkg jcc tfree djnk cNjgs mk fe r djsts

    ? .

    tjcy

    erkuky

    mrtugjc

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    Ntjcnjk Kjvy jkl ecedekts motfe Pmyjc Kjvy] Nddelnjtecy`ecmw Ocjgs mo tfe Greeb Kjvy. ecmw \fe ocjgs wmrk `y tf etfnrl dmst pmwerouc kjvy mo tfew j r- tfjt mo tfe Ukntel Xtjtesmo Jdernhj. \fe Hmjst GujrlXervnhe tfe Pevekue jk l cnoesjvnkg Xervnhes hmd`nkeldmuktel jktn-su`djrnkepjtrmcs nk tfe westerk Jtcjktnh. mttmd UXX Kew ^mrb ocynkgtfree eksngks jkl j seknmr rejrjldnrjc s ocjg `y t fe eksngkjt t fe fe jl motfe djnkdjst).Pngft \fe :>98 Orekhfjrdmurel hrunser rkestPekjkKejrnkg t fe a jhb jt fer `mws

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    Ceot \fe Pussnjk lrejlkmugftYetrmpjvomvsb Xfe wjs ` un ct t mj l esngk mrngnkjccy l r jwk up `yHukc`ertc. tfe Ntjctjk hm ojtfer wntf Onsfer m o t felrejlkmugft `ut wj s hmdpcetel sm cjte tfjt sf e wj sm`smcete. wntf lrejlkmugftjrdjdekt jkl `j t tce-hrunserprmtehtnmk. Xfe ns wejrnkg tfeajhb (`jsel mk tfe Hrmss moXtJklrew, Pussnj s pjtrmk sjnkt)jt fe r `mws, Pngft \fe ocjgsmo tfe Pussnjk Ndpernjc Kjvy

    Pngft `ecmw hektre \fe kjvjcocjgs m o m ke mo t fe sdjccestkjvnes jdmkg tfe Jccnes. tfjtmo tfe smmk-mverruk Bnkglmdmo Pudjknj. \fe cjrgest sfnpnk fe r kjvy wjs tfe :,809-tmkhrunser Ecnzj`etfj dmuktnkmomur ?-ckhf guks .

    @mttmd ceot \fe Ntjcnjksu`djrnke Yuccnkm ocynkg tfee ks ng k o rm d f er sterk. PngftNtjcy s kjvjc ocjgs. \feNtjcnjkhmcmurs mo rel. wfntejk l greek were tfe hmcmurs moKjpmcemk s NtjcNjkCegnmk Nk:7>?. \fese hmcmurs were tjbekmver j `mut 59 yejrs cjter `ytfe Bnkg moXjrlnknj. \m tfedfe jllel tfe jrds m o f nsfmuse. Xjvmy. j wfnte hrmss mkj r el sfnecl wntf j `cue `mrler_nhtmr Eddjkuec, Bnkg moXjrlnknj. wjs prmhcjndel Bnkgmo Ntjcynk :6?:, jkl fns ocjg`ehjde tfe kjtnmkjc mke. \fehrmwk wjs pehucnjr tm tfe kjvy

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    O ~ N E k L

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    d ~ ~ B c k XLespnte tfe wjrknkgs mo tfeprewjr Fjgue Hmkvektnmk,wfnhf rejcnsel tf j t kjtnmkjcnksngknj mk jnrhrjot wmucl `ekeelel nk jky outure wjr,

    Grejt @rntjnk ekterel tfe OnrstWmrcl Wjr wntf km kjtnmkjcdjrbnkgs, tfe mkcy lnstnkgunsfn kg d jr bs ` en kg t fe j rd y mrkjvy sernjc kud`ers mk tferuller. \fmugf rehmgkntnmksfeets were nssuel tm tf e nkojktry, tfe cjt ter jppjrektcytmmb grejt l ecngf t nk onrnkgupmk jky jermpcjke tfjt ocewwntfnk rjkge mo tfed, `e ntJccnel mr Gerdjk. Xuhf wjstf e kmvecty mo jermpcjkes tfjtuktrjnkel m`servers hmuclkmt teccmke ormd jkmtfer.\ fus t fe onrs t nkntn j tnve hjde

    ormd pncmts, wf m tmmb tm pjnktn kg U kn mk A jh bs m k tfenrdjhfnkes nk prmdnkekt pmsntnmks. Cjte nk Jugust :>:::?, wfek jk uppersurojhe onknsf mo `rmwk/bfjbngreek mcnve lrj`) wjs jlmptel, tfe ukler surojhes re-djnknkg tf e cngft sfjle mohrejd pcjnk-lmpel cnkek tfewfmce djhfnke fjl presektel

    `eomre tfe erj mo pngdekte llmpes. Detjc hmwcnkgs j kl t fecnbe were usujccy pjnkte l `c jhbmr ljrb grey. Wmmlek pjrtswere usujccy ceot nk tfenrkjturjc hmcmurs. Wfek kngftocynkg jermpcjkes stjrtel tmjppejr, jk jcc-mver mcnvelrj`onknsf wjs jlmptel, wntfrmuklecs dnkus t fe wfnte pmrtnmk. \fe Xmpwntf Lmcpfnk, mo @ Ocngft, 7> Xqujlrmk,nccustrjtes j typnhjc :>:6 ljyhjdmuocjge jkl djrbnkgs. \feXE 5 sfmws stjkljrl POH jk lPJO ousecjge hjdmuocjge jkl

    djrbnkgs kmte tf e rullerstrnpnkg) jkl tfe spehnjchmcmurel jllntnmks mo?9Xqujlrmk n k t fe sudder mo:>:7. \ fe F ng f H md dj kl s mm knksnstel tf j t tfese kmkstjkljrl djrbnkgs `eredmvel, js nt ln l wntf jccjhtnve servnhe squjlrmks. \femkcy djhfnkes tm get jwjy wntf`rngft onknsfes were tfmse mkFmde Estj`cnsfdekt.

    \fe Orekhf, ukcnbe tfe@rntnsf, fjl rejcnsel tfe keelom r kjtnmkjc djrbnkgs js ejrcyjs :>:0.ck tfjt yejr tfey

    jlmptel tf e rmuklec re l hnrhcemuterdmst) `jsel m k t fe hmhbjle mo tfe Pevmcutnmkjry erj.\fns wjs pcjhel nk jcc tfe jrejskmw hmksnlerel kmrdjc,exhept om r tf e ousecjge snles.\fe ruller djrbnkgs jlmptelwere tfree vertnhjc strnpes mo`cue, wfnte jk l rel, wntf tfe`cue strnpe cejlnkg. Wfek tfe@rntnsf j lmptel tf e Orekhfdjrbnkgs jkl reversel tf emrler mo t fe hmcmurs mk tf ermuklecs, tfey ln l k mt l m smwntf t fe ru lle r strnpes.

    \fe Orekhf fjl duhf tfe

    sjde expernekhe js tfe@rntnsf wntf hjdmuocjge, `u tjlmptel j systed molnsgunsnkgtfenr djhfnkes nk cjte :>:?/ejrcy :>:7, wfek j greek jkl`uoo upper-surojhe hjdmuocjgewjs hfmsek. \fe cmwer surojhes redjnkel hcejr- mr greylmpel. Kngft-ocynkg jermpcjkeswere pjnktel `cue-`cjhbmverjcc, upper jk l cmwersurojhes, jk l fjl mkcy rullerstrnpnkgs js kjtnmkjc djrbnkgs.

    \fe jhes, j terd hmnkel `yt fe Orekhf , were jccmwel gre jtc jt nt ul e n k t fe d jr bn kg j kl

    onknsf motfenr djhfnkes, jk lseverjc fjl very `rngftcyhmcmurel jermpcjkes. Kjdeswere ojnrcy hmddmk, js wereuknt nksngknj, jk l d jky jhes

    jcsm pjnktel j lnjgmkjc `jklrmukl t fe ousecjges mo tfenrjnrhr jo t, t fe ` jkl `enkg djleup mo tfree tfnk strnpes mo rel,wfnte jk l `cue.

    Orekhf squjlrmks werekud`erel hmksehutnvecy nkmrler moomrdjtnmk, cetters` en kg p re on xe l t m t fe kud`ertm nklnhjte t fe type mo jermpcjke `enkg o cm wk `y tfe uknt.\fese cetters were jk j``revnjtnmk mo tfe kjde Zo t fe d jku

    ojhturer, _ om r_mnsnk,XJC om rX jc ds mk j kl s m m k.Noj squj l rmk hfjkgel t fe typemo jnrhrjot nt ocew, tfe preonxjcterel jhhmrlnkgcy.

    \fe Kneupmrt :7 nccustrjtestfe upper-surojhe onknsfpehucnjr tm 5YJLs jkl Kneupmrts nk cjte :>:?, `eomre t fenktrmluhtnmk mo hjdmuocjge.\fe XYJL VNNN nsnk tfe stjkljr l greek jkl `rmwk/`uoohjdmuocjge usel ormd :>:7mkwjrls. \fe djhfnke ns nkt fe uknt d j rbnkgs mo shjlrncceXYJ :5, sfe jcterel fe rdjrbnkgs ormd tfe ejrcnerp jt te rk mo nklnvnlujc squjlrmklesngkjtnmks jkl jnrhrjotsernjc kud`ers t m t fe dmrehmddmk Jccnel prjhtnhe mormuklecs jkl ruller strnpnkg.\fese were nk tfe kjtnmkjchmcmurs mo rel, wfnte jklgreek. \fe pehucnjr jspeht motfe Ntjcnjk systed, fmwever,wjs tfjt tfe rel jk l greekhnrhces were nkterhfjkgej`cenk pmsntnmk, jppjrektcy jt tf e

    wfnd mo tfe uknt. Js tfere wjskm mtfer hmuktry t f jt use ltfese hmcmurs, tfere wjs kmrnsb mo hmkousnmk.

    Hjdmuocjge wjs km ts tjkl jr l, `u t dmst squj l rmksseed tm fjve levnsel tfenr mw kpjrtnhucjr pjtterks, s md e m otfed very gjrnsf. Duhf usewjs djle mo nrnleshekt pjnkts.\fe Xjvmnj-_erluznm-Jksjclm mo tfe j \ Xqujlrngcnj CjXereknssndj , nccustrjtes Ntjcnjkdjrbnkgs jkl hmcmurnkgs om rsdjccer jnrhrjot. Cjrger mkes,suhf js tfe gnjkt Hjprmkn

    `md`ers, fjl tfe sjdekjtnmkjc djrbnkgs `u t wereusujccy ceot nk tfenr kjturjc,hcejr-lmpel onknsf. \fe j \Xqujlrngcnj nkhnlektjccy, wjs

    jssmhnjtel wntf tfe h nt y m o_eknhe, js tf e uknt nksngknj t fe C nm k m o XtDjrb, _eknhe spjtrmk sjnkt jk l tntce nklnhjte.

    Joter @ecgnud f jl `eek mverruk `y t fe Gerdjks nk :>::7 mkwjrls, wjs jkupper-surojhe onknsf mopjcegrey jkl greek hjdmuocjge,wntf grey ukler surojhes. \feOrekhf pjt terk mo kjtnmkjcdjrbnkgs wjs omccmwel. wntftfe @ecgnjk hmcmurs mo rel,yeccmw jkl `cjhb repcjhnkgtf e Orekhf mkes. \fns nsnccustrj tel mk tfe Fjkrnmt FL :,j type usel `y tfe @ecgnjksjs m ke m o tfenr djnk ongfters,

    lespnte tfe ojht t fj t n t wj s jO re kh f l es ng k t fj t f jl k mtomukl o jv mu r n k n ts mw khmuktry. Nt wjs jcsm usel nkNtjcynk hmksnlerj`ce kud`ers,jk l jhquntte l n tseco wecc nk`mtf jrejs.

    \fe Ndpernjc Pussnjk jn romrhes usel j vjrnety molnooerekt djrbnkgs lurnkg tfehmurse mo tfe wjr. \fe wnkgsjkl ousecjge were djrbel wntfj squjre jkl j trnjkgce res-pehtnvecy, ejhf lnvnlel nktmwfnte, rel jkl `cue pmrtnmks.\ fere wjs jk jcterkjtnve tm

    tfns, fmwever, nk t fe omrd mojk mptnmkjc rmuklec, wntf dmrernkgs tfjk wjs usujc mk Jccneljnrhrjot j wfnte muter rnkg,tfek rel, wfnte, `cue jklwfnte jgjnk nk tf e hektre .\fe Ndpernjc Pussnjk Kjvyjcsm use l j ruller djrbnkgnk tfe o mr d m o tfe kjvjceksngk-j `cue 5t Jklrew sHrmss mk j wfnte `jhbgrmukl.\fe use mo tfese djrbnkgswjs smdewfjt fjpfjzjrl,smde cj rge jnrhrjot. om rexjdpce. fjvnkg tw m rmuklecsmk tfe onk,mk e j`mve tfe

    mtfer. \fe Pussnjks were jcsmukusujc nk pjnktnkg j rmuklecm k e jh f s nl e mo tfe t jncpcjkem k s md e types mo jnrhrjot.

    Jt tf e `egnkknkg mo tfe wjr,Pussnjk jnrhr jot were nkkjturjc lmpel onknsf. `u t `ytfe `egnkknkg mo :>:5 j greymverjcc onknsf f jl `eek jlmpteljs stjkljr l, jkl tfns redjnkeltfe jutfmrnsel hmcmur uktncPussnj l rmppel mut m o t fe w jrjt t fe e kl mo :>:7.

    \fe XYJL J0 jk l DmrjkeXjuckner C, `mtf Orekhf typesnk servnhe wntf tfe Pussnjks

    cmkg joter tfey fjl `ehmdem`smcete mk tfe Westerk Ormkt,nccustrj te tfe smdewfjt ml ljppejrjkhe mo Pussnjk djrbnkgs jk l mverjcc onknsf.

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    Grejt @rntjnkXmpwntf Lmcpfnk

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    m

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    PussnjDjrjke Xjuckner C

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    S

    Pudjknj

    Kneupmrt 7

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    Pudjknj s sdjcc jnr omrhes equnppel wfmccy wntf jermjkes mo Orekhf mrngnk, jklt surprnsnkgcy fer kjtnmkjcbnkgs were lernvel ormd

    Orekhf mkes. Pudjknj scmurs were rel, yeccmw jkl

    ue, fmwever, tf e wfnte moOrekhf rmuklec wjs

    pcjhel `y yeccmw n k t fedjknjk rmuklec. \fe Kneurt :7 djbes tfns lnooerekhe

    pjrekt. \fe `jsnh hmcmurfede omr Pudjknjk jnrhrjots tfe sjde js tfjt om rssnjk m k e s - pjce grey

    verjcc.Xer`nj s jn r omrhe wjsunppel smcecy wntf Orekhfpes, jkl tfe Greeb jnr omrhedmst ektnrecy wntf tfed. \fenmkjc hmcmurs mo Xer`njre t fe sjde js tfmse mojkhe, sm nlektnhjc djrbnkgsre usel. Joter ferekt rytm tfe wjr, Greehe's jn r

    mrhe, wfnhf f jl `eek veryjb nk :>:::6, severjc types montnsf djhfnkes were `enkg

    mptel, jkl tfe nccustrjtnmkAjpjkese djrbnkgs ns mk j

    mpwntf :^0-Xtrutter.Ymrtugjc s jnr omrhe tmmb kmt nk jnr mper j tnmks mk

    Westerk Ormkt, `u t ln lle r tjbe wjr ocngfts ormd

    Jzmres, pjtrmccnkg jgjnkstrdjk U-@mjts. Fer djrbnkgs

    nccustrj tel mk tfe O@Je @ocynkg `mjt. Ymrtugjc

    mssessel j ojnr kud`er montnsf jkl Orekhf ocynkg `mjts.Hfnkj s dnkushuce jnr omrhemb km pjr t n k t fe wjr, `u tsfe wjs m ke mo tfe Jccnes,

    djrbnkgs jre sfmwk fere,tfe Hjulrmk G NNN.

    \fe s tmry mo t fe d jrbd gsel `y tfe Ukntel Xtjtes nsekgtfy mke. \fe keel om rnmkjc djrbnkgs onrst `ehjdejrekt lurnkg tfe Dexnhjk

    ernhjk wjr mo :>:5. juct, j `cue s t jr nk j wfnteh wjs jlmptel js tfebnkg om r jnrhrjot jhhmd

    kynkg tfe UX expelntnmk.re wjs s tncc km rucnkg mk tf ebnkgs om r jnrhrjot j t fmde.Mk jrrnvjc nk Orjkhe, tfeuknts mo tfe Jdernhjk

    pelntnmkjry Omrhe jlmptel`y-kmw stjkljrl rmuklec

    o t fe mtfer Jccnes, `u t wntfmrler m o t fe hmcmurs

    erel tm jvmnl hmkousnmktf tfe rmuklecs mo tfe Orekhf

    @rntnsf jnr omrhes. \fese

    M

    were, ormd tfe mutsnle, rel,`cue jkl wfnte. \ fe ru lle rstrnpes were rel, wfnte jk l`cue, nk tf jt mr ler ormd tf eruller fnkge. \fese djrbnkgswere jcwjys djle j s c jrge jspmssn`ce, tf e wnkg rmuklecsmotek exteklnkg ormd cej lnkgtm trjncnkg elge. cjte nk:>:7, tfese JEO djrbnkgswere jlmptel js stjkljrl nktf e UX jcsm.

