1 Do Now Look at the picture for 3 minutes. Then answer the questions.

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  • *Do NowLook at the picture for 3 minutes. Then answer the questions

  • *AIM: How do we store memories?

  • *How does memory relate to learning?1. Memory is an indication that learning has persisted over time.2. Learning is acquisition, memory is retention

    3. Memory is our ability to store and retrieve information.

  • *Flashbulb Memory-Results from unique or emotional moment -results in a clear, strong memory

    Ruters/ CorbisHowever, this memory is not free from errors.

  • *A GD F B ZT M Y

  • *Sensory MemorySplit second storage for incoming stimuliIconic memoryfleeting perfect photograph of a sceneLasts about 1/10th of a secondEchoic memory- memory for soundsLasts about 3/10th of a second

  • *Stages of MemoryKeyboard(Encoding)Disk(Storage)Monitor(Retrieval)Sequential Process

  • *Three-stage Model (Information Processing)The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksBob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksFrank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

  • *Sensory Memory: only some sensory input is encoded into short-term memory, most is lost.

    Why do we encode certain sensory info into short-term?

  • *Short term memory lasts 10-30 seconds but can be expanded

    Long term memory last minutes, days, hours, weeks, years

  • *

    FeatureSensoryMemoryShort-term Working MemoryLTM

    CapacityUnlimited7 +/- 2Very very large


  • Do Now: Fill in the table below

    FeatureSensoryMemoryWorking MemoryLTM

    CapacityUnlimited72 ChunksVery LargeDuration0.20 sec.20 sec.Years

  • *TypewriterVoidCigaretteInherentFireProcess

  • *Working MemoryAlan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing

  • AIM: How can we encode memories?*

  • *Encoding: Getting Information InHow We EncodeAutomatic Processing: Some information is automatically encoded SpaceTimeFrequency (how often things happen)

    2. Effortful Processing: However, new or unusual information (friends new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.

  • *Effortful Processing

    Long lasting memoriesSpencer Grant/ Photo Edit Bananastock/ Alamy

  • How can we effortfully process memories?*

  • *1) RehearsalEffortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.

    Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZHermann Ebbinghaus(1850-1909)http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de

  • *Rote or Maintenance Rehearsal (repeating to commit to memory)The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.

  • *What We EncodeEncoding by meaning (semantic coding)Encoding by imagesEncoding by organization

  • *Levels of Processing Theory of MemoryQ: Did the word begin with a capital letter?StructuralEncodingQ: Did the word rhyme with the word weight?Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street.PhonemicEncodingSemanticEncodingWhaleCraik and Lockhart (1972)IntermediateDeepShallow

  • *Semantic Encoding: Encoding using meaning

  • *Visual EncodingMental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.Both photos: Ho/AP Photo

  • Do Now: Pass forward Psych SimWhat is MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL? How does it differ from ELABORATIVE ENCODING?

  • *Whole ReportThe exposure time for the stimulus is so smallthat items cannot be rehearsed.R G T F M Q L Z S50 ms (1/20 second)RecallR T M Z(44% recall)Sperling (1960)

  • *Partial ReportLow Tone

    Medium Tone

    High ToneRecallJ R S(100% recall)Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.50 ms (1/20 second)S X T J R S P K Y

  • *Time DelayRecallN _ _(33% recall)TimeDelay50 ms (1/20 second)A D I N L V O G HLow Tone

    Medium Tone

    High Tone

  • *Sensory MemoryThe longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.

  • *Sensory MemoriesThe duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

  • AIM: Why do we remember some information.

    And forget the rest?

  • *Memory EffectsNext-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says

    2. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.

    3. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.a. primacy effect- beginningb. recency effect- later info

  • *Spacing EffectDistributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHTRobert Frost

    I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light.

  • *Serial Position Effect

  • *MnemonicsMnemonic techniques are memory devicesMethod of LociPegword SystemChunkingHierarchy

  • *Method of LociList of Items

    CharcoalPensBed SheetsHammer...RugImagined Locations

    BackyardStudyBedroomGarage...Living Room

  • *Link MethodInvolves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.List of Items

    NewspaperShaving creamPenUmbrella...Lamp

  • *Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide themOrganizing Information for EncodingChunkingHierarchy



  • *ChunkingOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below.1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.

