1 Pervasive & Ubiquitous Computing Hao Chu ( œ±µ©è¯ ) Lecture #2 2/23/2004

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  • 1 Pervasive & Ubiquitous Computing Hao Chu ( ) Lecture #2 2/23/2004
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  • 2 Administrative Announcements Course homepage is up. http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~hchu/ubicomp_course/ubi comp_course.htmhttp://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~hchu/ubicomp_course/ubi comp_course.htm Reading list, project overview, project ideas, Course WIKI page is up. How to use WIKI? by James
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  • 3 Vision and Challenges M. Weiser, The Computer for the 21th Century", Scientific American, September 1991. M. Weiser, Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing, Communications of the ACM, 36(7):75-85, July 1993. M. Weiser, J. S. Brown, "The Coming Age of Calm Technology, 1996. M. Satyanarayanan. "Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing", Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, May 1996. M. Satyanarayanan. Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges, IEEE Personal Communications, August, 2001.
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  • 4 M. Weiser. The Computer for the 21th Century", Scientific American, September 1991.
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  • 5 Two Key Points Ubiquitous computing is about computing so well integrated with our physical environment such that people fail to take notice of them. Computing being everywhere, yet fading into the background Computing becoming disappearing and invisible Location and scale are important issues. Adapt their behavior intelligentlly without complex AI Scale suitable to different tasks
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  • 6 Examples of Disappearing Technologies Writing Electric Motors Micro-controllers in CEs They are everywhere (embedding & hidden into physical objects), yet invisible. When a technology matures, they disappear! Maturity = cheap, small, widely applicable, good usability,
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  • 7 Why Good Technology Is Invisible? Invisible stays out of the way of task Like a good pencil stays out of the way of the writing Like a good car stays out of the way of the driving Bad technology draws attention to itself: Like a broken, or skipping, or dull pencil Like a car that needs frequent tune-ups Computers are mostly not invisible They dominate interaction with them. Ubicomp is about making computers invisible.
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  • 8 Ubicomp vs. Virtual Reality Should we live in virtual computing world? Or should computing come out and live in our physical world? VR is about simulating physical world & putting people inside virtual computing world. Limited applications & activities Ubicomp is about bringing computing to peoples physical world. Integrating with everyday objects and activities
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  • 9 Ubicomp vs. Multimedia Multimedia grabs user attention for entertainment purpose. Ubicomp reduces user distraction, allowing people to focus on tasks.
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  • 10 Intelligence Computing embedded and enhancing physical objects Achieve intelligence through interconnection of physical objects Wall talking to heating or projector Achieve intelligence through location awareness (without AI) Automated call forwarding, lighting control
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  • 11 PARC Ubicomp Work (1991) Focus on devices that transmit & display information. Device scale targets different tasks. Consider three sizes: tabs, pads, boards.
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  • 12 Tabs Inch-scale Ubicomp devices Post-It notes Carried around by a person Hundreds in a room Credit cards, ID cards Remote controllers Badges Tags / Labels (RFID) Locating system (tags as library catalogs) Animate static physical objects (active calendar, active map)
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  • 13 Pads Foot-scale Ubicomp devices A sheet of paper / tablet PC Tens in a room Like scrap papers that can be grabbed and used anywhere, no unique ID. Like windows in Apple Macintosh, but can spread them out on a real desk.
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  • 14 Boards Yard-scale Ubicomp device One in a room White board with e-chalk Shared white board with remote participants Video screen Electronic Bookcases
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  • 15 Hardware Challenges (1991) High resolution flat panel display (cheap) High speed processor High capability storage High bandwidth wireless Network Lower power consumption How well do todays HW technologies meet these challenges?
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  • 16 Software Challenges (1991) Dynamic configuration of HW/SW in ubicomp environments (device mobility) Application migration across heterogeneous ubicomp environments (user mobility) Transparent linking of wired and wireless networks Tiny range wireless, long range wireless, high speed wired How well do todays SW technologies meet these challenges?
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  • 17 Sal Scenario Proactively brew coffee Electronic Trails of neighbor coming and going (Privacy issue) Automatic recording pen Email locating garbage door opener Window tells weather Share location info with Joe (Privacy Issue) Share tabs/pads with Joe (Miniaturization) Gesture to project blinking tab to projector. Memory augmentation on meeting with Mary.
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  • 18 Privacy Issue Hundreds and thousands of invisible computers sensing and watching people A bit scaring?
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  • 19 Misc Ubicomp as a Savor to Healthy Social Interaction? People dont have to hole up in windowless offices before computer screens all days. Ubicomp as relaxing as talking a walk in the woods
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  • 20 Discussion Tradeoff between intelligence and privacy Tradeoff between invisibility and privacy What are killer ubicomp applications? Think about interesting scenarios for interconnecting home appliances AI & ubicomp? Should computing stay out of the physical world? Human dependency on computing Environmental impacts Social impacts
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  • 21 M. Weiser. Some computer science issues in ubiquitous computing.Communications of the ACM, 36(7):75-85, July 1993.
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  • 22 Key Point Based on their PARC experiments with tabs, pads, and boards, this paper tries to define some ubicomp challenges and where ubicomp is going.
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  • 23 Ubicomp as Experimental CS Construct working prototype Evaluate working prototype in everyday use. Importance of working prototype
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  • 24 Hardware Prototype Issues Power consumption: impossible to change batteries to many ubicomp devices frequently. Balance of HW/SW feature: display, network, processing, memory, storage capability, multitasking, QoS, etc. Ease of expansion & modification (integration vs. modular design)
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  • 25 Hardware Issues Low-power computing High-speed wireless bandwidth (802.11g 54 Mbps) Pens for very large display
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  • 26 Network Issues Wireless Media Access (802.11, Bluetooth, Cellular Networks) Quality of Services (RSVP, etc) Ubicomp devices changing network attachment (Mobile IP)
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  • 27 Interaction Substrate Issues Interaction substrates are UI software for pens and screens. Handprinting recognition Voice recognition Display migration (follow-me display)
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  • 28 Application Issues Applications are of course the whole point of ubiquitous computing. Locating people (active badges) Automated call forwarding Tracking down people for meeting Watching general activity in a building (feel in touch with surrounding environments) Shared drawing in virtual meeting Scalability to 5000 peoples (multicast for bandwidth efficiency)
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  • 29 Location Privacy Centralized location database as one possible solution, but not scalable, single point of attack, one break-in reveals all. Move toward more distributed approach.
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  • 30 Computational Method Issue Due to unpredictable network to ubicomp devices, (file) caching can be used to improve performance.
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  • 31 Discussion Open .
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  • 32 M. Weiser, J. S. Brown. "The Coming Age of Calm Technology." 1996.
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  • 33 Key Points The computing trends is moving toward many (hundreds of) computers sharing each of us. Since computers are everywhere, they better stay out of our ways. Weiser called it Calm technology. A proposed solution (Calm technology) is to place most information in periphery of our attention, but allow fast & easy moving to center of our attention.
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  • 35 Computing Trends These trends are results of computing getting smaller, faster, and cheapers. Mainframe Era: many people sharing a computer. PC Era: one computer per person Internet Era: (interconnecting PCs) Ubicomp Era: many computers (everyday objects) sharing one person interconnecting everyday objects
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  • 36 Ubicomp Era Cheap Thin servers in every household appliances. Average home appliances (Microwaves, TV, DVD players, etc.) have embedded processors, but they are not Ubicomp devices, because They are not networked. They are not connected to the Internet.
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  • 37 Calm Technology Calm and uncalm technology differs how to engage our attention. Divide our attention into two parts: periphery and center. Periphery is informing without overburdening E.g., driving a car, center = roads and radio, periphery = engine noise Calm te