1. ECOWAS’s Infrastructure: A Regional Perspective.

  • Published on
    02-Jan-2016

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>ECOWASs Infrastructure: A Regional Perspective</p></li><li><p>Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic:a multi-stakeholder effort</p></li><li><p>Methodology and approachMethodologyData collection by local/international consultants and Bank staff based on standardized methodologyBaseline year for data is 2006, does not reflect subsequent evolutionApproach Focus on benchmarking ECOWASs infrastructure against other African RECs and benchmarking ECOWAS member countries with each other</p></li><li><p>Key Message #1Infrastructure could be contributing much more to West Africas growth</p></li><li><p>Infrastructure contributed one percentage point to West Africas recent growth spurt</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.8169906870.0229104010.078361855</p><p>1.005284605-0.083250849-0.041413021</p><p>0.7874155190.169397789-0.01199972</p><p>1.040097831-0.2014208260.173907023</p><p>1.158516431-0.0952532120.019081532</p><p>1.065657967-0.1120786240.033147971</p><p>Telecom</p><p>Power</p><p>Roads</p><p>Percentage points of per capita growth</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column1North AfricaWest AfricaEast AfricaSouthern AfricaCentral AfricaAfrica</p><p>Telecom0.8169906871.0052846050.7874155191.0400978311.1585164311.065657967</p><p>Power0.022910401-0.0832508490.169397789-0.201420826-0.095253212-0.112078624</p><p>Roads0.078361855-0.041413021-0.011999720.1739070230.0190815320.033147971</p></li><li><p>Catching-up on infrastructure could boost growth by five percentage points</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.40.60.7</p><p>1.32.61.3</p><p>1.62.71.4</p><p>1.11.40.6</p><p>1.52.11.5</p><p>1.221.1</p><p>Telecom</p><p>Power</p><p>Roads</p><p>Potential growth pc benefits due to infrastructure development</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>TelecomPowerRoads</p><p>North Africa0.40.60.7</p><p>West Africa1.32.61.3</p><p>East Africa1.62.71.4</p><p>Southern Africa1.11.40.6</p><p>Central Africa1.52.11.5</p><p>Africa1.221.1</p></li><li><p>Key Message #2West Africas economic geography makes regional integration particularly critical</p></li><li>The burden of geographySmall countries unable to reap scale economies11 have economies </li><li><p>Topographical profile of ECOWAS countries</p></li><li><p>Spatial distribution of economic activity</p></li><li><p>Key Message #3Soft issues are the main culprits for West Africas slow and expensive road freight</p></li><li><p>Road freight transport is particularly slow and expensive in West Africa</p><p>CorridorLength (kms)Road in good condition (%)Trade density (US$m per km)Implicit velocity(km/hr)Freight tariff ($US/tonne-km)Western2050728.26.00.08Central3280494.26.10.13Eastern2845825.78.10.07Southern500010027.911.60.05</p></li><li><p>Corridors are almost entirely paved and mainly in reasonable condition</p><p>Corridors Good (%) Fair (%)Poor (%)Paved (%) Abidjan-Lagos 51282199Tema-Ouagadougou-Bamako 67312100Dakar-Bamako 482032100Abidjan-Ouagadougou 332344100Lome-Niamey 503020100Cotonou-Niamey 5084299Nouakchott-NDjamena 63211697</p></li><li><p>Condition of 7 main regional corridors</p></li><li><p>Only two of the corridors register reasonably high volumes of traffic</p><p> Percentage in traffic bands (AADT)Corridors1000Abidjan-Lagos55144Tema-Ouagadougou-Bamako492625Dakar-Bamako245620Abidjan-Ouagadougou42373Lome-Niamey08317Cotonou-Niamey42670Nouakchott-N'Djamena114643</p></li><li><p>Traffic flows along 7 main regional corridors</p></li><li><p>Rail transport appears to be more competitive on parallel