  • *ChunkingAcronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior

    PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract

    ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

  • *HierarchyComplex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.

  • *Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy

  • *Storage: Retaining InformationStorage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:SensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingRetrievalEncodingEventsRetrieval

  • *Sensory MemorySensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingRetrievalEncodingEventsRetrieval

  • *Working MemorySensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingRetrievalEncodingEventsRetrieval

  • *Working MemoryWorking memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (72) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember upto 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.

  • *Working Memory Duration

  • *Long-Term MemorySensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingRetrievalEncodingEventsRetrieval

  • AIM: How do we store memories?*

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw

  • *Long-Term MemoryUnlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). The Clarks nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches ofburied pine seeds during winter and spring.R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers

  • *Memory Stores

    FeatureSensoryMemoryWorking MemoryLTMEncodingExact CopyPhonemicSemanticCapacityUnlimited72 ChunksVery LargeDuration0.20 sec.20 sec.Years

  • *Storing Memories in the BrainThrough electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield concluded that old memories were etched into the brain.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.

  • *Synaptic ChangesIn Aplysia serotonin release from neurons increases after conditioning.Photo: Scientific American

  • Do Now: What is meant by the term Long Term Potentiation?

  • *Synaptic ChangesLong-Term Potentiation (LTP)= synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors indicates strengthening of synapses.Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller

  • AIM: How are memories stored in the brain?

  • *Stress Hormones & MemoryHeightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.Scott Barbour/ Getty Images

  • *Types of MemoryExplicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit (procedural) memory how to do something, a skill Example: Riding a bike

  • *Types of MemoryImplicit (procedural) memory how to do something, a skill Example: Riding a bike

  • *Explicit= DeclarativeImplicit= Procedural

  • *Types of Explicit MemoryEpisodic- autobiographical events personally experiencedExample: When is your birthday?

    Semantic: Words, Ideas, Concepts Example: What is the capital of France?

  • *

  • *Classify each as implicit or explicit memory.If it is explicit, indicate if it is semantic or episodic.Knowing how to tie your shoe- The history of your grandparent-How to cook-Typing-Your last summer vacation- The causes of World War Two-What you ate during lunch-The sound of the school bell causing you to instinctively reach for your backpack:

  • Do Now: Quiz*

  • *AIM: How do we retrieve memories from our long-term storage?

  • *HippocampusHippocampus a neural center in the limbicsystem that processes explicit memories.Weidenfield & Nicolson archives

  • *No New MemoriesAnterograde AmnesiaAnterogradeAmnesia(HM)SurgeryAfter losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) suffered from anterograde amnesia: he remembers everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. Retrograde amnesia: lose old memories, can still form new onesMemory Intact

  • *Implicit MemoryHM is unable to make new memories that aredeclarative (explicit), but he can form newmemories that are procedural (implicit).

  • *CerebellumCerebellum a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.

  • *AmygdalaRecent studies show the amygdala is involved in processing emotional memories

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw

  • Do Now: 1. What is long-term potentiation?2. How can stress have two different effects on memory?

  • AIM: Why do we forget?

  • *Retrieval: Getting Information OutRetrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store.Spankys Yearbook ArchiveSpankys Yearbook Archive

  • *Measures of MemoryIn recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.)Given prime: cueName the capital of France.


  • *Measures of MemoryIn recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.)The capital of France is ______.

  • *Measures of MemoryIn relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.ListJetDaggerTreeKiteSilkFrogRingIt took 10 trialsto learn this listListJetDaggerTreeKiteSilkFrogRingIt took 5 trialsto learn the list1 day laterSavingOriginalTrialsRelearningTrialsOriginalTrials1051050%X 100X 100

  • *Retrieval CuesMemories are held in storage by a semantic web of associations.Fire Trucktruckredfireheatsmokesmellwaterhose

  • *PrimingTo retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must prime it: activate one of the strands that leads to it.

    Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: instance of knowing something but being unable to place the word, due to a failure of retrieve

  • *Context EffectsScuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on landFred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers

  • *Context EffectsAfter learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different contextCourtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University

  • *December 18, 2009Do Now:What is long-term potentiation?How can stress have two different effects on memory?What is priming?

