10. CuLtural Studies

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    CULTURAL

    STUDIESBy Stuart Hall

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    HISTORY

    Cultural Studies does not begin with ageneral theory of culture but rather viewscultural practices as the intersection ofmany possible effects.

    It has since become strongly associatedwith Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart asDirector.

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    The movement of cultural studies that hasbeen a global phenomenon of greatimportance over the last decade.

    Cultural studies scholarsemployed Marxist methods of analysis.

    The rise of cultural studies itself was basedon the decline of the prominence offundamental class-versus-class politics.

    HISTORY

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    The group came to focus on the interplay of

    representations and ideologies of class, gender,

    race, ethnicity, and nationality in cultural texts,

    including media culture.

    They also focused on how various audiences

    interpreted and used media culture in varied anddifferent ways and contexts, analyzing the factors

    that made audiences respond in contrasting ways

    ...to media texts.

    HISTORY

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    Stuart Hall

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    StuartHall

    Birthday: February 3, 1932 at Kingston inJamaica

    He is a cultural theorist and sociologist.

    One of the founding figures of the school ofthought that is now known as BritishCultural Studies orThe Birmingham Schoolof Cultural Studies.

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    StuartHall

    He joined the Centre for ContemporaryCultural Studies at BirminghamUniversity in 1964.

    He joined the Centre for ContemporaryCultural Studies at BirminghamUniversity in 1964.

    1968 to 1979: He became director of theCenter.

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    StuartHall

    While at the Centre, Hall is credited withplaying a role in expanding the scope of cultural studies to deal with race andgender, and with helping to incorporate new

    ideas derived from the work of Frenchtheorists.

    A professor of Sociology at Open

    University, Milton Keynes, England.

    Hall retired from the Open University in1997 and is now a Professor Emeritus.

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    Stuart Hall

    While at the Centre, Hall is credited with playing arole in expanding the scope of cultural studies todeal with race and gender, and with helping toincorporate new ideas derived from the work ofFrench theorists.

    A professor of Sociology at Open University,Milton Keynes, England.

    Hall retired from the Open University in 1997 andis now a Professor Emeritus.

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    The Media Rolein the Gulf War

    Hegemonicencoding

    Involvesmedias plan to regulate

    andmold thediscourseso that somemessages are first encoded by themass

    media thendecoded,internalize and

    acted upon by the audience.

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    The Media Rolein the Gulf War

    Media regulate and mold the discourse so that

    some messages are first encoded, internalized

    and acted upon by the audience.

    Actually describes the actual media practice

    during the GulfWar in 1991

    The effectiveness of major US televisionnetworks to disguise the war as a theater, erasing

    of horrors of conflict and treatment of it s full of

    drama, heroism and special events.

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    The Media Rolein the Gulf War

    Media regulate and mold the discourse so that

    some messages are first encoded, internalized

    and acted upon by the audience.

    Actually describes the actual media practice

    during the GulfWar in 1991.

    The effectiveness of major US televisionnetworks to disguise the war as a theater, erasing

    of horrors of conflict and treatment of it s full of

    drama, heroism and special events.

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    The Media Rolein the Gulf War

    Showed inherent superiority of the US forcesand the laughable folly of Iraqi forces.

    Morality is compromised as concern about the

    war is ignored and focused instead on tacticalaesthetics.

    Commoditization of war .

    Creation of discourse that Americans should

    support the war instead of opposing it.

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    MAKINGMEANING

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    Stuart Hall states that the primary

    function of a discourse

    is to make meaning, according to hisbook, Representation.

    Humans dont come equipped with

    ready-made meanings.

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    Foucault concentrated on what people were

    saying, what people were not saying,

    and who got to say it.

    He discovered that throughout history, not

    everyone in society had equal voice

    and power.

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    In terms of mental illness, Foucault found

    that the definition of what

    makes up insanity and the ways on how todeal

    with have changed

    over time.

    Arbitrary lines were drawn by people with

    power between the normal and abnormal,

    and these distinctions became discursiveformations.

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    CorporateControl

    of MassC

    ommunication

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    Media representations ofculture

    reproducesocial inequalities and

    keep the average personmore or lesspowerless to do anything but operate

    within a corporatized,commodified

    world.

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    Corporatecontrol ofsuch

    influential informationsourced

    preventsmany stories from being

    told.

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    The ultimateissue forcultural

    studiesisnot what informationis

    presented, but whose information

    it is.

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    The Obstinate

    Audience

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    The Obstinate Audience

    - The fact that themedia present a preferred

    interpretation ofhumaneventsisno reason to

    assume that the audience will correctly takein

    the offeredideology.

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    The Obstinate Audience

    Hall holds out the possibility that thepowerless may be equally obstinate byresisting the dominant ideology andtranslating the message in a way morecongenial to their own interests.

    He outlines three decoding options:

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    Three decoding options:

    Operating Inside the dominant code

    The media produce the message; the massesconsume it. The audience readingcoincides with the proffered reading

    The Obstinate Audience

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    Three decoding options:

    Applying a negotiable code

    The audience assimilates the leadingideology in general but opposes itsapplication in specific case.

    The Obstinate Audience

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    Three decoding options:

    Substituting on oppositional code

    The audience sees through theestablishment bias in the mediapresentation and mounts an organizedeffort to demythologize the news.

    The Obstinate Audience

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    With all thechannels ofmasscommunicationin the

    unwittingservice of thedominant ideology, Hall has trouble

    believing that the powerlesscanchange thesystem.

    Hall as a genuine respect for the ability of people to resist

    thedominant code. Hedoesnt regard themasses asculturaldupes who areeasily manipulated by those who control the

    media, but heis unable to predict when and where the

    resistance will spring up.

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    CRITIQUE

    Do suchexplicit valuecommitmentsinevitably compromise

    theintegrity of research?

    Truthhas prospered by investigating what isseparately from

    what we think ought to be. Hall seems to blurdistinction.

    Is Halls analysis ofculturesuperior to the work of other

    cultural studies orcritical theories? Without a standard truth,

    thereseems to beno reliable way to evaluate theequality ofmedia criticism.

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    Source:

    http://jci.sagepub.com/content/10/2/61.full.pdf+html

    http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/CSETHIC.htm http://wings.buffalo.edu/english/faculty/schmid/syllabi/689-s99/

    http://www.mediaed.org/cgi-bin/commerce.cgi?preadd=action&key=414

    http://jci.sagepub.com/content/10/2/61.full.pdf+html

    http://jci.sagepub.com/content/10/2/61.extract

    http://science.jrank.org/pages/8913/Cultural-Studies-Cultural-Studies-

    Theory-Power.html#ixzz1ig5c6lme

    http://science.jrank.org/pages/8913/Cultural-Studies-Cultural-Studies-

    Theory-Power.html

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