corridors</p><p>Chart1</p><p>98.605602647.224</p><p>69.7027.224</p><p>91.009287924.4898</p><p>79.8884.4898</p><p>Bamako-Dakar</p><p>Ouagadougou-Abidjan</p><p>Transport</p><p>Waiting</p><p>US$ per ton</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>ModeTransportWaiting</p><p>road98.617.224</p><p>rail69.707.22</p><p>road91.014.49</p><p>rail79.894.49</p></li><li><p>Administrative and waiting costs add at least $20 per ton to costs of exporting via sea ports</p><p>Chart1</p><p>98.6056026418.82352941187.224</p><p>84.456819.766.93</p><p>91.0092879230.58823529414.4898</p><p>3819.765.46</p><p>83.721255282110.794</p><p>41.729625.96.174</p><p>80.664Abidjan-Lagos22.302</p><p>Transport</p><p>A dministrative</p><p>Waiting</p><p>US$ per ton to export</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column1TransportA dministrativeWaiting</p><p>Bamako-Dakar98.6118.827.22</p><p>Bamako-Tema84.4619.766.93</p><p>Ouagadougou-Abidjan91.0130.594.49</p><p>Ouagadougou-Tema38.0019.765.46</p><p>Niamey-Cotonou83.7221.0010.79</p><p>Niamey-Lome41.7325.906.17</p><p>Abidjan-Lagos80.66422.302</p></li><li><p>Administrative and waiting costs weigh even more heavily on imports</p><p>Chart1</p><p>98.6056026462.941176470620.4190588235</p><p>84.456863.877647058818.6947058824</p><p>91.0092879265.88235294125.8762705882</p><p>3866.394117647117.2247058824</p><p>83.7212552878.452941176520.794</p><p>41.729685.37058823539.0304705882</p><p>Transport</p><p>Administrative</p><p>Waiting</p><p>US$ per ton to import</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column1TransportAdministrativeWaiting</p><p>Bamako-Dakar98.6056026462.941176470620.4190588235</p><p>Bamako-Tema84.4663.8818.69</p><p>Ouagadougou-Abidjan91.0165.885.88</p><p>Ouagadougou-Tema38.0066.3917.22</p><p>Niamey-Cotonou83.7278.4520.79</p><p>Niamey-Lome41.7385.379.03</p><p>To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.</p></li><li><p>Key Message #4Coastal countries appear to be neglecting roads on sea corridors</p></li><li><p>Condition of broader regional road network</p></li><li><p>Traffic flows along broader regional road network</p></li><li><p>Some 80 percent of broader regional roads in reasonable condition</p><p>ConditionTypeGood (%)Fair (%)Paved (%)Benin35.81.896.8Burkina Faso58.233.6100Cape Verde000Cte d'Ivoire16.147.190.3Gambia089.447.4Ghana70.323.6100Guinea22.220.789.1Liberia39.455.947.5Mali66.621.799.6Niger31.23188Nigeria55.629.7100Senegal39.815.199.8Sierra Leone19.558.433.6Togo49.70100ECOWAS45.128.492.5</p></li><li><p>Key Message #5West Africas railways do not readily form a regional network</p></li><li><p>West Africas disparate rail networks make use of multiple incompatible gauges</p></li><li><p>Operational performance of West African rail operators is relatively poor</p><p>Labor productivityLocomotive productivityCarriage productivityWagon productivityAverage passenger yieldAverage freight yield Benin, OCBN4039007425.8Burkina Faso Cte dIvoire, SITARAIL481351,020</p><p>3.3</p><p>5.5 Ghana, GRC8474164582.44.4 Mali Senegal, Transrail339408042.26.4 Nigeria, NRC371373759SSA average for railways under concession387242,9455102.26.3</p></li><li><p>Railways are only lightly used</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.36</p><p>0.48</p><p>0.6</p><p>0.71</p><p>0.81</p><p>0.9</p><p>1.4</p><p>3.76</p><p>3.9</p><p>4.7</p><p>Ratio</p><p>Millions traffic units per route kilometer</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>TransrailNRCEast AfricaSitarailOCBNCentral AfricaWest AfricaGRCSouthern AfricaNorth Africa</p><p>Ratio0.360.480.60.710.810.91.43.763.94.7</p></li><li><p>Key Message #6West Africa lacks a functional transshipment hub</p></li><li><p>West African ports perform well behind global best practice</p><p>East AfricaSouthern AfricaWest /Central AfricaGlobal best practicePerformanceContainer Dwell Time (days)52848113030ChargesContainer