102338916 Rapaport Solution

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  • Wi-MAX A EVOLVING 4G TECHNOLOGY4.1 Introduction

    The Internet made its debut in India in 1998. The deployment at that time was made

    through Circuit Switch technology. The real Internet experience could not be achieved as it

    had limited speed besides erratic performance due to high loading of the Telecom

    Switches. To overcome these drawbacks, Digital Subscriber Line technology (DSL)

    technology was deployed. This could achieve partial improvement due to limited

    availability of Copper loops and distance limitations of 2 to 3 Kilometers. In early 2007,

    based on WiMAX 802.16.d, ten BTSs were installed in different cities of the country as a

    pilot project. The effective use of this technology could not be achieved as WiMAX

    802.16.d was on Fixed application and did not support mobility.The real use of Internet

    began only in 2008 with the deployment of Mobile Wireless Broadband in BSNL. Detailed

    specifications were prepared based on 802.16.e standards with specific nation-wide

    deployment strategy.

    4.2 What is WiMAX

    WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless digital

    communications system, defined by the IEEE as the 802.16e standard. WiMAX, was

    developed to provide a common framework for wireless connectivity in fixed, portable, and

    mobile environments. It offers the high-speed connection of broadband and provides

    wireless access, significantly reducing deployment costs associated with laying fiber and

    extending it to buildings. With its range and open standards design, it will enable wireless

    access nearly anywhere, simply by turning on a laptop, PC, or other WiMAX enabled

    device. It also has the potential to bring high-speed access to areas that have, thus far, been

    uncovered due to a lack of Copper/Fibre. WiMAX can provide Broadband Wireless Access

    (BWA) up to 15 Km for fixed stations, 3 to 5 Kms for indoor applications and upto 1 Km

    for Mobile stations from BTS location. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area

    network standard is limited in most of the cases to only 100 - 300 feet(30-100m). Along

    with increased and scalable data capacity, these new networks will be capable of

    supporting new, open Internet models and new device distribution & subsidy models for

    flexibly accommodating operators business needs. With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are


  • easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on licensed

    frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless

    carriers. This unique technology is being deployed for the first time in India. Through this

    BSNL will usher in a new era of growth in rural areas. This technology offers broadband

    speeds upto 7 Mbps at a distance of 15 Kms. Mobility and

    roaming is also provided to WiMAX subscribers through this latest technology.

    4.3 Applications of WiMAX technology

    WiMAX technology is the solution for many types of high-bandwidth applications at the

    same time across long distances and will enable service carriers to converge the all-IP-

    based network for triple-play services data, voice, and video. WiMAX with its QoS

    support, longer reach, and high data capacity is positioned for fixed broadband access

    applications in rural areas, particularly when distance is too large for DSL and cable, as

    well as in urban/suburban areas of developing countries. Among applications for residential

    are high speed Internet, Voice Over IP telephony and streaming video / online gaming with

    additional applications for enterprise such as Video conferencing and 4 Video surveillance,

    secured Virtual Private Network (with need for high security). WiMAX technology allows

    covering applications with media content requesting more bandwidth. WiMAX allows

    portable access applications, with incorporation in notebook computers and PDAs,

    allowing for urban areas and cities to become metro zones for portable outdoor

    broadband wireless access. As such WiMAX is the natural complement to mobile networks

    by offering higher bandwidth and to Wi-Fi networks by offering broadband connectivity in

    larger areas At the very basic level, WiMAX will offer the capacity for service providers to

    deploy next generation broadband services cost effectively than today, to a wider customer

    base, while adding a mobility aspect to those

    services. More specifically, however, WiMAX will provide a means for service providers

    to offer Quadruple Play services (voice, video, data, mobile), or Triple Play plus Mobile.

    Service providers that are able to, on their own, deliver all these services, will have a

    distinct advantage. So, with WiMAX, providers have the bandwidth and speed to provide

    VoIP, IPTV (including video on demand), and Internet access. The key, then, lies in its

    wireless access means, which allows to provide each of these services on a fixed and

    mobile basis thus turning it into Quad Play. The benefits of fixed WiMAX are evident


  • enough as they are based upon potential cost savings & service efficiency. To enable to

    provide mobile voice, video, and data, with the speed to allow VoIP calling, video on

    mobile devices and high-speed data transfers brings a new element to todays growing

    mobile community.

    In addition to simple business and consumer connectivity and backhaul applications,

    WiMAX also brings real enhancements to communications capabilities available to

    emergency personnel and first responders, which will be able to benefit from not only

    voice communications, but also video and data transmissions to more effectively respond

    to situations and coordinate responses. WiMAX also speeds deployment of temporary

    communications facilities, for international & sporting events and other occasions, for

    instance, which require temporary access for visitors, media, and personnel. With WiMAX

    towers already in range, all that needs to be added are the appropriate on-premises

    equipment to create easy access for such events. In rural areas, where broadband service

    has until now been limited or impossible, WiMAX makes high-speed access a reality.

    Eliminating the need for running fiber across rough terrain, or through sparsely populated

    areas which are both costly endeavors, WiMAX base stations can be built to service the

    local areas wirelessly, creating a new revenue source with a considerably lower investment.

    In a fixed environment, WiMAX has the ability to provide similar services to what are

    already enjoyed by the customers today with the exception that it makes possible the

    inclusion of a new set of potential subscribers that have relied on PSTN and dial-up

    service. Add to that the mobile aspect of WiMAX, and consumers, businesses, and

    government agencies alike will discover a whole new broadband paradigm, which will

    significantly enhance their ability to conduct their business simply by not being tied down

    by wires.

    4.4 WiMAX- A important Technology for fixed and for mobile wireless broadband.

    WiMAX is needed as a single technology able to provide fixed and mobile broadband

    access. The WiMAX standard was needed to reach the lower cost target that proprietary

    wireless solutions were not able due to volume limitations. WiMAX interoperable solutions

    enable economies of scale through integration of standard chipsets, making WiMAX

    Forum Certified products cost-effective at delivering high-capacity broadband services at



  • coverage distances in Line of Sight and Non Line of Sight conditions. This is possible with

    WiMAX, thanks to the strong industry support through the WiMAX Forum with more than

    350 members including equipment vendors, leading chipmakers and service providers.

    WiMAX is important for fixed broadband wireless to provide broadband access needed to

    enterprises and residential users as an alternative for cable and DSL services, particularly

    when access to copper plant is difficult. WiMAX is important for mobile broadband

    wireless, as it completes 3G by providing higher performance for

    data with more than 1 Mbps downstream to allow connection of laptops and PDAs, and

    complete Wi-Fi by providing much wider coverage.

    4.5 Key elements of WiMAX Technology

    The main element of WiMAX technology is the interoperability of WiMAX equipment,

    certified by the WiMAX Forum, resulting in mass volume and confidence for service

    provider to buy equipment from more than one company and that everything works

    together. The WiMAX Forum put for the first time together leaders in the communications

    and computing industries to drive a common platform for the global deployment of IP-

    based broadband wireless services. The key driver of WiMAX technology is OFDM

    technique and Sub-Channelization which mitigates the problem of interference resulting

    from NLOS conditions. These are explained as under: Other key elements are cost,

    coverage, capacity and standard for both fixed and mobile wireless access.

    4.6 Wi-MAX network architect