    Jnrhr jo t nk t fe UX wereonknsfe l nk j `uoo hmcmur,wfnce tfmse lestnkel om rOrjkhe were usujccy pjnktelwntf j lmpe t f jt prmluhel jpjce grey onknsf. \fe wj rexpernekhe mo tf e Jccnes fj lsfmwk hjdmuocjge tm `e vntjc,fmwever, jk l tfe JEO's jn ruknts t fus s t jr te l tm use jversnmk mo tfe Orekhf systed,jctfmugf very hmksnlerj`cecjtntule wjs jccmwel tm tfevjrnmus squjlrmks.

    \fe UX Kjvy mptel om rlnooerekt djrbnkgs. Mk Jprnc0:,:>:7 tfe Kjvy hfmse j

    vjrnjtnmk mk tfe ejrcner stjrnk-j-hnrhce dmtno.\fns wjs jrel-hektrel wfnte stjr nk j`cue lnsh, wfnce tfe rullers t rnpes were t fe sjde js tfeJEO. (Nk ojht, nt wjs tf e JEOwfnhf .hmpnel tfe strnpes motf e Kjvy.) Nk :> 6, tfe Kjvyj lmptel tfe JEO rmuklecomrnts jnrhr jo t nk t fe Eurmpejkt fej t re nk pcjhe mo tf e stjr,`u t t fe c j tte r wjs retjnkelomr mtfer jrejs. @eomre tfewjr, tf e Kjvy's stjkljrl onknsff jl `eek pcjnk vjrknsfeloj`rnh, `u t nk dnl-:>:7 j kjvy

    greek mr kjvy-grey onknsf wjsjlmptel. \fe UX Djrnke Hmrpsjermpcjkes were nk tf e sjdeonknsf js tf e Kjvy's, jkl f j lsndncjr djrbnkgs, wntf tf eexheptnmk mo t fe rmuklec mktf e ousecjge snle. \fns fj ljk jkhfmr jhrmss nt . \ fe XYJMVNNN,mo tfe 00kl Jerm Xqujlrmk, sfmws tfe stjkljrl JEOdjrbnkgs, tf e MF < tfmse mo tf eljy-`md`er squjlrmks jkltf e \ fmdjs Dmrse Xhmuttfmse mo tfe UX Djrnke Hmrpsjnrhrjot.

    \fe Hektrjc Ymwers lnooerelektnrecy ormd tfe Jccnes nkt fe omrd mo t fenr k jt nmkjcdjrbnkgs. \fey eshfewel tfermuklec ektnrecy, jkl `jseltfenr djrbnkgs mk tfe squjremr pmrtnmks mo nt, js nk tfesqujre \urbnsf syd`mc jkl tfehrmss mo tfe mtfer pmwers,wntf t fenr strjngft muterelges. \fe nlej `efnkl tfnswjs kmt nkntnjccy tmdjbet fe d jrbnkgs mo t fe HektrjcYmwers rjlnhjccy lnooerektormd tfmse mo tfe Jccnes. Ntwjsdmre jk mppmrtuke jhhnlekt,`jsel mk t fe ojht t fj t t fedmst m`vnmus syd`mc om r tfeGerdjks, tf e cejlers mo tf eHektrjc Ymwers, wjs t fe hrmssmo tf e Fmfekzmccerk ojdncy moYrussnj. \ferejoter, nt wjs

    hmpnel `y tf e mtfer HektrjcYmwers nk omrd j kl nk hmcmur,jkl `eh jde j djrbnkg verylnooerekt jkl lnstnkht ormdtfjt mo tfe Jccnes.

    \fe Gerdjk kjtnmkjc djrbnkg, tfek, wjs tfe Hrmss Yjttee,mr NrmkHrmss, ormd tf e jrds motf e rmyjc fmuse mo Yrussnj.\fns wjs nk use o rmd t fe s tj rtm o t fe w jr u kt nc t fe sprnkg mo:>:6. Mk Djrhf 09, :>:6 nt wjsmrlerel t fj t ormd Jprnc motfe sjde yejr tfe ejrcner typemo hrmss sfmucl `e repcjhel `ytf e Greeb Hrmss, bkmwk t m t feGerdjks js tf e jcbjkbreuzeJkl, ukcnbe tfe Jccnes, tf eGerdjks usel tf e sjde djrbnk g mk tfe onk/ruller jk l tfewnkgs. Jctfmugf tfe hrmss wjs`jsnhjccy aust t f j t - j `cjhbhrmss - n t smm k prmve l kehessjrytm jll j hmktr js tnkg wfnte e lgetm cet t fe hrmss s t jk l mutjgjnkst tfe `jhbgrmukl hmcmurm o t fe wnkg. (\fe lnooerekhe`etweek tfe Hrmss Yjttee jk ltfe Greeb Hrmss, nkhnlektjccy,

    ns t fns1 t fe omrder s cnd`sjre wnler jt tfenr ekls tfjknk tf e hektre, wfere tfeyamnk, jkl l m k mt fjve pjrjccecsnles, wferejs tfe cjtter fjsstrjngft jkl pjrjccec snles.)

    wntf tf e mtfer hmuktrnesongf tnkg nk tfe OnrstWmrclWjr, hjdmuocjge wjs j t onrstukbkmwk nk Gerdjky. Up tmt fe ekl mo :>:5, jcc jermpcjkesfjl j kjturjc hrejd mr `uooonknsf, tfe hmcmur mo lmpelcnkek, `u t tfns motek `ehjdej lucc grey wfek su`aehtelt m t fe mutlmmr rngmurs mo

    jhtnve servnhe. \fe onrs t omrdmo hjdmuocjge wjs nktrmluhelnk :>:?, wfek jk experndekt(nk wfnhf kjturjc oj`rnh wjsmverprnktel wntf j shreek mosdjcc `cjhb lmts) wjs trnel,wntf very cnttcesuhhess. cj ternk tf e yejr, jt j`mut tf etnde tfe Jccnes were hmdnkgtm rejcnse tf e keel om rhjdmuocjge, tfe Gerdjks jcsmnktrmluhel tfenr mwk pjtterk,j sprjyel-mk hmcmur shfedemo greek, purpce jkl `rmwkpjthfes mk jcc upper surojhes.cjter, wntf tfe nktrMluhtnmkmo types wntf j rmuklel ousecjge, nt `ehjde pmssn`ce tmuse jk ukler-surojhe hjdmuocjge, nk wfn hf j wecc-leonkelcnke hmucl `e estj`cnsfel`etweek tfe upper jk l cmwersurojhes. Wfere tfns wjspmssn`ce, tf e ukler surojhewjs pjnktel grey-`cue. Wfekpjnkt `ehjde rjre nk :>:6,tfese djhfnkes were ceot wntftfenr pcjnk pcywmml ousecjgesderecy vjrknsfel.

    \fe leternmrjtnmk mo Gerdjky s mverjcc wjr sntujtnmkdejkt tfjt ormd cjte :>:7mkwjr ls , t fe Gerdjk Edpnrefj l grejt lnoonhucty nk m`tjnknkgcnkek mo gmml ekmugf qujcntytm hmver jnrhrjot. Evek wfektfns wjs m`tjnkj`ce, nt hmucl

    kmt t jbe tf e kud`er mohmjtsmo lmpe tm prmmo nt jkl tmhjdmuocjge nt, jk l sm hjdmuocjge-prnktel oj`rnhs werenktrmluhel. \fese were mo twmtypes. Omr tfe sdjccer jnrhrjot,tfere were oj`rnhs wntf cmzekgemr nrregucjr sfjpel pjtterks nk`cjhb, `cue, `rmwk, greek,yeccmw jkl pnkb. Omr cjrgerdjhfnkes, suhf js tf e G jk lP djhfnkes, t fe re w js j oj`rnhwntf jk :6-nkhf fexjgmkpjt terk mo `cjhb, `cue, grey,rel-djuve, `cue-djuve jklsjge greek.

    \ fns c j tte r type mo oj`rnhwjs m o t mmnkoernmrj qujcntyomr tfe wnkgs jk l tjncpcjkesmo t fe c jrge P types, sm tfesecnotnkgsurojhes were hpverelwntf tf e `est cnkek jvjncj`ce,usujccy fjkl-pjnktel tm djthft fe r eguc jr f ex jg mks mo t feprnktel oj`rnh usel m k t feousecjge jkl onk/ruller uknts.

    \fe Jc`jtrms 9 NNN Ceutkjkt_mss moAjstj 5) sfmws typnhjcongfter hjdmuocjge jkl djrb

    nkgs m o tf e sprnkg mo :>:7, tfePmcjkl H NN Ceutkjkt Xen`ertmo ON `t 5) tfe pncm snklnvnlujc djrbnkgs jkl tfekj tnmkjc dj rbnkgs mo tfejutudk mo:>:? jkl t fe Yojczm VNNtfe :>:6 djrbnkgs jklhjdmuocjge mo CeutkjktBjdderer moAjstj 5Jctfmugf tf e kjtnmkjc nksngknjwere onxel, mtfer djrbnkgswere kmt, jkl grejt cjtntule wjsjccmwel tm pncmts nk ongfteruknts, espehnjccy tfe jhes.

    Justrnj-Fukgjry usel tfeejrcner Gerdjk djrbnkgs

    tfrmugfmut tf e wjr, wntf tfej l ln tnmk mo tfree ` rmj l s t rnpesmo rel jk l wfnte (tfe cjttern k t f e dnl lc e) mk tfe wnkgtnpsmo kjvjc jnrhrjot, js j omrdmo eksngk. \fese djrbnkgswere jcsm hjrrnel mk tfe tjncmhhjsnmkjccy, js mk tf e Yftnknxm Nongfter sfmwk. Hjdmuocjgeomccmwel tfe Gerdjk pjtterk.

    Nkntnjccytf e \urbs usel jked`ced `jsel mk tfenr kjtnmkjcocjg, wntf j wfnte hreshektjk l stjr mk j rel squjre, `u tnk :>:5 tfey hf jkgel t fns tmj wfnte-elgel `cjhb squjre.\fns wjs l mke tm jvmnl hmkousnmk wntf tf e rel mk Jccneldjrbnkgs jkl tm `rnkg tfedjrbnkgs nktm hmkomrdnty wntft fe ` cjhb jkl wfn te mo tfemtfer Hektrjc Ymwers. \fe\urbs usel Gerdjk jnrhrjottfrmugfmut tf e w jr o cmwk o mrtf e dmst pjrt `y Gerdjks tmm),wntf j kjturjc mr sjkly `rmwkonknsf (JEG H N_).

    @ucgjrnj s djrbnkgs, cnbeJustrnj-Fukgjry s, were tfesjde js Gerdjky's. \fe hrmssm k t fe cmwer wnkg fj l km wfnte

    e lgnkg Ombber E NNN). Mktf eupper surojhes, tfe @ucgjrnjksusel j strnp mo greek pjnktjcmkg tfe t r jncnkg elge mo tfewnkg tm lnooerektnjte tfenrdjhfnkes ormd Gerdjk mkes

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    AjpjkXmpwntf c_0 Xtrutter

    Ukntel Xtjtes mo JdernhjXY LVNNN

    GerdjkyJc jtrms NNN

    YmrtugjcO@ \ype

    Ukntel Xtjtes JdernhjLF

    GerdjkyCOG Pmcjk l H

    HfnkjHjulrmk G NNN

    Ukntel Xtjtes Jdernhj\fmdjs Dmrse Xhmut

    GerdjkyYojcz L VNN

    Justrnj FukgjryYfmknxMN

    \urbey EG HN _

    @ucgjrnjOmbber E NNN

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    v\FE P E XPkL\FE A M B E ~ XNk N_N UPCP N ~ ~ P O \d P ~ B c k G Xncmtsjr e jcdmst `y kjture nklnvnlujcnsts jk l tf e Onrst Wmrcl Wj r gjvetfese dek t fe mppmrtuknty tm cet t fenr ext rmvert persmkjcntnes f jve oreerenk \fns t m mb d j ky o mr d s1 wncl jk l rnmtmus cnvnkg fjnr-rjnsnkg stuktocynkg j hmkstjkt j t tedpt t m l e `u k b jutfmrnty ` r j ss f j t s nk pjrtnhucjrjkl cjst `u t km t ce js t t fe extrjmrlnkjry prnvjte djrbnkgs mo tfenr jermpcjkes.\fe Gerdjks fj l j pekhfjkt om r `rngft regucjr pjt terks mver c j rge j rej s motfenr djhfnkes2 tf e Pussnjks o m r t fe d jh j` re 2 t fe N t jc nj k s om rnrnleshektpjnkt jk l ojkhnouc jkndjcs2 t fe Orekhf o m r k jd es jk l jkndjcs2 t fe @rntnsfomrmverjcc gju ly pjnkt shfedes not fey hmucl ge t j wj y w nt f n t2 j kl t feJdernhjks omr hmdnh ongures . \ fns ns kehessjrncy mversndpcnonel om r suhf jcnst hjk `e kentfer exhcusnve km r hmdprefeksnve `ut gnves jk nlej mo tf esmrt m o d ek wf m ocew tfese e j rcy wjrpc jkes. Evek notf e exerhnse mo tfnsnklnvnlujcnsd ln l km t strethf mver tf e wfmce djhfnke dmst mo tf e prmdnkektpncmts wntf t fe exheptnmk mo tfe @rntnsf djkjgel tm j l l sd jcc `u tlnstnkhtnve persmkjc jk l uknt djrbnkgs. Cef \ fe r ej c tfnkg1 tw m Orekhfdjrbnkgs `mve \ fe Xnmux fejl uknt djrbnkg mo tf e Eshjlrncce Cjojyettej vmcukteer uknt mo Jdernhjks ocynkg wntf t fe Orekhf jn r omrhe.

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    NN1n

    Ojr Ceot tmp1 \fe uknt djrbnkgmo shjlrncce X ? j Orekhfukat usnkg @rntnsf Xmpwntf ::/0-Xtrutter rehmkkjnssjkhe jermpcjkes, js tf e kjde mo tfe ukntjkl t fe `nkmhucjrs jrmukl tfehfnhbek s kehb nklnhjte. Ojrceot hektre j`mve1 \f e ukntdjrbnkg mo shjlrncce XYJ ?j XYJL ongfter uknt. Ojr ceot

    g hektre `e mw1 \ypnhjc ongfter uknt ed`ced- t fe greyfmukl jk l fjre moXYJ 6: Ojr ceot `mttmd \fe ed`ced mo tf e UX >:st Jerm Xqujlrmk nk Orjkhe.o Yfmtmgrjpf `mttmd m opjge

    \fe ocjdnkg hmdet persmkjc djrbnkgs mo Ceutkjkt @ertrj`.

    \fe jnrhrjot ns jk Jc jtrmsL NNNongfter. Yfmtmgrjpfceot j`mve1 J prjkhnkg levnclehmrjtes tfe snle mo tfnsNtjcnjk YmdncnmYM gekerjcpurpmse djhfnke. Kmte jcsmt fe rejr-vnew dnrrmr jt tfeceot f jkl snle mo tf e hmhbpnt. Yfmtmgrjpf ceot `ecmw1J djrbnkg tfjt wjs t m g jn kgrejt ojde nk tfe kext WmrclWjr mk tfe jnrhrjot mo tfe Ocynkg \ngers t fJdernhjk _mcukteer Grmupmper j tnkg wntf t fe Hfnkesejgjnkst tfe Ajpjkese. Feretfe sfjrb s dmutf ns uklert fe kmse mo j @rntnsf XmpwntfLmcpfnk ongfter nk :>:6. \fnsns j very `cjtjkt djrbnkg omrj @rntnsf djhfnke jkl tfepncmtwjs km lmu`t smmk tmcltm redmve nt

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    ,

    ?

    Uknt dj rbnkgs mo tfe t-NrstWmrcl Wjr, usujccy mk tfeousecjge snles.Ceot, tm p tm `mttmd1\ fe UX 00kl Jerm Xqujlrmk(XYJL VNNN)2tf e UX 05tf JermXqujlrmk (XE Xj)2 tfe s tmrb moEshjlrncce XY J 78 (XYJL V:::m ke m o t fe s qu jl rm ks d j bn kgup tfe ecnte Hnhmgkes (Xtmrbs)Grmupe, Orjkhe s prednerongfter uknt . Ejhf eshjlrncceuse l j lnooerekt vjrnjtnmk motfe ` jsnh stmrb syd`mc. \feUX >5tf Jerm Xqujlrmk @reguet :< J0 j `md`er uknt.Pngft tmp tm `mttmd\ fe dmst o jdmus Jdernhjksyd`mc-t fe Fjt nk tf e rnkgmo t fe >09.\fe UX ::tf @md`jrldektXqujlrmk (LF < \fe hmhmtte(j stycnsel `nrl djle mo omcle lpjper) moEshjlrncce H :: Hjulrmk G ::: .Mppmsnte pjge ceot, tm p tm`mttmd1 Cjrge Uknmk Ajhbswere pjnkte l mk tf e wnkgsjkl ousecjges mo @rntnsfjnrhrjot ormd cjte Jugust:>:< tm ejrcy :>:5. \feywere ejsncy hmkousel wntf tf eGerdjk hrmss, fmwever, jklrepcjhel `y rmuklecs. \fejnrhrjot jre @rnstmc Xhmutsm o t fe PKJX nk Orjkhe. JOrekhf XYJL s n k g c e ~ s e t e rJkmtfer grejt Orekhf type, nktfns nkstjkhe j Xjcdsmk 0 J0twm-sejter rehmkkjnssjkhejermpcjke. \fe ed`ced kejtcysuds up wfjt tfe m`serverdust fjve oect wfek festmml tm peer mver tfe snleMke mo Orjkhe s ojvmurnte smks,Gemrges Guykeder, nk tfe ljrbuknomrd, wntf j gekerjcnkspehtnkg fns XYJM _neuxHfjrces , tfe `egnkknkg mowfnhf hjk aust `e seek tm tf eceot mo tfe gekerjc s cegs.Kmte jcsm tfe hnhmgkeMppmsnte pjge rngft tm p tm`mttmd1 Ousecjge rmuklec mkUX Djrnke Hmrps jnrhrjot.Nt wj s jcc rel wntf tfeexheptnmk mo tfe ejgce s fejljkl hfest (wfnte), t fe hekt remo t fe r mu kl ec w fn te ) j kl t fednllce rnkg mo t fe rmuklec(`cue)2 t fe l r jgmk spmrtelmk tfe snle mo fns Jc`j trms 9 _`y Ceutkjkt FjksAmjhfnd vmkFnppe . \fe lrjgmk wjs rel,wntf yeccmw ocjdes nssunkg ormdnts dmutf2 t fe d j rbnkgs moEshjlrncce @J :07 @reguet:< J0 `md`ers)2 tfe luhbojdncy djrbnkgs mo tf e XehtnmkJrtnccerne Cmurle 009 @reguet:< J0) jrtnccery rehmkkjnssjkheuknt2 t fe UX :

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    ~

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    knomrds mo tfe Xehmkl Wmrcl W jry tfe Xehmkl Wmrcl Wjr uknomrds fjl `ehmde jcdmst tmtjccy oukhtnmkjckl tfe ledjkls mo hjdmuocjge were pjrjdmukt ^et tfe sdjcc

    secehtnmk `ecmw nklnhjtes tfere w stncc duhf rmmd omr vjrnety

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    D m s t h m u k tr n es motf e wmrcl j l j p t e l tf e @rntnsfkjvjc uknomrd tm j lesngk om r t f en r m w k . Js e j dj k s r n g w js jcsm wmrk `y smde YettyMoonhers. s u hf j s j gukker nk hfjrge m o hrew nkt f e t u r re t m o les t rmyer1 j Yetty Moonher nk tf eOnrst Hcjss Gukkery Pjte M P c N t hmksnstel mo6`cue squjre k e hb e l ` c mu s e j k l `ecc `mttmdeltrmusers. audper. hmccjr wnt f t f ree wfn te strn pe s(wfnhf ln l kmt hmdded mr j t e Kecsmk s t f reeg r t ` j t t ce s ) . w fn t e hj p wntf tf e s fnp s kjde mktf e `jkl. jk l `c jhb sfmes mr sej `mmts. J Z P s

    ~ ~ k s a g km o hrmwk j ` mv e j k l `ecmw hrmssel guks s wmrk mk tf e up pe r r ng f t s cee ve2 mk fn s ceot

    .Neeve fe wmre j hrmwk j`mve hrmssel jkhfmrsjk l prm`j `cy 6 t f ree ye j r servnhe h f e vr m k ` e c m w.Mk j les t rmyer fe scept nk j f jddmhb jk l stmrelf n gej r nk j cmhber. Fn s .ndpce, wfmcesmde lne tw j s prelmdnkjktcy s tews. fn s kngf tcy `everjgehmhmj1 fe w j s l j nc y nssuel wnt f .. pnk t m o kej trud. Fehmucl fjve a m nk e l u p j t t f e jge mo:5 `u tjoter smde `my. were cmst nk ej rcyjhtnmks t feywere kmt jccmwel t m gm tm .e j uk tnc jgel :? .Expernekhel dek up tm tf e jg e mo55 wererehjccel om r jhtnve luty nk wjr tnde. Fe hmuclfjve lmke fn s gukkery hmurse j t Levmkpmrt m rmk e moseverjc mtfer t r jnknkg hektre . F n s p j y wj s5/ ? e lj y pcus ojdncy jccmwjkhes.

    PJO1 Ongfter Yncmt,YncmtMoonher

    @rntnsf Jrdy1Cjkhe-Hmrpmrjc

    fe @ r nt n sf s m c ln e r w j s r e h ru n t el nktm jk mc legndekt mrtfeterrntmrnjc dncntnj2 ymukg de kmcukteerel mr were h j cc e l u p js j d j t t e r momurse J r n oc e d j k w j s gnvek j t fmrmugfncntjry trjnknkg wnt f jhhekt m k p f y sn h j c ontkess

    kl use moequnpdekt . F n rnoce, j .898ee-Ekonecl Km.< wnt f hruhnomrd ` jymket jk lengfnkg @n` : 9 t mz , m r j Km.: w n t f swmrl

    ymket jk l wengfnkg < mz d m r e , f e c l : 9 r m u kl sk t f e d j g jz n ke j k l hmucl onre up tm : 5 r m uk l ser dnkute . Pnocedek jcsm hjr rnel ?9-rmukl

    Xrek gu k djg jznkes nk t fenr p m u hf e s j k ln c ` grekjles wf nhf t fe y h m uc l f u rc u p tm9yjrls. \ f e y p j rj l e l j k l djrhfel nk rjkbs m oree, lressel nk wjns t- cekg t f ` j t tc e ajhbets wnt f

    w m pjthf pmhbets , t rmusers wnt f j c j rg e j k ldjcc pmhbet mk tf e ormkt . jk l j omrjge hjp, jc cmmc-bf jbCck jhtnmk fe hjrrnel j sdjcc persmkjchb. `cjkbet. grmukl sfeet. rjtnmk fecdet jk l

    N X djsb. ce jvnkg gre j thmjt jk l sp j re hcmtfnkgmrel j t tf e r e jr. F n s sfmuclers t r jps . `ec t , jk l

    snters were mowe``nkg. Pegndektjc mr hmrpsksngknj were wmrk m k f n s h j p. hcmtf nksngke mon vn s nm k m k f n s ceot sceeve, mver tf e rnoce-greeknstnkgunsfnkg djrb , jc .m nk hcmtf , Fn s l jncy pj yjs 0/>2 jo ter t w m yejrs servnhe n t rmse tm 8/?.rmdmtnmk tm Cjkhe-Hmrpmrjc j l le l ?l j l jy.

    Pmyjc Kjvy1MP: Yet ty Moonher

    J Y ncm t Moonhe r, cmwe s t hmddnssnmkel rjkb n k t f ePJO, `egjk trjnknkg js jk Jnrhrjotsdjk NNj t jknkntnjctrjnknkg shfmmc jk l onrst ocew mk fn st w m - d m k t f ecedektjry hmurse . smcmnkg jo terj `mut sevek fmurs nkst ruhtnmk nk j \ngerDmtf .Jo t e r jkmtfer omur dmktfs , mk Yrmhtmrs, fequjcnonel om r fn s w nkgs jk l hmddnssnmk (pncmtsgrjlujtnkg js Xergejk ts were usujccy

    hmddnssnmkel lurnkg squjlrmk servnhe). tfekw e k t tm jk mperj tnmkjc trjnknkg u k nt t m o cyongfters wnt f expernekhel nkst ruhtmrs . Jc tmgetferfe w mu c l fjve s p e k t m v e r j yejr nk trjnknkg jk lup tm 09 9 fmurs nk tf e jn r js wecc js cnkl ocynkgtnde nk j Cnkb trjnker. Fn s dnkndud jg e wj s :6 ,d j x n d u d 852 jver jge fengft wj s ? o t X nnk . Fefj l pjssel j wrnt tek ekt r jkheexjd nkj tnmk. jpfysnhjc exjdnkj tnmk, jk l j hmcmur `cnklkesstes t . Fe wmre entfer j serge wmmccek `cue-greyuknomrd m r j omur pjthf-pmhbet ` j r j t fe j wnt f`cue f n r t `cjhb tne. jk l `cjhb sfmes. F n s r j k bn k sn g k e w j s j f jco-kjr rmw `cue jk l grey rnkgjrmukl `mtf s c ee v e s2 f n s w nk gs were wfn t e- l r j `sncb wnt f j hrmwk m v e r t f e PJ O dmkmgrjd jk l` r mw k sncb cjurec wrej t f , Nk tf e t rmpnhs fe wmrehmttmk bfjbn. \f e ` j lg e m k f ns pejbel hcmtf hj pwj s j g m cl h r m w k ejgce jk l cjurec wrej t fs . Fewj s pjnl : : / j l j y. p c u s 0 5 j yejr ocynkg p j y j k llepeklekts jccmwjkhe.