handling (US$ per TEU)13527511024310032080150General cargo handling charge (US$ per tonne)615111581579</p></li><li><p>Wide range of performance across West Africas ports</p><p>AbidjanApapaCotonouDakarHarcourtLomeTemaCte dIvoireNigeriaBeninSenegalNigeriaTogoGhanaPerformanceContainer Dwell Time (days)1242127301325Truck Processing Time (hours)36652448Crane Productivity (containers per hour)181213Crane Productivity (tonnes per hour)1691582314ChargesContainer handling (US$ per TEU)260155180160220168General cargo handling (US$ per tonne)1489158910</p></li><li><p>Key Message #7Major progress with liberalization but safety remains a concern</p></li><li><p>ECOWAS performs below African comparators on several air transport benchmarks</p></li><li><p>Uneven development of air connectivity across Western and Eastern sides of continent</p></li><li><p>Regional air traffic heavily concentrated on Accra to Lagos route</p></li><li><p>Most countries have daily flight to one of regions significant airports</p></li><li><p>Major shift in fleet size towards Citi jets and commuter propeller planes</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.0019289994</p><p>0.5343312098</p><p>0.0012859996</p><p>0.1118494904</p><p>0.329117932</p><p>0.0214863687</p><p>Share 2001</p><p>2001</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column1Share 2001</p><p>Com Jet0.19%</p><p>Widebody53.43%</p><p>Eastern0.13%</p><p>Com Prop11.18%</p><p>CitiJet32.91%</p><p>Large Jet2.15%</p><p>To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.004221565</p><p>0.0837704505</p><p>0</p><p>0.1680117732</p><p>0.6963987784</p><p>0.0475974329</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column12007</p><p>Com Jet0.42%</p><p>Widebody8.38%</p><p>Eastern0.00%</p><p>Com Prop16.80%</p><p>CitiJet69.64%</p><p>Large Jet4.76%</p></li><li><p>Differential responses to collapse of major regional carriers</p><p>Chart1</p><p>8006223.33333329</p><p>6242345.19999997</p><p>6386731</p><p>ECOWAS</p><p>ECOWAS</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>200120042007</p><p>ECOWAS8,006,2236,242,3456,386,731</p><p>Chart1</p><p>2196419.33333333</p><p>1701708.66666667</p><p>2273223.33333333</p><p>BAG</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>200120042007</p><p>2,196,4191,701,7092,273,223</p><p>Chart1</p><p>3932669.00000002</p><p>3399271.20000002</p><p>3053886.33333334</p><p>WAEMU</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>200120042007</p><p>3,932,6693,399,2713,053,886</p></li><li><p>West Africa has made most progress with air transport liberalization</p><p>CommunityGeneral status of YD implementationStatus of air services liberalizationOverall implementation scoreAMUNo implementation.No liberalization within the AMU initiated, but need is recognized.1BAGPrinciples of the YD agreed upon in a multilateral air services agreement.Up to fifth freedom granted, tariffs are free, and capacity/frequency is open.4CEMACPrinciples of the YD agreed upon in an air transport program. Some minor restrictions remain.Up to fifth freedom granted, tariffs are free, and capacity/frequency is open. Maximum two carriers per state may take part.5COMESAFull liberalization agreed upon (legal Notice No. 2), but application and implementation remain pending until a joint competition authority is established.Pending. Operators will be able to serve any destination (all freedoms), and tariffs and capacity/frequency will be free. 3EACEAC council issued a directive to amend bilaterals among the EAC states to conform with the YD.Air services are not liberalized, as the amendments of bilaterals remain pending.3SADCNo steps taken toward implementation, although the civil aviation policy includes gradual liberalization of air services within the SADC.No liberalization has been