of 38 /38
11: IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected]

11: IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected]

Embed Size (px)

Text of 11: IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected]

  • Slide 1

11: IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected] Slide 2 For more information please check out my Cisco Press book and video series: IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: 1-58714-313-5 IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: 1-58720-457-6 Slide 3 11.1: Enabling the IPv6 Router Slide 4 Routers versus IPv6 Routers A router (not enabled as an IPv6 router): Configure IPv6 addresses Member of All-IPv6 devices multicast group An IPv6 router: Same as a non-IPv6 router Member of All-IPv6 routers multicast group Sends ICMPv6 Router Advertisement messages Can enable IPv6 routing protocols Forward IPv6 packets (transiting the router) RouterIPv6 Router 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/64 FE80::1 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/64 FE80::1 FF02::1 (All-IPv6 devices) FF02::2 (All-IPv6 routers) ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Forward IPv6 Packets RIPng OSPFv3 EIGRP for IPv6 RIPng OSPFv3 EIGRP for IPv6 Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Slide 5 Non-IPv6 Enabled Router Unlike IPv4, a router must be configured to be an IPv6 router. You can configure IPv6 addresses, but not IPv6 routing protocols. R1(config)# interface gigabitEthernet 0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:db8:cafe:1::1/64 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)# no shutdown R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# ipv6 router eigrp 1 % IPv6 routing not enabled R1(config)# R1 Slide 6 Non-IPv6 Enabled Router R1# show ipv6 interface gig 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::1 No Virtual link-local address(es): Global unicast address(es): 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::1:FF00:1 IPv6 Routers are part of the All-IPv6 routers multicast group (FF02::2) All-IPv6 devices on this link Member of these Multicast Groups Solicited-node multicast addresses (GUA and link-local) No FF02::2 All-IPv6 routers Slide 7 Non-IPv6 Enabled Router R1# show ipv6 interface gig 0/0 MTU is 1500 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ICMP unreachables are sent ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 30000) ND NS retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds R1# IPv6 Routers send ICMPv6 Router Advertisement messages out its interfaces No ND router advertisements Slide 8 ip unicast-routing Command: IPv6 Router ICMPv6 R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# exit R1# show ipv6 interface gig 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::1 No Virtual link-local address(es): Global unicast address(es): 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::1:FF00:1 All-IPv6 routers Member of these Multicast Groups Slide 9 IPv6 Enabled Router ICMPv6 R1# show ipv6 interface gig 0/0 ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ICMP unreachables are sent ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 30000) ND advertised reachable time is 0 (unspecified) ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 (unspecified) ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds ND advertised default router preference is Medium Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses. R1# Sending ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Messages Default: SLAAC Slide 10 IPv6 Enabled Router IPv6 routing protocols can now be configured! No error message R1(config)# ipv6 router eigrp 1 R1(config-rtr)# Slide 11 11.2: IPv6 Routing Table Slide 12 ICMPv6 R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - default - 6 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-user Static route B - BGP, R - RIP, I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2 IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external ND - ND Default, NDp - ND Prefix, DCE - Destination, NDr - Redirect O - OSPF Intra, OI - OSPF Inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2, a Application C 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/128 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, receive L FF00::/8 [0/0] via Null0, receive R1# R1 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Gig 0/0 :1 IPv6 Routing Table Slide 13 ICMPv6 R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - default - 6 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-user Static route B - BGP, R - RIP, I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2 IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external ND - ND Default, NDp - ND Prefix, DCE - Destination, NDr - Redirect O - OSPF Intra, OI - OSPF Inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2, a Application C 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/128 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, receive L FF00::/8 [0/0] via Null0, receive R1# R1 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Gig 0/0 :1 Connected Routes [Administrative Distance/Metric] Slide 14 ICMPv6 R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - default - 6 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-user Static route B - BGP, R - RIP, I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2 IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external ND - ND Default, NDp - ND Prefix, DCE - Destination, NDr - Redirect O - OSPF Intra, OI - OSPF Inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2, a Application C 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/128 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, receive L FF00::/8 [0/0] via Null0, receive R1# R1 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Gig 0/0 :1 Local Routes Local routes are /128 routes (host routes) for the routers IPv6 unicast addresses. Allows the router to more efficiently process packets directed to the router itself rather than for packet forwarding. Slide 15 ICMPv6 R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - default - 6 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-user Static route B - BGP, R - RIP, I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2 IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external ND - ND Default, NDp - ND Prefix, DCE - Destination, NDr - Redirect O - OSPF Intra, OI - OSPF Inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2, a Application C 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/128 [0/0] via GigabitEthernet0/0, receive L FF00::/8 [0/0] via Null0, receive R1# R1 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 Gig 0/0 :1 FF00::/8 to Null0 By default multicast packets (FF00::/8) are not forwarded. Any more specific multicast packets (such as FF05::1:3 All- DHCPv6 servers) would take precedence. ipv6 multicast-routing would need to be configured Link-local multicast (FF02) are never forwarded off the link. R1 Slide 16 11.3: IPv6 Static Routes and CEF Slide 17 Router(config)# ipv6 route ipv6-prefix/prefix-length {exit- intf | ipv6-address} ParameterDescription ipv6- prefix Destination IPv6 network address of the remote network to be added to the routing table. /prefix- length Prefix-length of the remote network or summarized group networks to be added to the routing table. exit-intf Use the outgoing interface to forward packets to the destination network. ipv6- address Commonly referred to as the next-hop routers IPv6 address. Simplified IPv6 Static Route Configuration Similar to configuring static routes in IPv4. Slide 18 Configuring IPv6 Static Route R2(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R2(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:cafe:1::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::1 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Static Route Slide 19 Verifying IPv6 Static Route R2# show ipv6 route static IPv6 Routing Table - default - 14 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-user Static route S 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::1 R2# R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Static Route Slide 20 IPv6 Static Routes R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:1::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:2::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:3::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:4::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:5::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Static Routes Slide 21 IPv6 Static Routes R1# show ipv6 route static S 2001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 S 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 S 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 S 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 S 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Options to reduce routing table: Summarized static route Default static route (coming soon) Slide 22 IPv6 Static Route Using Exit Interfaces IPv6 CEF (Cisco Express Forwarding) is automatically enabled when ipv6 unicast-routing is enabled. Because CEF takes care of any recursive lookup issues, it is best to use next-hop address instead of exit-interface. Next-hop addresses and exit-interfaces should still be used on broadcast networks such as Ethernet. R2(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R2(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:cafe:1::/64 serial0/0/0 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Static Route 2001:db8:cafe:2::1 Slide 23 A Note About CEF for IPv6 R1# show running-config ip cef no ipv6 cef R1# R1# show ip cef Prefix Next Hop Interface 0.0.0.0/0 no route R1# show ipv6 cef %IPv6 CEF not running R1# R1 CEF (Cisco Express Forwarding) is a forwarding mechanism to optimize the Layer 3 and Layer 2 lookup processes into a single process. CEF for IPv4 is enabled by default CEF for IPv6 is disabled by default Slide 24 Enabling CEF for IPv6 R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# exit R1# show running-config ip cef ipv6 cef R1# R1# show ipv6 cef ::/0 nexthop 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 Serial0/0/0 R1# config t R1(config)# ipv6 cef R1(config) R1 You may need to enable CEF for IPv6. CEF IPv6 is now enabled Prior to IOS 15.x you may need to use this command in addition to ipv6 unicast-routing Slide 25 11.4: IPv6 Summary Static Routes Slide 26 Summary Static IPv6 Routes Summarize these routes R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Slide 27 2001:0db8:feed:0001::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0002::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0003::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0004::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0005::/64 Summarizing IPv6 Routes 2001:0db8:feed:0001::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0002::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0003::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0004::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0005::/64 Step 1: Starting with left-most bits, identify where the addresses begin to differ (in red) Slide 28 Summarizing IPv6 Routes Step 2: Convert differing hex (in red) to binary 2001:0db8:feed:0001::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0002::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0003::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0004::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0005::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000001::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000010::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000011::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000100::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000101::/64 Slide 29 Summarizing IPv6 Routes 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000001::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000010::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000011::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000100::/64 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000101::/64 Step 3: Count the left most matching bits (in red) 16 + 16 + 16 + 13 = 61 bits or /61 Note: Summary will also cover the 2001:db8:feed::/64, 2001:db8:feed:6::/64 and 2001:db8:feed:7::/64 subnets. Slide 30 Summarizing IPv6 Routes 2001:0db8:feed:0000000000000000:: Step 4: Add zeros after matching bits and convert Binary back to Hex 2001:0DB8:FEED:0000::/61 or 2001:0DB8:FEED:0::/61 or 2001:DB8:FEED::/61 Slide 31 Configuring IPv6 Summary Static Route Remove existing routes Configure summary route R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:1::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:2::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:3::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:4::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed:5::/64 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed::/61 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Summary Route Slide 32 Verifying IPv6 Summary Static Route R1# show ipv6 route static S 2001:DB8:FEED::/61 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 R1# ping 2001:db8:feed:1::1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:FEED:1::1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! R1# R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Summary Route Slide 33 11.5: IPv6 Default Static Route Slide 34 Router(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 {exit-intf | ipv6-address} IPv6 Static Default Route Similar to configuring default route in IPv4. :: all zeroes prefixzero prefix-length Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 {exit-intf | ipv4-add} IPv4 default static route IPv6 default static route Slide 35 Configuring IPv6 Default Static Routes Remove existing summary route Configure default route R1(config)# no ipv6 route 2001:db8:feed::/61 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 2001:db8:cafe:2::2 R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Default Route Slide 36 Verifying IPv6 Default Static Routes R1# show ipv6 route static S ::/0 [1/0] via 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::2 R1# ping 2001:db8:feed:1::1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:FEED:1::1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! R1# R1 R2 G0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :1 S0/0/0 :2 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/642001:DB8:CAFE:2::/642001:DB8:FEED:1::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:2::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:3::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:4::/64 2001:DB8:FEED:5::/64 Default Route Slide 37 For more information please check out my Cisco Press book and video series: IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: 1-58714-313-5 IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: 1-58720-457-6 Slide 38 11: IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected]