12Stephen MacKinnon II

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    SoilSoil--Metal StructuresMetal Structures

    Evolution of Design Codes in North American

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    CanadaCanada

    http://wwwParent=17http://wwwStore Visi~~Microsoft7.0Win32

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    1.1This Standard applies to the material and fabrication requirements for corrugated steel pipe, spiral rib pipe, and structural plate corrugated steel pipe products.

    1.2This Standard applies to the use of corrugated steel pipe, spiral rib pipe, and structural plate corrugated steel pipe for applications such as culverts, storm sewers, sanitary sewers, subdrains, ground recharge systems, well casings, underpasses, stream enclosures, shelters, and tunnels.

    1.3This Standard does not include requirements for hydraulic design, structural design, construction, and installation.

    CSA G401-01 (2007 Pending)

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    CAN/CSAS6-06 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

    Spans greater then 3 m.

    This is the tenth edition of CAN/CSA-S6, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code. It supersedes the previous edition published in 2000, which amalgamated and superseded CAN/CSA-S6-88, Design of Highway Bridges, and the Ontario Ministry of Transportation's OHBDC-91-01, Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code, 3rd ed. Earlier editions of the CSA Standard were published in 1978, 1974, 1966, 1952, 1938, 1929, and 1922.

    Earlier editions of the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code were published in 1983 and 1979 by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation.

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    United States

    ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

    AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

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    Until the late 1930s, the design of Soil-Metal structures was largely empirical.

    In the 40s and 50s, studies were instigated to better understand how corrugated steel structures preformed.

    Armco published Height of cover tables in 1955 but did not reference a design method.

    During this era, AASHTO referenced a rational design method based on past history and the ring compression theory.

    Prior to 1979, Canada followed the AASHTO design method.

    Design History

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    Design HistoryDesign History

    In 1976 Province of Ontario decided to develop their own Bridge In 1976 Province of Ontario decided to develop their own Bridge codecodebecause AASHTO was a very large bureaucracy and did not permit qbecause AASHTO was a very large bureaucracy and did not permit quickuickchanges to its design specifications.changes to its design specifications.

    The term The term SoilSoil--SteelSteel structures was first used in 1976 by Dr structures was first used in 1976 by Dr BaidarBaidar BakhtBakhtas he was developing the 1as he was developing the 1stst edition of the OHBDC in Canada.edition of the OHBDC in Canada.

    In 1979 the first Canadian based code was published In 1979 the first Canadian based code was published Limit States Design Limit States Design Method.Method.

    As the OHBDC evolved through its various editions, things like MAs the OHBDC evolved through its various editions, things like MinimuminimumHeights of Cover, Design check during construction and backfill,Heights of Cover, Design check during construction and backfill, SoilSoilarching Factors, Seismic, and Bending Moments were addressed.arching Factors, Seismic, and Bending Moments were addressed.

    In 1989, AASHTO decided to write an alternate specification modeIn 1989, AASHTO decided to write an alternate specification modeled after led afterthe OHBDC. This specification, called AASHTO LRFD (load and resithe OHBDC. This specification, called AASHTO LRFD (load and resistancestancefactor design) was published in 1994. It is only due to be adoptfactor design) was published in 1994. It is only due to be adopted this year. ed this year.

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    SoilSoil--Metal Structures DesignMetal Structures DesignIn 1995 the rest of the Canadian Provinces worked with Ontario to begin the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). It was first published in 2000.

    The Second edition was published in Nov 2006.

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    Testing Back Up For the CHBDCTesting Back Up For the CHBDC

    Box Culvert Haunch Bending Test

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    SuperSuper--CorCor Flexural TestsFlexural Tests

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    Super-Cor Seam Strength Tests

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    Full Destructive Box Culvert TestFull Destructive Box Culvert Test

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    Box Culvert InstrumentationBox Culvert Instrumentation

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    Box Culvert InstrumentationBox Culvert Instrumentation

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    MTO - Canada Test

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    Full Scale Arch Test Full Scale Arch Test Whitehorse Creek, CanadaWhitehorse Creek, Canada

    WorldWorlds largest corrugated structures largest corrugated structure Span of 24 mSpan of 24 m Heavy live load Heavy live load 11001100 TonnesTonnes Constructed in six weeksConstructed in six weeks

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    Structure MonitoringStructure Monitoring

    Whitehorse Creek was Whitehorse Creek was instrumented and monitoredinstrumented and monitored

    Provides a tool to validate design Provides a tool to validate design codes, and FEAcodes, and FEA

    Gives immediate feedback Gives immediate feedback during construction phase, the during construction phase, the most critical timemost critical time

    Provides information on how to Provides information on how to optimize future designsoptimize future designs

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    Finite Element Analysis (FEA)Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

    First FEA programs geared towards soilFirst FEA programs geared towards soil--structure interaction developed in the 1970structure interaction developed in the 1970ss

    Used as a method to confirm analysis theories Used as a method to confirm analysis theories from design codesfrom design codes

    A good tool for advancing productsA good tool for advancing products Essential for understanding behaviour of Essential for understanding behaviour of

    structures outside the scope of design codesstructures outside the scope of design codes

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    FEAFEA Soil ZonesSoil Zones

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    InnovationsInnovations -- FEA Construction LayersFEA Construction Layers

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    FEA Structure ResultsFEA Structure Results

    Bending Moment Axial ThrustBending Moment Axial Thrust

    Increase knowledge of large soilIncrease knowledge of large soil--metal structure metal structure behaviourbehaviourBending and axial stresses change even after construction has coBending and axial stresses change even after construction has completedmpleted

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    FEA Results FEA Results Soil StressSoil Stress

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    InnovationsInnovations

    1.1. EC RibsEC Ribs

    2.2. Concrete Relieving SlabsConcrete Relieving Slabs

    3.3. SkewSkew--Bevel EndsBevel Ends

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    InnovationsInnovations -- Encased Concrete RibsEncased Concrete Ribs

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    Relieving SlabsRelieving Slabs

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    InnovationsInnovations SkewSkew--Bevel EndsBevel Ends

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    SoilSoil--Metal Structure SummaryMetal Structure Summary

    Can be safely designed using the Canadian Highway Can be safely designed using the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code & FEABridge Design Code & FEA

    Deflections are smallDeflections are small Economical alternative to traditional bridgesEconomical alternative to traditional bridges

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    Thank You