initiated.2WAEMUThe YD is fully implemented.All freedoms, including cabotage, granted. Tariffs have been liberalized.5</p></li><li><p>Huge shifts in market share have taken place in recent years</p><p>Airline Share 2001 Share 2004 Share 2007 Air International 5.620.921.8Virgin Nigeria (replaces Nigerian Airways) 11.5Bellview Airlines Ltd. 1.79.810.8Socit Nouvelle Air Ivoire 10.78.8Air Burkina 2.69.47.5Slok Air International 7.4Ethiopian Airlines 3.93.47Airways0.10.25.1SN Brussels Airlines 7.3 0.3Air France4.8 0.2Air Afrique 32.0Ghana Airways Corp. 14.815 Cameroon Airlines1.45.4 </p></li><li><p>Air safety standards in West Africa are low</p></li><li><p>West Africas aircraft fleet has renewed significantly</p><p>Chart1</p><p>36.307135241</p><p>22.983616495</p><p>3.2577574029</p><p>37.3228909011</p><p>2001</p><p>2001</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column12001</p><p>Western old36.3</p><p>Western recent23.0</p><p>Western age unkown3.3</p><p>Western somewhat recent37.3</p><p>Chart1</p><p>40.7406804305</p><p>46.6102977146</p><p>4.2317423421</p><p>8.4172795128</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column12007</p><p>Western old40.7</p><p>Western recent46.6</p><p>Western age unkown4.2</p><p>Western somewhat recent8.4</p></li><li><p>Airport charges in West Africa are significantly higher than international standards</p><p>Chart1</p><p>3365336513898</p><p>4138413814158</p><p>4000400024312</p><p>5304530420000</p><p>183318335224</p><p>139013905291</p><p>4340434012529</p><p>4493449318648</p><p>4118411816294</p><p>4293429317903</p><p>246124619453</p><p>3224.5250225303.8102329403.219188</p><p>A320</p><p>B767</p><p>B747</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Column1A320B767B747</p><p>Burkina Faso3,3653,36513,898</p><p>Benin4,1384,13814,158</p><p>Cte d'Ivoire4,0004,00024,312</p><p>Ghana5,3045,30420,000</p><p>Guinea1,8331,8335,224</p><p>Liberia1,3901,3905,291</p><p>Mali4,3404,34012,529</p><p>Niger4,4934,49318,648</p><p>Nigeria4,1184,11816,294</p><p>Senegal4,2934,29317,903</p><p>Sierra Leone2,4612,4619,453</p><p>FraPort3,2255,3049,403</p></li><li><p>Key Message #8Regional power trade could save US$0.5 billion annually as well as 5 million tons of CO2</p></li><li><p>Emerging regional power transmission network</p></li><li><p>Power is widely accessible but highly expensive and unreliable</p></li><li><p>Only 70 percent of the effective demand for power is being met</p><p>CountryTotal net demand in 2005% of suppressed demand as a total of net demand Market demand 2015*Social demand with national targets 2015Total net demand 2015Benin0.6940.90.81.7Burkina Faso0.5980.60.91.5Cote dIvoire2.9884.01.45.4Gambia0.1780.20.20.4Ghana5.98510.8212.8Guinea0.7761.30.82.2Guinea-Bissau0.1880.10.10.2Liberia0.3710.60.71.3Mali0.4950.61.21.8Mauritania0.2980.50.30.8Niger0.4980.60.71.2Nigeria16.96145.613.659.2Senegal1.5852.513.5Sierra Leone0.2510.50.51Togo0.6890.80.71.5WAPP31.37069.624.894.3SAPP258.89938314396.9EAPP/NB*100.699144.824.2169CAPP10.79217.13.120.2</p></li><li><p>Today there are two major power traders: Cote dIvoire and Ghana</p><p>Chart1</p><p>-1.81.6</p><p>Niger0.5</p><p>Togo0.8</p><p>Benin1</p><p>-0.751</p><p>Exports</p><p>Imports</p><p>Imports in TWh in 2005</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>ExportsImports</p><p>Cote d'Ivoire-1.81.6</p><p>Niger0.5</p><p>Togo0.8</p><p>Benin1</p><p>Ghana-0.751</p></li><li><p>Deepening regional power trade saves WAPP half a billion dollars annually (about 3%)</p><p>Trade StagnationTrade ExpansionGenerationInvestment cost3,3653,527Refurbishment cost258258Variable cost (fuel, O&amp;M)3,4422,728T&amp;D and connectionInvestment cost3,5843,701-Cross-border0117-Domestic3,5843,584Refurbishment cost752752Variable cost1,3201,320TotalCapital cost7,9598,238-Investment cost6,9497,228-Refurbishment cost1,0101,010Variable cost4,7634,049Total 12,72212,287</p></li><li><p>Trade expansion would boost volume of power traded from 5 TWh to over 15 TWhTrade ExpansionTrade Stagnation</p></li><li><p>Many countries need to invest in cross-border interconnectors and mainly Guinea in hydro</p><p>WAPPNew Cross Border TransmissionAdditional hydroBenin 1600Burkina Faso 00Cote dIvoire 2,2260Gambia 190Ghana 9790Guinea 2,2833,711Guinea Bissau 8180Liberia 2580Mali 2,7030Mauritania 790Niger 2060Nigeria 3660Senegal 48729Sierra Leone 6610Togo 518</p></li><li><p>Most countries save substantially on power spending with further regional trade</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.0190.019</p><p>0.0270.034</p><p>0.0210.036</p><p>0.2110.037</p><p>0.0190.037</p><p>0.0390.039</p><p>0.0170.041</p><p>0.0380.044</p><p>0.0410.071</p><p>0.0410.074</p><p>0.0840.075</p><p>0.0390.076</p><p>0.0540.077</p><p>0.0730.078</p><p>0.0570.297</p><p>Trade Exapansion</p><p>Trade Stagnation</p><p>Spending as a percentage of GDP</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Trade ExapansionTrade Stagnation</p><p>Burkina Faso1.90%1.90%</p><p>Benin2.70%3.40%</p><p>Mali2.10%3.60%</p><p>Guinea21.10%3.70%</p><p>Mauritania1.90%3.70%</p><p>Nigeria3.90%3.90%</p><p>Niger1.70%4.10%</p><p>Cote d'Ivoire3.80%4.40%</p><p>Ghana4.10%7.10%</p><p>Sierra Leone4.10%7.40%</p><p>Gambia8.40%7.50%</p><p>Togo3.90%7.60%</p><p>Guinea Bissau5.40%7.70%</p><p>Senegal7.30%7.80%</p><p>Liberia5.70%29.70%</p></li><li><p>Guinea emerges as by far the largest power exporter and Ghana as the largest importer</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.90.4</p><p>11</p><p>-0.9-3.5</p><p>-0.10</p><p>9.62.6</p><p>-17.40</p><p>0.20</p><p>1.70</p><p>1.9-0.3</p><p>0.6-0.3</p><p>1.50.4</p><p>-2.1-0.3</p><p>1.40.6</p><p>0.90</p><p>0.9-0.5</p><p>Trade Expansion</p><p>Trade Stagnation</p><p>Net Power Imports</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Trade ExpansionTrade Stagnation</p><p>Benin0.90.4</p><p>Burkina Faso11</p><p>Cote dIvoire-0.9-3.5</p><p>Gambia-0.10</p><p>Ghana9.62.6</p><p>Guinea-17.40</p><p>Guinea Bissau0.20</p><p>Liberia1.70</p><p>Mali1.9-0.3</p><p>Mauritania0.6-0.3</p><p>Niger1.50.4</p><p>Nigeria-2.1-0.3</p><p>Senegal1.40.6</p><p>Sierra Leone0.90</p><p>Togo0.9-0.5</p></li><li><p>Many WAPP countries would import more than half their power needs</p><p>Chart1</p><p>4518</p><p>5858</p><p>-12-47</p><p>-190</p><p>5214</p><p>-5640</p><p>770</p><p>890</p><p>79-14</p><p>55-23</p><p>8620</p><p>-30</p><p>3013</p><p>600</p><p>48-27</p><p>Trade Expansion</p><p>Trade Stagnation</p><p>Imports as a share of domestic demand</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Trade ExpansionTrade Stagnation</p><p>Benin4518</p><p>Burkina Faso5858</p><p>Cote d'Ivoire-12-47</p><p>Gambia-190</p><p>Ghana5214</p><p>Guinea-5640</p><p>Guinea-Bissau770</p><p>Liberia890</p><p>Mali79-14</p><p>Mauritania55-23</p><p>Niger8620</p><p>Nigeria-30</p><p>Senegal3013</p><p>Sierra Leone600</p><p>Togo48-27</p></li><li><p>Trade increases the share of hydro power in the regional generation portfolio by 4 points</p><p>Chart1</p><p>77</p><p>1</p><p>16</p><p>6</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Hydro77</p><p>Coal1</p><p>Gas16</p><p>Other6</p><p>Chart1</p><p>73</p><p>1</p><p>19</p><p>7</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Hydro73</p><p>Coal1</p><p>Gas19</p><p>Other7</p></li><li><p>Increasing hydro brings annual savings of 5 million tons of CO2</p><p> WAPP SAPP EAPP CAPP Total WAPP SAPP EAPP CAPP Total Production difference (TWh) Emissions savings (M ton) Coal -41.50.7-40.8-37.80.6-37.2Diesel -0.8-0.30.3-0.8-0.6-0.20.2-0.6Gas -9.2-5.3-42.4-56.8-4.7-2.7-21.5-28.9...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >