1. ECOWAS’s Infrastructure: A Regional Perspective

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  • ECOWASs Infrastructure: A Regional Perspective

  • Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic:a multi-stakeholder effort

  • Methodology and approachMethodologyData collection by local/international consultants and Bank staff based on standardized methodologyBaseline year for data is 2006, does not reflect subsequent evolutionApproach Focus on benchmarking ECOWASs infrastructure against other African RECs and benchmarking ECOWAS member countries with each other

  • Key Message #1Infrastructure could be contributing much more to West Africas growth

  • Infrastructure contributed one percentage point to West Africas recent growth spurt

    Chart1

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    1.005284605-0.083250849-0.041413021

    0.7874155190.169397789-0.01199972

    1.040097831-0.2014208260.173907023

    1.158516431-0.0952532120.019081532

    1.065657967-0.1120786240.033147971

    Telecom

    Power

    Roads

    Percentage points of per capita growth

    Sheet1

    Column1North AfricaWest AfricaEast AfricaSouthern AfricaCentral AfricaAfrica

    Telecom0.8169906871.0052846050.7874155191.0400978311.1585164311.065657967

    Power0.022910401-0.0832508490.169397789-0.201420826-0.095253212-0.112078624

    Roads0.078361855-0.041413021-0.011999720.1739070230.0190815320.033147971

  • Catching-up on infrastructure could boost growth by five percentage points

    Chart1

    0.40.60.7

    1.32.61.3

    1.62.71.4

    1.11.40.6

    1.52.11.5

    1.221.1

    Telecom

    Power

    Roads

    Potential growth pc benefits due to infrastructure development

    Sheet1

    TelecomPowerRoads

    North Africa0.40.60.7

    West Africa1.32.61.3

    East Africa1.62.71.4

    Southern Africa1.11.40.6

    Central Africa1.52.11.5

    Africa1.221.1

  • Key Message #2West Africas economic geography makes regional integration particularly critical

  • The burden of geographySmall countries unable to reap scale economies11 have economies
  • Topographical profile of ECOWAS countries

  • Spatial distribution of economic activity

  • Key Message #3Soft issues are the main culprits for West Africas slow and expensive road freight

  • Road freight transport is particularly slow and expensive in West Africa

    CorridorLength (kms)Road in good condition (%)Trade density (US$m per km)Implicit velocity(km/hr)Freight tariff ($US/tonne-km)Western2050728.26.00.08Central3280494.26.10.13Eastern2845825.78.10.07Southern500010027.911.60.05

  • Corridors are almost entirely paved and mainly in reasonable condition

    Corridors Good (%) Fair (%)Poor (%)Paved (%) Abidjan-Lagos 51282199Tema-Ouagadougou-Bamako 67312100Dakar-Bamako 482032100Abidjan-Ouagadougou 332344100Lome-Niamey 503020100Cotonou-Niamey 5084299Nouakchott-NDjamena 63211697

  • Condition of 7 main regional corridors

  • Only two of the corridors register reasonably high volumes of traffic

    Percentage in traffic bands (AADT)Corridors1000Abidjan-Lagos55144Tema-Ouagadougou-Bamako492625Dakar-Bamako245620Abidjan-Ouagadougou42373Lome-Niamey08317Cotonou-Niamey42670Nouakchott-N'Djamena114643

  • Traffic flows along 7 main regional corridors

  • Rail transport appears to be more competitive on parallel corridors

    Chart1

    98.605602647.224

    69.7027.224

    91.009287924.4898

    79.8884.4898

    Bamako-Dakar

    Ouagadougou-Abidjan

    Transport

    Waiting

    US$ per ton

    Sheet1

    ModeTransportWaiting

    road98.617.224

    rail69.707.22

    road91.014.49

    rail79.894.49

  • Administrative and waiting costs add at least $20 per ton to costs of exporting via sea ports

    Chart1

    98.6056026418.82352941187.224

    84.456819.766.93

    91.0092879230.58823529414.4898

    3819.765.46

    83.721255282110.794

    41.729625.96.174

    80.664Abidjan-Lagos22.302

    Transport

    A dministrative

    Waiting

    US$ per ton to export

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    Column1TransportA dministrativeWaiting

    Bamako-Dakar98.6118.827.22

    Bamako-Tema84.4619.766.93

    Ouagadougou-Abidjan91.0130.594.49

    Ouagadougou-Tema38.0019.765.46

    Niamey-Cotonou83.7221.0010.79

    Niamey-Lome41.7325.906.17

    Abidjan-Lagos80.66422.302

  • Administrative and waiting costs weigh even more heavily on imports

    Chart1

    98.6056026462.941176470620.4190588235

    84.456863.877647058818.6947058824

    91.0092879265.88235294125.8762705882

    3866.394117647117.2247058824

    83.7212552878.452941176520.794

    41.729685.37058823539.0304705882

    Transport

    Administrative

    Waiting

    US$ per ton to import

    Sheet1

    Column1TransportAdministrativeWaiting

    Bamako-Dakar98.6056026462.941176470620.4190588235

    Bamako-Tema84.4663.8818.69

    Ouagadougou-Abidjan91.0165.885.88

    Ouagadougou-Tema38.0066.3917.22

    Niamey-Cotonou83.7278.4520.79

    Niamey-Lome41.7385.379.03

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Key Message #4Coastal countries appear to be neglecting roads on sea corridors