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    UX Jrdy1Yrnvj te Onrs t HcjssJ Yrnvjte Onrst Hcjss (YOH) n k t f e UX Jrdy wj s 6hmUjr-jkl-tne smc lne r nk fn s servnhe uknomrd m omcnve-lrj` jk l wmre smcnl ` rj ss U X cet ters m k m kecjpec. hrmssel rnoces nksngknj mk t f e mt fe r. Fn sYOH hfevrmk, mk j ` cue ` jhbg rmukl . wj s wmrkmk t f e u p pe r pjr t j t `mtf sceeves2 nofe fj lqujcnonel js j sf j rpsfmmter fe w m r e t f e jw j r l

    j lge mk fn s ceo t ` re j s t. Fn s pj y w js 5 < j dmkt fk l 5?.79 j o t er 8 y e j rs jkl . nk :>

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    Pel J nr Omrhe1Ongfter Yncmt

    ~ ~ ~ p pJ Pussnjk o n gf t e r p n c m t wmucl f j ve f j l tf e2. ` ekeon t mosmuk l ocynkg trjnknkg `eomre t fe w j r

    `egjk ` u t t f e e xpe rne kh e l dek w e r e s f m t m u t motf e sbnes nk tf e o n rs t o e w w e eb s m o tf e Gerdjkj t t jhb1 evek cjter. w f e k t f er e w trjnkelpncmts jvjncj`ce t fere w e r e t m m oe w jnrhr.ot ceottm ocy. Js tf e suppcy m oongf ters nkhr. j .e l . ymukgd e k m v er tf e jg e m o:6 were gnvek NNfur rnelnkstruhtnmk mk NNprndjry trjnker. pmssn`cy t^JB8 . jk l jlvjkhel t r j nkn kg m k NN JB> wfnhfw j . jcsm k hmd`j t use. Js jnrhrjot suppcy. jk lcmsses. nkhrejsel. trjnknkg wj s dmre jk l dmres fmr teke l jk l lurnkg :>5 bmpebs j lj yjctfmugf motek fe rehenvel km pj y j t jc c jk l`jhb-pjy w js w r n tt e k m o o. Fn s lepeklektsfmwever. were regucjrcy redukerjtel.Yrmdmtnmk wjs rjpnl. js tfere wj s j fngfprmpmrtnmk mo moonhers m odjky gr j les nk j` j t t jcnmk1 nk ojht . j sehtnmk hmucl `e hmddjkle l`y j cneutekjkt m otf e t fnr l grjle. Ymcntnhjcnklmhtrnkj tnmk. sehurnty jk l heksmrsfnp nk jregndekt wjs hmktrmccel `y j grmup fejlel `y jdjamr. Not fe regndekt . mrlnvnsnmk. lnstnkgunsfelntsecon t wj s jwjrlel tf e tntce Gujr l s jk l pj ywjs lmu`cel . J smclner hjp ture l ukwmuklel wj sregjrlel js j leser ter. Fns ` jymkete l r noce . t f eD-:>897.?0 dd . wengfel j `mut > :` j k l nt sdjgjznke fecl onve rmukls . Fn s su`djhfnke-guktf e YYXF 7.?0 d d . o n re l rmukls ormd nt slrud djgjznke. Fns s t jk lj r l grekjle wj s tf e stnhb vjrnety.

    Pel Kjvy1Gukker Yetty MoonherW n tf o mu r mc l `jttcesfnps jk l km hjrrners jk l mkcyj oe w hrunsers jk l smde 89 lestrmyers omrdnkgtf e fe jvy pjr t m otf e Pel Kjvy ocee t . dms tr e h ru n ts w e r e s ek t tm serve mk mk e m otf ekudermus su`dj rnkes mr dmtmr tmrpelm-`mjts`jsel nk tf e @cjhb Xej tf e Yjhnonh m r t fe@jctnh Xej wfnhf n s h m k ke h te l ` y hjkjcs wnt ftf e Jrhtnh Mhejk. J Gukker s t r jnknkg n k t f eK j v y w j s m o j fngfer s t jk l j rl t f jk j smclner sjk l t f e re w j s k m k e h e ss n ty om r tf e Kjvy tm recymk tf e us e m orj w rehrunts. Xervnkg j g uk m k jPussnjk su`dj rnke wmuc l `e sndncjr tm tf eprmhelures usel mk j Gerdjk su`dj rnke js tf esjde type w js usel ` y t fe Pel Kjvy. Wntf ?6 999dnces m okjvngj`ce wjterwjys nk tf e XmvnetUknmk dmtmr tmrpelm-`mjts were smdetndesnkvmcvel nk jhtnmks nkcjkl h j r rynkg suppcnes jk ljddukntnmk. ongftnkg m o o jnr j t t jhbs wnt ftwnk-dmuk te l djhfnke-guks . Lepeklnkg mk tf esehtmr wfere fe wj s ` j sel . p jy l jys wereukpre lnhte`ce . Omr j jc tnh jk l Jrhtnh hmklntnmksfn s uknomrd w js wecc ourrel jk l cnkel tm beepmu t tf e su`-zerm hmcl. Fn s tedper j te hcndj te`cues were hu t nk j Gerdjk Brnegsdj rnke s tycef ns h jp w j s jcsm sndncjr jk l t r j nce l t f e tw m eklsm otf e hjp-`jkl rn``mk. Fn s ` j lge w js tf ef jdder jk l s n hb c e m k j re l stjr.

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    Gerdjk J nr Omrhe1Ongfter Yncmt.0klCneutekjkt

    G e r dj k 0 k l c ne u t e k j k t o n g f t e r p n c m t `eg jkrjnknkg jt jk ecedektjry ocynkg trjnknkg shfmmc

    wfnhf ektjncel gcnlnkg m k H m ur s e :, ecedektjrycynkg m k H m ur s e 0 jk l snkgce-ekgnke ongf t e r

    jnknkg mk Hmurse 8. Fe tfek w e k t mk tmvjkhel trjnknkg jk l cjstcy tm fn s mperj tnmkjcjnknkg ukn t1 jc tmgetfer n t tmmb sevek tm engf tmktfs jk l : 97 tm :: 0 fmurs j t t fe hmktrmcs.e wmre t fe kj tnmkjc ejgce ed`ced m k f ns rng f t

    k l pncmt s n k sn gk e m k f ns cmwer ceot `rejst.Mk fns vnsmrel hjp, dmre r jbnsf t f jk mtfers n k t fe

    dy. w js t f e k j tnmkjc rmse t te ocjkbel `y mj bejves jk l sprejlnkg wnkgs surdmuktel `y jcynkg ejgce. ^eccmw pnpnkg jk l j cjrge W

    ehmrjtel fn s epjucettes1 fn s hmccjr pj thf wj sk ejgce j k l m jb cejves mk j yeccmw `jhbgrmukl.e wmre ajhb`mmts ,grey-`cue wmmc-r jymkeehfes, ajhbet wnt f p j t hf p m h be t s. g r e y sfnrt,

    c jh b t n e, jk l j Xj d @rmwke `ect wnt fgce-ed`ced `uhbce . Fns ocynkg sunt fj l

    nppere l, sc js f pmhbets jk l fn s ocynkg `mmts werenkel. F e f jl pjssel j rngnl pfysnhjcxjdnkj tnmk jk l wj s ecngn`ce o m r p n cm ttrjnknkg

    oter tf e jg e m o:6 Ukler kmrdjc hmklntnmks,u o t w o o e pncmts ekamyel `e t ter omml tfjk tf eest motf e j rdy jk l t fenr pj y w j s f n gf e r.

    J Georenter-Yrnvj te Onrst Hcjss-nk tf eWjooek-XX Xhfutzs t jooec) w js j d e d ` e r mojk ecnte hmrps `jsel mk rjhnjc purnty jk l j fngfpfysnhjc s t jk l j r l , jk l hmksnlerel l nooe rek tekmugf tm `e j omur t f jr d m otf e Gerdjkservnhes, @ehjuse m oj fngf hjsujcty rjte smdec j t e r eh run ts we re jhheptel ormd Gerdjknhhmuktrnes. J Gerdjk Georen t tuwj s pjnl: 8 : Penhfsdjrbs j l jy. Pehrunts, jgel :6 tm 0 rndcess. Fn s rnoce, j Gewefr >6wengfel >:`, fecl j onve-rmukl d j g j zn k e 2 f n sDY

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    \fe Ajpjkese smclner wj s gnvek r n gmrmuspfysnhjc t r jnknkg jk l nktekse dmrjcestrekgtfeknkg lnshnpcnke nklmhtrnkj tnmk2 fe wjsstrmkg, jgnce, jk l cmyjc, preoerrnkg lejtf tmhjpture. Jgel `e tweek :> jk l : mr >7orjgdektjtnmk, mr ecse s tnhb fngf-expcmsnvemr nkheklnjry.

    Ajpjkese J rdy1Xupernmr Yrnvjte

    Wfntes jk l `cues were jcsm t r j ln tnmkjc hmcmursom rAjpjkese Kjvy uknomrds, jk l se jdek wmresqujre hmccjrs jk l t rm use r s dmre ` jggy t f j k`ecc-`mttmdel . J Yet ty Moonhe r Xehmkl Hcjss nk`cues wmre j p e jb e l h j p wnt f j `jlge m o y e c cm w

    rmpe-ekhnrhcel- jkhfmr mk `cue. Onve `rjss`u t tmks hcmsel f n s f ng f a jhbe t2 fe wmre `cjhb` m m t s2 t f e hmccjr rn d mo j w f n t e s f n rt sfmwelukler fn s ajhbet. F n s r j kb nksngknj wjs j `j r mverj hjrkj tnmk ocmwer mver jk jkhfmr surrmuklel`y j wre j t f2 tfese w e re n k y e c cm w mk fn s upperrngft s c ee v e. M k fn s ceotsceeve fe wmre tf ey e c cm w o c mw e r ed`ced motf e kjvy. Uklerkmrdjc hmklntnmks fe wmuc l fjve t j bek onveyejrs tm rejhf t fns rjkb. M k j k jnrhr jot -hjr rnerfe hmucl `e tf e YM nk hfjrge mojk jktn- jnrhr jotgu k jk l nt s hrew. Fn s m`elnekhe jk l cmyjcty`egjk nk h f n c l f m m l - n t wj s j hmddmk ojhtmrnk fn s hmddukn ty1 jkhestmr wmrs fnp jk l `ecneonk t f e l nv nke mrngnk mofn s Edpermr j k l r jh enkhrejse l fns pmtektnjc `rjvery nk jh tnmk. F nshmkst jkt t r jnknkg jk l s t rnh t lnshnpcnke djle fn dj fngfcy eoonhnekt hmg, nrrepcjhej`ce w f ek f ng fhjsujctnes djle sullek ledjkls mk djkpmwer.

    Fn s l ne t m k ` m jr l j h j r rne r w j s duhf tf e sjdejs t f e J r d y djk s `u t wnt f cess o r es f de j t jk lvegetj`ces, exhept wfek j t t r jnknkg stjtnmks mktf e Nkcjkl Xej. F n s p j y w j s 0 8 ye k j dmkt f2(n k :>

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    ::> :>8>) 7-7-dd rnoce jkl tf e :>95Dmlec ?5-dd) fjl j djgjznke hjpjhnty momkcy onve rmukls js mppmsel tm tf e@rntnsf t ek rmukls. \ fns scmwel lmwk tferjte mo onre- jkl tfe s tjk lj rl Dmlec >0djhfnke-guk jddukntnmk hmucl kmt `eusel nk tf e Dmlec >> rnoce nktf e sjde wjyjs t fe @rntnsf @rek-guk jk l Cee-Ekoneclrnoce

    \fe @rntnsf nkojktrydjk nk Djcjyj jk l@urdj wjs pjnkouccy cejrknkg tfe tehfknquemo aukgce wjrojre ormd tfe Ajpjkese, `u tfns equnpdekt wjs kmt nkoernmr. Nkleel, ntgjve oj r dmre jttektnmk tm t fe hmdomrt mot fe nklnvnlujc smclner t fjk wjs tm `e omuklnk tf e Ajpjkese jrdy systed. \fe stjkljrl@rntnsf rnoce wjs tf e cegekljry Cee-EkoneclDb NNN,wfnhf fjl sm fngf j rj te mo onretfjt tf e Gerdjks j t Dmks nk :>:< f jldnstjbek nt omr djhfnke-guk onre2tf ejddukntnmk-pmuhfes hjrrnel `y tf e @rntnsfnkojktrydjk f ec l ?9 rmukls ejhf- jkl tfe898-nkhf jddukntnmk wjs t fe sj de jstfjt onrel `y tfe @rek cngf t d jhfnke-guk

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    6

    UX Djrnke Pjnlers1Hmddjklms mo tfeYjhnonh

    \fe UX Djrnke Pjnlers were trjnkel cnve jkl ongft nk j vjrnety mohmklntnmks jkl hnrhudstjkhes. \fenr hmurse nkhculel hcmse qujrterongftnkg ledmcntnmk sknpnkg jkl sngkjccnkg. \fe sej`mrke equnvjcekt mopjrjtrmmps tfey spejrfejlel jttjhbs mr rjnlel ekedy fecl nscjkls

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    \mp ceot Ljvnl Xtnrcnkg. hrejtmr mo tf e XJX tfe grejtest nrregucjr mo tfewjr. ecmw Pehruntel o rm d t fe experts mk lesert kjvNgjtnmk tfecmkg Pjkge Lesert Grmup wjs hmkstntutel js j rehmkkjNssjkhe omrhejk l js j dejks mo strnbnkg j `cmw jt ` jses nk tfe ekedy s rejr. Dmuktel nmpek truhbs jrdel wntf cewns _nhbers @rmwdkg @relj djhfnke-guks.@mys jktntjkb rnoces mr j @momrs guk hmcudks mo tfe cPLG wmucl motekuklertjbe lesert amurkeys mo tfmusjkls mo dnces

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    \ fe Oceet Jnr Jrd tne hmd`nkes t fePmyjc Kjvy hmcmurs wntf j r m l c ng ft c uestrnpe0 \fe tne mo tfe PJO delnhjc j rd sfmwstfe PJO wnkgs mver tfe h luheus tfe wjklmo fejcnkg mo tfe delnhjc prmoessnmk

    8 Ukntel Xtjtes Djrnke Hmrps. \fe Jdernhjksln l kmt prmluhe tfe sjde prmcnoer tnmk motnes js tfenr @rntnsf hmukterpjrts. jkl dmstUX tnes were om r c rger omrdjtnmks< Nk tfe Pmyjc Kjvy. nklnvnlujc sfnps wmuclprmluhe tnes. \fn s ns t fe tne mo FDX fe`

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    \fe PJO _mcukteer Peserve, tfe PJOequnvjcekt mo tfe PK_P, f js t fe sjde mcmursjs tfe PJO u t nk j lnooerekt pjtterk? Hjpturel moonhers mo tfe 5:st FngfcjklLnvnsnmk, tm tfe jdjzedekt mo tfenr Gerdjkgujrls, wfncel jwjy hjptnvnty levnsnkg tfe Peec mo tfe 5:st

    7 \fe dnkesweepnkg jrd mo tfe Pmyjc Kjvy6 \fe @rngjle mo Gurbfjs. Jcc Gurbfj regndekts were rnoce regndekts `cjhb jkl greek) u t tfe 0kl Gmmrbfjs wmre rel ojhnkgs,fekhe t fe rel s trnpe> \fe PJO

    :08

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    \fe Pmyjc Kjvy

    \fe Pmyjc Jrdy Delnhjc Hmrps. Mkedelnhjc mo on her o rmd tfns uknt wjs jttjhfeltm ejhf `jt t jcnmk-snzel uknt.? \fe Yjrjhfute @rngjle. \fe djrmmk`jhbgrmukl ns t fe s jde js tfenr ojdmus Pel @erets

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    ?

    YMY P\MO \FNP W P

    @mtf tfe Cuotwjooe jkl tf e UX J rdy j kl Kjvy jNr omrhes lnspcjyel dmrehmcmurouc nksngkn j uknt jkl persmkjc mk tfeco j nrh rjo t t fj k tfe j nr o mr he s m otf e mtfer hmd`jtjkt kjtnmks. \fe udt `jlges mo tf e Cuotwjooe were usujccyj dmkmgrjd sfmwnkg jk ed`ced suhf js j fej rt mr jk jhe mo spjles. mr jlesngk sfmwnkg tfe oukhtnmk mo tf e udt. Yersmkjc nksngknj were ormwkelupmk. `u t t fm se t fj t w er e h jr rn el w er e u su jc cy mo j gjuly hmcmur shfede.\fe uknt `jlges mo squjlrmks mo tfe jn r omrhes tf e UX kmrdjccy oejturehs u` ae ht s t fj t w er e h md nh mr djhj`re. \fe gcjdmrmus nksngknj wfnHf jrEprm` j `cy t f e `est bkmwk mo tfe UX djrbnkgs jre persmkjc `jlges pjdtehm k t fe j nr hr jo t ` y Nts hrew nklepeklektcy mo tf e uknt `jlge. \fese c d m rNkXcgdj hmrrespmkl tm tfe Cuotwjooe s gjuly hmcmurs tfmugf tfey sf m tfe hrew s hf jr j ht e r dmre tfjk t fe Cuotwjooe s . `mve \f e ukNt `jlge t fe 05t f @md`jrldekt Xqujlrmk ns tfjt mo tf e 05tf Xqujlrmk Nk tfe OcrsWmrcl Wjr nk :>:7 t fe kmthfes Nk t fe jxe mo tfe exehutNmker vjrynkg jhhmrlnkg tm tfe kud`er mo jnrhrjot sfmt lmwk ` y tf e pncmtwfNce servnkg wntf tfe@rntnsf Pmyjc Ocynkg Hmrps. mp rngft \fe `jlge mo _M-8. \f e lescgkjtnmc csfmws tfns tm `e j kjvjc squjlrmk tfe _ sfmwnkg nt tm `e jk jnrhrjot rjtfec

    tf jk jk j n rs fnp squ j lrmk . t f e 9 jk m`servj tnmk squj l rmk js n s hmkonrdel`y tfe `nkmhucjrs. Pngft \fe nksngknj mk t fe jnrh rjo t ns jk ukmocnhnjc mke kmcsu`dnttel om r j pp rm vj c jt tfe t nde tf e pfmtmgrjpf wjs t jbek Nk tf e Jceutnjks. jr rngft Jnrhrjot ferjclnh experts exjdnknkg j le sngk . \fe lesngrukler hmksnlerjtnmk fjs js nts hektrepnehe @md`ytfe@ejr j hfjrjhterwf m jppejrel nk tf e `jlges mo tfe

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    FE OC^NKG \NGEPXNk :>87, j r et nr el UX Jrdy Jnr Hmrpsmoonher Hcjnre Hfekkjuct, `ehjde HfnjkgBjn-sfeb s jlvnser mk jermkjutnhjc djtters.Fns onrst omrhemo Hfnkese jkl derhekjry

    ncmts prmvel u kj `c e t m w re st j nrmktrmc ormd tfe Ajpjkese, jkl lurnkg

    > Hfekkjuct persujlel Hfnjkg tmccmw f nd t m r eh ru nt pncmts n k t fe U kn te l

    Xtjtes - tm ocyjk l ongft jt ?99 j dmktfcus 599 j bnc c. \ fn s Jdernhjk _mcukteer

    Grmup smmk `ehjde bkmwk js tfeOcynkg \ngers ormd nts lnstnkhtnve ed`cedkl, usnkg tfe eoonhnekt ejrcy-wjrknkgysted wfnhf Hfekkjuct f jl `ee k j `c em `un cl up qunhbcy estj`cnsfel jnrupredjhy mver tf e Ajpjkese. Nk :>

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    Ormd tfe `egnkknkg tfe wjr nk Pussnj wjs prm-Hcjndel `y Xtjcnk tm `e j pjtrnmtnh wjr jklt fe spn rn t mo mtfer Pussnj wjs lUcy nkvmbeltm nkspnre tfe trmmps mo t fe Pel Jrdy. Wntftrjlntnmkjc kjtnmkjcnsd suppcedektnkg nkter-

    kjtnmkjc Hmdduknsd js Pussnj s nkspnrjtnmkdeljcs jkl mrlers omr vjcmur `jsel mk tfekjtnmkjcnst dmtno `egjk tm jppejr. @ecmw jreomur exjdpces. ot tm rn ft \fe Mrler moJldnrjc Kjbfndmv tfe Mrler moXuvmrmy

    tfe Mrler mo Jcexjkler Kevsby jkl tfe Mrlermo Butuzmv . Jcc were pre-revmcutnmkjry fermesmo Pussnjk fnstmry2 Butuzmy omr exjdpce wjst fe geker jc wfm fmuklel Kjpmcemk s trmmps mucmo Pussnj joter t fe `urknkg mo mshmw nk 6

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    ONGF\NKG UKN\X MK \FE EJX\EPK OPMK\ct fm ugf t fey l no oe re l g re j tc y n k s nz e t fe G er dj k jk l Pussnjk nk oj kt ry l nv ns nm ks u se l t fe s jd e ` js nh tr nj kg uc jr s t ruhture- jcmugf `y :>,099 dek

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    mrgjknsjtnmks mo tfe Gerdjk Yjkzer lnvnsnmk jkl n ts Pussnjk equn vj ce k t t fe j rdmure l h mrps were ` j snhj ccy lno oe rekt . J ct fmugfejrcy Yjkzer lnvnsnmks fj l equjc prmpmrtnmks mo nkojktry jk l j rdmur- twm tfree-`j t tjcnmk regndekts mo e jh f - t f e kud`er mo

    bs fj l `eek prmgressnvecy reluhel sm tfjt `y :>

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    5

    \f e tf West Pnlnkg LnvnsNmk onrsts jw jhtnve servnhe nk Kmrwjy, `u t nkDjy :>

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    k hfjkgel tm mke c mm bn kg u p-rls, fejl up nk leonjkhe. nk :>

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    5 ?

    6

    fe 8rl Nklnjk Lnvnsnmk Wnkgjte s Hfnks ) tmmb j gmcl @urdese lrjgmk js n ts syd`mc\fe `jlge mo tfe Aewnsf @rngjle Grmup wfnhf

    omrdel nk Yjcestnke jkl servel nk Eurmpe.mws j Xtj r mo Ljvnl mk tfe pmstwjr Nsrjecncmursmo `cue jkl wfnteJ bey, sfmwnkg tfjt Gn`rjctjr wjs t fe bey tm

    Delnterrjkejk. jppejrel mk tfe `jlge mo jccnts mo t fe Gn` rj ct jr gjrrnsmk. \fns ns tfege mo tfe :6tf Leoekhe Pegndekt, Pmyjcnccery, \fe `jhbgrmukl hmcmurs jre tfmse mo

    tfe Pmyjc Jrtnccery)< Djky ` jlges were ` jse l derecy mk gem-detrnhjc omrds2 tfns exjdpce ns tfe `jlge mo tfe0/0kl Hjsujcty Hcejrnkg Xtjtnmk mo tfe PmyjcJrdy Delnhjc Hmrps5 Jkmtfer mo tfe gemdetrnhjccy-`jsel sdjcceromrdjtnmk `jlges. \fns spehndek wjs wm rk `ytfe

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    ?

    \fe ` jlge m o K m 8 Lnstrnht. Hektrjc Delnerrjkejk Omrhe sfmws tfe t f ree pnccjrs mo tfeedpce mo Hjstmr j k l Ymccux nk Pmde omrdnkgfe Pmdjk kuderjc NNNom r Km 8 Lnstrnht

    \fe Pmyjc Ekgnkeers LepMt wfmse ` jl gefns ns wjs jt Hfjtfjd jt t f e ` egnkknkg mo tfe

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    8 Jk jc terkj tnve tm tfe 0/0 \fe `jlge 9: tf e Justrjcnjk 0:7tf JrdmurelPegndekt oejtures j Onrst Wmrcl Wjr tjkb

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    e jrt mo prmpjgjklj hmksnsts prehnsecy nknkg j ce tm jwjbek tfe ndjgnkjtnmk mo tfempce tfrmugf jppejc tm tfenr oeecnkgs. nk

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    N ~ ~ N C E N N XN c c c ~ ^Denke fr ensst \ eue cmyjcty ns dy fmkmur - tfe dmttm mo tfe jspfjct smclners mo tfeWjooek- X. Hmkhenvel js j `mlygujrl. trjksomrdel onrst nktm j pmcnhecXcntejkl tfek nktm j dncntjryfmhb omrhe. hjde evektujccy tm serve mkcy ntseco, mk terds wfnhf djle j dmhbery mo tfe rjhnjc

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    wjs dmst hfnccnkg nk Fntcer s Gerdjky]fe nccustrjtnmk `ecmw lepnhts tfe uknomrd mo jk M`ershfjronnfrer. Jccgedenke-552 cmwer ceot. engftrjles fngfer nk rjkb ns jk M`eronnfrer, Jccgedenke-5X. Ormd tfe mrlnkjry XX rjkber up tm tfe cmotyengfts mo Fnddce s mwk rjkb - Penhfsonnfrer-XX - t fer e wjs j cjller mo :7 grjles mo prmdmtnmk.fe tm p tfree Gruppekonnfrer, M`ergruppekonnfrer, jkl M`ersc-Gruppekonnfrer smmk hjde tm rnvjcfe gekerjcs jkl jldnrjcs mo tfe regucjr jrdel omrhes. \fe JccgedenkeXX tf e regucjr XX) wjsnstnkht ormd tfe Wjooek-5X (mr X5 jrdel omrhes, wfnhf omugft jcmkgsnle regucjr jrdy uknts) - jklt wjs tf e Jccgedenke-55 wfnhf fjl tfe a m` m osupervnsnkg Fnddcer s pmcnhy mo rjhnjc exterdnkjtnmk.fe sdjccer nccustrjtnmks mk tfe rngft sfmw X5 pmsters1 cmp tfe 55 hrusfnkg tfe Pel Lrjgmk 2ecmw Ocednkgs, pempce mo sndncjr `cmml , jre hjccel tm `e gmml hmdrjles nk tfe hmddmk ongft.

    NEPX \QBMoonoon KEPW OOEKF

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    rde fecp omrtfe rr kvmcb eot Xturd`jkkonnfrer Cemk Legreccehmdd kler mo tfe ^_jccmmk vmcukteers sjcutesjs Gekerjc Oecnx Xtenker ns lehmrjtel `yFntcer. ecmw Omur Pussnjk `rmtfers jccvmcukteers spmrt tfenr kew Gerdjk uknomrdsjkl lejtf s-fejl `j lges

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    Ed`ceds jkl Equnpdektmotf e Kjzns jkl tfenr suppmrters:1 Onrst Wmrcl Wjrex-servnhedjk s `jlge DyXervnhe ). Yjrj`eccud pnstmC 81 @jctNh Hrmss sednmoonhnjclehmrjtnmk om rGerdjks wf m omugft jgjdsttfe @mcsfevnbs mk tfe @jctnh ormkt 08).?1 Kjzn Yjrty `jlge.71

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    \ W P \FPMUGF A Y K X ^ X

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