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1 MULTISYLLABIC MULTISYLLABIC WORD READING WORD READING CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 8 Study Guide Study Guide Compiled by Compiled by Betty Jo Willey Betty Jo Willey

1 MULTISYLLABIC WORD READING CHAPTER 8 Study Guide Compiled by Betty Jo Willey

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1 MULTISYLLABIC WORD READING CHAPTER 8 Study Guide Compiled by Betty Jo Willey Slide 2 2 WHAT! Introduction to Chapter 8 Multisyllabic Word Reading Explicit Instruction in recognizing syllables and morphemes is essential because it gives students additional strategies for reading longer words. ~Important Because * Students often have difficulty with multisyllabic words. * 5 th graders and beyond must know how to decode because most of the words they encounter will have 7 or more letters and have 2 or more syllables. Slide 3 3 To read words in text fluently and accurately, the brains orthographic processor must learn to see common letter patterns and recurring word parts. (p. 260) Pattern detection is key to recognizing syllables and morphemes. Brain Function = Pattern Detection Slide 4 4 Chunk it ! Dont understand a big word? Brain Function = Pattern Detection Skilled Readers must be able to: Recognize multi-letter patterns (syllables, affixes, phonograms) Chunk it (break into smaller pieces) into parts as the reader perceives the word. Use knowledge of common patterns found in other words. Slide 5 5 Practice is Best Intro Continued a.Key Definitions: Syllable A word or part of a word pronounced as a unit Unit part of a word with one vowel sound; may see more than one vowel per unit/syllable but always hear only one vowel sound Syllabication division of multisyllabic word into separate syllables b. What research says ~ Rules: To Know or Not To Know Past Decades NOW what researchers say = about RULES. Memorize rigid rules ----too many ----too complex ----knowing them doesnt necessarily improve students decoding skills ***Students learn they can be flexible in dividing a word into parts as long as they can ultimately make the word into a real and recognizable word. (Archer et. Al. 2003, 2006) Slide 6 6 More Intro.How to Teach Students to Decode Longer Multisyllabic Words: 3 Research-based Approaches 123 Use syllable types and division principles Identifying affixes or word parts Using flexible syllabication strategies *** These approaches differ in how the words are broken down into decodable units Slide 7 7 In this Guide Section A WHAT Section B WHY Section C WHEN Section D HOW I. Syllables a. what they are b. research says II.Affixes a. what they are b. research says I. Important to know because: II. Research says I.When to Teach II. When to Assess III. When to Intervene Good Teaching Explained I.Reading Open & Closed Syllables II.Reading Multisyllabic Words (1-7) 1. VC/VC 2. VCV 3. Syllable Segmentation Strategy 4. Syllabic Procedure 5. Introducing Affixes 6. Flexible Strategy for reading big words 7.Root word Transformation *these are not outlined in detail refer to pp.272 - 318. Slide 8 8 SECTION A WHAT Slide 9 9 Section A. WHAT?...Part I. Syllables a.What they are (review from slide 5) Syllable A word or part of a word pronounced as a unit Unit part of a word with one vowel sound; may see more than one vowel per unit/syllable but always hear only one vowel sound Syllabication division of multisyllabic word into separate syllables 6 Common Types of syllables (in sequence for syllable-type instruction) 1.Closed 4. Vowel Combination 2.Vowel Consonant e 5. Consonant le 3.Open 6. r - controlled (See p. 62 in text to study complete description & examples) Slide 10 10 Syllable Types and (most useful) Division Principles VC/CVC/CV (75%) VC/V (25%) VC/CCV VCC/CV Consonant - le 2 consonants between 2 vowels If 2 consonants come between 2 vowels, divide the consonants. The 1 st vowel will be short. rab-bit 1 consonant between 2 vowels If a word has 1 consonant between 2 vowels, divide the word after the first vowel and give the vowel the long sound. If this division does not produce a recognizable word then divide the word after the consonant and give the vowel a short sound mu-sic nap-kin 3 consonants between 2 vowels Keep the letters in a consonant blend or digraph together in the same syllable. hun-dred ink-well ath-lete Consonant le forms a separate syllable If the first syllable end with a consonant, try the short sound of the first vowel. If the first syllable ends with a vowel, try the long sound. wig-gle ri-fle Slide 11 11 b. What some researchers say about Syllable Types Webster regularized these syllable types to justify the division of syllables in his 1806 dictionary. Moats: Knowledge of syllable types will help students remember how to pronounce vowels in new words. Henry: Students should first practice the identification of syllable Types in single syllable words before Identifying the syllables in multisyllabic words. Shefelbine & Newman called open and closed syllables the basic building blocks of polysyllabic words. Sheflbine, Lipscomb & Hern found significant relationship between students sight knowledge of open & closed syllables and students ability to read multisyllabic words. Slide 12 12 . and what some researchers say about division principles Carreker familiarity and flexibilty with syllable-division principles help students to develop strategies for reading longer words. Chall & Popp The best way we teach and learn syllabication of long words is to be playful, correcting errors with cheer and laughing easily at humorous misleadings. Canney & Schreiner Most syllable-division principles, rules and generalizations are not reliable and thus not worth teaching. Moats These ([most useful] principles help novice readers see the chunks or patterns of letters in multisyllabic words and guide correct pronunciation. Chall & Popp, Blevins useful/reliable principlesworth pointing outthey do get readers closer to identifying a multisyllabic word by providing a way to approximate the pronunciation. Slide 13 13 About dictionary-based syllabication rules Use caution when looking up syllable breaks in a dictionary. Most dictionaries divide words according to how a printed word should be broken into text Sometimes has little to do with spoken pronunciation (Moats 2005) Spoken language (reading?) divisions often do not coincide with the conventions for dividing written syllables. Adams et al. What is important is that each unit is pronounceable (sounding out sim-ple or simp le) Slide 14 14 4 other syllable division rules (worth mentioning..) Divide 2 syllable compound words between the two smaller words. Inflectional endings such as ing, er, es, ed, -est often form separate syllables. Never separate the letters in a consonant or vowel digraph, vowel diphthong, or r-controlled vowel across syllable divisions. One of the syllables in a multisyllabic word usually receives more stress, or emphasis. In 2 syllable words, the stress usually falls on the first syllable. In the unstressed syllable, the vowel sound is often reduced to a schwa. Slide 15 15 Section A. WHAT? Part II. Affixes. a.What they are? ~ Prefixes (added before a root word) ~ Suffixes (added after a root word) Definition: ~ Root word also called base word; a single word that cannot be broken into meaningful smaller words or parts Note: Syllable divisions often occur between morphemic (meaningful) units of meaning (word parts). Slide 16 16 What researchers say about AFFIXES Venezky, Chomsky, McFeely Teach students to use root words and affixes to decode multisyllabic words. Note: Most divisions occur between morphemic units of meaning/word parts. Shefelbine & Newman Affixes that function like syllables are worth teaching because they are limited in number, occur frequently, and (mostly suffixes) are reasonably consistent across words. Cunningham said instant recognition and accurate pronunciation of affixes is the key to decoding long words (Note: 80% of all words readers encounter have 1 or more affix. Archer et al. Engelmann et al. Part by part strategy is when students are taught pronunciation of affix in isolation, asked to identify and say it in a word the n read the whole word Archer et al. assumption: students will develop a strategy for attacking multisyllabic words because of extensive practice in reading long words and exposure to recurring letter patterns Carnine et al. Part-by-word part strategyshould begin with the introduction of the most common suffixes. -s, -er, -est, -ing, -le, -ed, -y Slide 17 17 Sorather than using rigid rules teach students to be F LEX IBLE (p. 267) Segmenting multisyllabic words Accuracy when students form consolidated connections between spellings of letter units or syllables Break words into spoken syllables Match spoken syllable to their spellings Blend segments to form recognizable word (Bhattacharya & Ehri, 2004) Based on information that 1. high percentage of multisyllabic words contain at least one prefix or or suffix 2. each syllable contains one vowel sound Archer et. Al (2006) TO ACHIEVE a close approximation to the actual pronunciation of a word, the program teaches students to segment words into parts by identifying the AFFIXES and then the vowel sounds in the rest of the word. Slide 18 18 SECTION B WHY Slide 19 19 Section B. WHY? Part I. Importance Important to know about multisyllabic words because: From 5 th grade on, the average student encounters about 10,000 new words, most multisyllabic, per year! Since the meaning of intermediate-grade CONTENT AREA reading is generally carried by multisyllabic words, without the ability to decode multisyllabic words, students are unable to understand vocabulary and understand the meaning of what they read. Slide 20 20 Section B. WHY? Part II. Research says Good readers = accurate multisyllabic word analysis and recognition Poor readers = inaccurate multisyllabic word analysis and recognition which happens because the reader processes the individual letters in the word rather that breaking the word into syllables. (Bhattacharya, 2006, Mewhort and Beal, 1977, Scheerer-Neumann 1981) Several studies have shown that teaching students strategies for decoding longer words improves their decoding skill (Archer et al.) Low decoders ocorrectly pronounce fewer affixes and vowel sounds odisregard large portions of letter information o2 to 4 times more likely to omit syllables (Shefelbine & Calhoun, 1991) Soteaching strategies for decoding improves decoding ability and {improves reading?} Slide 21 21 SECTION C WHEN Slide 22 22 Section C. Part I. When... To teach: Instruction in multisyllabic instruction can begin after students have mastered the decoding of Single-syllable words. Other Prerequisites include the abilities to: 1.pronounce common sound/spelling correspondences ---especially vowel combinations 2.identify open and closed syllables 3.pronounce affixes in isolation Ave # of syllables increases steadily in the primary grades. Students are (by the end of) 1 st grade reading mostly 1 & 2 syllable words 2 nd grade reading mostly 2 syllable words 3 rd grade reading longer multisyllabic words Slide 23 23 Section C. Part I. When... To teach: Older Struggling Students (middle high school students) Mastered basic decoding but lack strategies to decode multisyllabic words Struggle with content area words that are outside their vocabulary Ironically current research does not indentify/specify the amount of explicit instruction necessary for struggling students after third grade. Slide 24 24 Section C. Part II. When To Assess: Begin assessment in multisyllabic word reading in mid-second grade in order to plan effective intervention. Assessment should determine whether the deficit can be attributed to a bigger problem Slide 25 25 Section C. Part III. When...To Intervene Assess mid-second grade in order to plan Effective intervention It is not clear form current research the amount of explicit multisyllabic word instruction necessary for struggling readers after third grade (Torgesen et al. 2007). Early Intervention!!!! Slide 26 26 SECTION D HOW (Good Teaching Ideas Outlined ) Slide 27 27 IDEAS TO USE IN THE CLASSROOM SEE CHPT 8 pp. 272-318 1.Assess (pretest) 2.Introduce 3.Teach/Model 4.Guided Practice (monitor) 5.Application (independent practice) Section D. Parts I & II HOWTo Teach Slide 28 28 THE END Chapter 8 Study Guide