  • Condition of broader regional road network

  • Traffic flows along broader regional road network

  • Some 80 percent of broader regional roads in reasonable condition

    ConditionTypeGood (%)Fair (%)Paved (%)Benin35.81.896.8Burkina Faso58.233.6100Cape Verde000Cte d'Ivoire16.147.190.3Gambia089.447.4Ghana70.323.6100Guinea22.220.789.1Liberia39.455.947.5Mali66.621.799.6Niger31.23188Nigeria55.629.7100Senegal39.815.199.8Sierra Leone19.558.433.6Togo49.70100ECOWAS45.128.492.5

  • Key Message #5West Africas railways do not readily form a regional network

  • West Africas disparate rail networks make use of multiple incompatible gauges

  • Operational performance of West African rail operators is relatively poor

    Labor productivityLocomotive productivityCarriage productivityWagon productivityAverage passenger yieldAverage freight yield Benin, OCBN4039007425.8Burkina Faso Cte dIvoire, SITARAIL481351,020

    3.3

    5.5 Ghana, GRC8474164582.44.4 Mali Senegal, Transrail339408042.26.4 Nigeria, NRC371373759SSA average for railways under concession387242,9455102.26.3

  • Railways are only lightly used

    Chart1

    0.36

    0.48

    0.6

    0.71

    0.81

    0.9

    1.4

    3.76

    3.9

    4.7

    Ratio

    Millions traffic units per route kilometer

    Sheet1

    TransrailNRCEast AfricaSitarailOCBNCentral AfricaWest AfricaGRCSouthern AfricaNorth Africa

    Ratio0.360.480.60.710.810.91.43.763.94.7

  • Key Message #6West Africa lacks a functional transshipment hub

  • West African ports perform well behind global best practice

    East AfricaSouthern AfricaWest /Central AfricaGlobal best practicePerformanceContainer Dwell Time (days)52848113030ChargesContainer handling (US$ per TEU)13527511024310032080150General cargo handling charge (US$ per tonne)615111581579

  • Wide range of performance across West Africas ports

    AbidjanApapaCotonouDakarHarcourtLomeTemaCte dIvoireNigeriaBeninSenegalNigeriaTogoGhanaPerformanceContainer Dwell Time (days)1242127301325Truck Processing Time (hours)36652448Crane Productivity (containers per hour)181213Crane Productivity (tonnes per hour)1691582314ChargesContainer handling (US$ per TEU)260155180160220168General cargo handling (US$ per tonne)1489158910

  • Key Message #7Major progress with liberalization but safety remains a concern

  • ECOWAS performs below African comparators on several air transport benchmarks

  • Uneven development of air connectivity across Western and Eastern sides of continent

  • Regional air traffic heavily concentrated on Accra to Lagos route

  • Most countries have daily flight to one of regions significant airports

  • Major shift in fleet size towards Citi jets and commuter propeller planes

    Chart1

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    Share 2001

    2001

    Sheet1

    Column1Share 2001

    Com Jet0.19%

    Widebody53.43%

    Eastern0.13%

    Com Prop11.18%

    CitiJet32.91%

    Large Jet2.15%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

    Chart1

    0.004221565

    0.0837704505

    0

    0.1680117732

    0.6963987784

    0.0475974329

    2007

    2007

    Sheet1

    Column12007

    Com Jet0.42%

    Widebody8.38%

    Eastern0.00%

    Com Prop16.80%

    CitiJet69.64%

    Large Jet4.76%

  • Differential responses to collapse of major regional carriers

    Chart1

    8006223.33333329

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    ECOWAS

    ECOWAS

    Sheet1

    200120042007

    ECOWAS8,006,2236,242,3456,386,731

    Chart1

    2196419.33333333

    1701708.66666667

    2273223.33333333

    BAG

    Sheet1

    200120042007

    2,196,4191,701,7092,273,223

    Chart1

    3932669.00000002

    3399271.20000002

    3053886.33333334

    WAEMU

    Sheet1

    200120042007

    3,932,6693,399,2713,053,886

  • West Africa has made most progress with air transport liberalization

    CommunityGeneral status of YD implementationStatus of air services liberalizationOverall implementation scoreAMUNo implementation.No liberalization within the AMU initiated, but need is recognized.1BAGPrinciples of the YD agreed upon in a multilateral air services agreement.Up to fifth freedom gra