  • *Moods and StatesMood-congruent memory: We recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. State-dependent Memory: We recall events while in certain states of consciousnessJorgen Schytte/ Still PicturesBoth moods and states serve as retrieval cues.

  • Why do we forget?

  • *ForgettingAn inability to retrieve information due to:Poor encoding- not semantically encoded (no meaning)Poor storagePoor retrieval- unable to bring into working memory

  • *Encoding FailureWe cannot remember what we do not encode.

  • *Which penny is real?

  • *Storage DecayPoor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. (Level of Processing Model)- we tend to store deeply processed memories

  • *Retrieval FailureAlthough the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed.Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).

  • *InterferenceLearning some new information may disruptretrieval of other information.Proactive Interference: earlier information will interfere with later learned informationRetroactive Interference: recently learned information interferes with earlier information

  • *Retroactive InterferenceSleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, itleads to better recall.

  • Do Now:Contrast retroactive and proactive interference

  • AIM: Can we intentionally forget?*

  • *Motivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories.

    Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.Sigmund FreudCulver Pictures

  • *Why do we forget?Forgetting can occur at any memory stage

  • *Memory ConstructionWhile tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

  • *Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.Misinformation and Imagination Effects Depiction of the actual accident.

  • *MisinformationGroup A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?

    Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?

  • *Memory ConstructionA week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).






    Broken Glass? (%)


    VerbBroken Glass?


    Smashed into32




    Broken Glass? (%)



  • *Source AmnesiaSource Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution).

  • *Discerning True & False MemoriesJust like true perception and illusion, real memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern.When students formed a happy or angry memory ofmorphed (computer blended) faces, they made the (computer assisted) faces (a), either happier or (b) angrier. Simon Niedsenthal

  • *Repressed or Constructed?Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse.

    False Memory SyndromeA condition in which a persons identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists.False Memories

  • *Childrens eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. Childrens Eyewitness Recall

  • Exam: Memory, Cognition, and LanguageChapter 9 and Chapter 10- FridayMidyear: Chapters 1- Chapter 12Self-shaping Project: January 14th


  • Do Now: How would you define Thinking? Do animals think? Do men and women think differently?

  • AIM: How do we think?

  • *ThinkingThinking, or cognition: a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating.

  • *ConceptThe mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. SchemasExample: Chair

  • *Category HierarchiesWe organize concepts into category hierarchies.Courtesy of Christine Brune

  • *PrototypesWe may base our concepts on prototypes the most typical example of a conceptTriangle definition)Bird (mental image)Daniel J. Cox/ Getty ImagesJ. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube

  • *CategoriesOnce we place an item in a category, our memory shifts toward the category prototype.Courtesy of Oliver Corneille

  • *Problem SolvingThere are two ways to solve problems:1)Algorithms: Methodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantee solving a particular problem.2) Heuristics

  • *AlgorithmsS P L O Y O C H Y GIf we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,208 possibilities.

  • *HeuristicsHeuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms.B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images

  • *HeuristicsHeuristics make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems. S P L O Y O C H Y GS P L O Y O C H G YP S L O Y O C H G YP S Y C H O L O G YPut a Y at the end, and see if the wordbegins to make sense.

  • *InsightInsight involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Grande using boxes toobtain food

  • *InsightInsight activates the right temporal cortexFrom Mark Jung-Beekman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University

  • Insight Problems What occurs once in every minute, twice in every moment, yet never in a thousand years?

    What is so unusual about the sentence below?(Aside from the fact it does not make a lot ofsense.) Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz.

  • *Obstacles in Solving ProblemsConfirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias.

    Example: Multiple Choice

  • *FixationFixation: An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. Two examples of fixation are mental set and functional fixedness.

  • *Mental SetA tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if that way was successful in the past.The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?

  • *The Matchstick Problem: Solution

  • *Functional FixednessA tendency to think only of the familiar functions of an object.Problem: Tie the two ropes together. Use a screw driver, cotton balls and a matchbox.

  • *Functional FixednessUse the screwdriver as a weight, and tie it to the end of one rope. Swing it toward the other rope to tie the knot.The inability to think of the screwdriver as a weight isfunctional fixedness.

  • *Heuristics1) representative heuristics 2) availability heuristics

  • *Probability that that person is a truck driver is far greater than an ivy league professor just because there are more truck drivers than such professors.Representativeness HeuristicJudging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent a particular prototype.If you meet a slim, short, man who wears glasses and likes poetry, what do you think his profession would be?

    An Ivy league professor or a truck driver?

  • *Availability HeuristicAvailability Heuristic: judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initiallyHow is retrieval facilitated?

    How recently we have heard about the event.How distinct it is.How correct it is.

  • *Making Decision & Forming JudgmentsEach day we make hundreds of judgments and decisions based on our intuition, seldom using systematic reasoning.


  • The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of: a. framing. b. the representativeness heuristic. c. functional fixedness. d. the availability heuristic.

    A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of: a. confirmation bias. b. functional fixedness. c. belief perseverance. d. the representativeness heuristic.

  • What are some impediments to problem solving?

  • *OverconfidenceOverconfidence is a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.Example: stock market

  • *Exaggerated FearExaggerated fearirrationalparanoia

    AP/ Wide World Photos

  • *Framing DecisionsDecisions and judgments may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed or worded.Example: What is the best way to market ground beef as 25% fat or 75% lean?

  • *Belief BiasMaking illogical conclusions in order to confirm our preexisting beliefsExample: Democrats support free speechDictators are not democratsTherefore, Dictators do not support free speech

  • *Belief PerseveranceBelief perseverance is the tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.Example: Creationism vs Evolutionists

  • 1. Brutus believes that men enjoy watching professional football and that women are categorically distinct from men. His gender stereotypes are so strong, however, that he mistakenly reasons from these premises the illogical conclusion that women do not enjoy watching professional football. His reasoning difficulty best illustrates: a. the framing effect. b. the availability heuristic. c. belief bias.d. functional fixedness.

    2. When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professors limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judys reaction best illustrates: a. the framing effect. b. belief perseverance. c. functional fixedness.d. category hierarchies.

  • Convergent and Divergent ThinkingConvergent Thinking- thinking pointed towards one solutionLeft hemisphere

    Example: 4x+2= 8Divergent Thinking-more than one solution- creative thinking Example: Literary analysis

  • How does cognition relate to language?

  • *LanguageLanguage is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others.Language transmits culture.M. & E. Bernheim/ Woodfin Camp & Associates

  • *Language StructurePhonemes: The smallest distinct sound unit in a spoken language. For example:

    bat, has three phonemes b a t

    chat, has three phonemes ch a t

  • *Language StructureMorpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. For example:

    Milk = milkPumpkin = pumpkinUnforgettable = un for get tableUnForgetAble

  • How many morpheme and phonemes are in the following words:ScrewdriverChimpsPsychology (ooo tricky!!!)

  • Do Now: Review homework

  • AIM: How do humans develop language?

  • *Structuring LanguagePhraseSentenceMeaningful units (290,500) meat, pumpkin.WordsSmallest meaningful units (100,000) un, for.MorphemesBasic sounds (about 40) ea, sh.PhonemesComposed of two or more words (326,000) meat eater.Composed of many words (infinite) She opened the jewelry box.

  • *GrammarGrammar is the system of rules in a languageGrammarSyntaxSemantics

  • *SemanticsSemantics is the set of rules by which we derive meaning from sentences. Example: Semantic rule tells us that adding ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.Adding an S makes a word plural

  • *SyntaxSyntax consists of the rules for ordering words into grammatical sentences. In English we say white house. In Spanish, it is reversed; casa blanca.

    You are welcome to visit the cemetery where famous composers, artists, and writers are buried daily except Thursday

  • Syntax FAIL

  • *How many new words do we learn a day?We learn, on average (after age 1), 3,500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we graduate from high school.Time Life Pictures/ Getty Images

  • *When do we learn language?Babbling Stage:-Beginning at 4 months-spontaneously uttering of sounds (ah-goo.)-not imitation of adult speech.


  • *When do we learn language?One-Word Stage: Beginning around his/her first birthday, a child starts to speak one word at a time

  • *When do we learn language?Two-Word Stage: -Starts Before Year Two-Telegraphic speech (the child speaks like a telegram)

    Go car, means I would like to go for a ride in the car.

  • *When do we learn language?2 years: Longer phrases with syntactical sense, and by early elementary school they are employing humor.

    You never starve in the desert because of all the sand-which-is there.

  • Overgeneralization After 2 years of age, children may incorrectly follow the rules of grammar:Overgeneralization or overregularization

    Examples: I goed to the store I runned outside There were lots of mouses

  • *When do we learn language?

  • What is the critical period for language?

    Up to 7 years

  • Two Theories for Language DevelopmentBehavioristsWe develop language by imitating sounds NativistsBiological Predisposition for Language

  • *Explaining Language Development: BehaviorismOperant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) -language development may be explained on the basis of learning principlesImitationReward/Punishment

  • *Explaining Language Development: NativistLanguage Acquisition Device: A. Linguist Noam ChomskyB. Children born with innate ability to gather rules of languageC. Contrary to blank slateD. Critical Period

  • Proof for Language AcquisitionAll languages have grammar rulesChildren overgeneralize use morphemes in predictable orders: go-ed, Genes in twin studies

  • *Explaining Language Development Statistical Learning and Critical Periods: -- brains statistically analyze which syllables in go together. Example: hap-py-ba-by-Statistical analyses are learned during critical periods.

  • *Language & AgeLearning new languages gets harder with age.

  • Language & ThinkingLanguage and thinking intricately intertwine.Rubber Ball/ Almay

  • Language Influences ThinkingLinguistic Determinism: Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think.

  • Language Influences ThinkingWhen a language provides words for objects or events, we can think about these objects more clearly and remember them

  • Balanced Bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in terms of:Cognitive flexibilityConcept formationCreativityBetter ability to learn more languages

  • *Problem SolvingApes are famous, much like us, for solving problems.Chimpanzee fishing for ants.Courtesy of Jennifer Byrne, c/o Richard Byrne, Department of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland

  • *Animal CultureAnimals display customs and culture that are learned and transmitted over generations.Dolphins using sponges asforging tools.Chimpanzee mother using andteaching a young how to usea stone hammer.Copyright Amanda K CoakesMichael Nichols/ National Geographic Society

  • *Mental StatesCan animals infer mental states in themselves and others?

    To some extent. Chimps and orangutans (and dolphins) used mirrors to inspect themselves when a researcher put paint spots on their faces or bodies.

  • *Do Animals Exhibit Language?There is no doubt that animals communicate.

    Vervet monkeys, whales and even honey bees communicate with members of their species and other species.Rico (collie) has a200-word vocabularyCopyright Baus/ Kreslowski

  • *The Case of ApesChimps do not have a vocal apparatus for human-like speech (Hayes & Hayes,1951). Therefore, Gardner and Gardner (1969) used American Sign Language (ASL) to train Washoe, a chimp, who learned 182 signs by the age of 32.

  • *Gestured CommunicationAnimals, like humans, exhibit communication through gestures. It is possible that vocal speech developed from gestures during the course of evolution.

  • *Sign LanguageAmerican Sign Language (ASL) is instrumental in teaching chimpanzees a form of communication.When asked, this chimpanzee usesa sign to say it is a baby.Paul Fusco/ Magnum Photos

  • *Computer Assisted LanguageOthers have shown that bonobo pygmy chimpanzees can develop even greater vocabularies and perhaps semantic nuances in learning a language (Savage-Rumbaugh, 1991). Kanzi and Panbanish developed vocabulary for hundreds of words and phrases.Copyright of Great Ape Trust of Iowa

    *OBJECTIVE 1| Define memory, and explain how flashbulb memories differ from other memories.Patient S= Russian journalist with an amazing capacity for memory

    Humans have an extraordinary memory capacity for remembering facesViewing more than 2500 slides of faces and places for 10 seconds later you see 280 of these slides one at a time, and you recognize 90 percent of those you saw before*President Bush being told of 9/11 attack.Ask the class to think of one flashbulb memory, share the flashbulb memory with your partnerDo you think flashbulb memories are always accurate?*Sperling flashed grid of 9 letters for 1/20th of a second and subjects were asked to recall the top, middle or bottom row immediately after the grid disappeared. -grid must be held in sensory memory for a split second Subjects recalled rows perfectly, demosntrates 1rst memory system:Sensory MemorySensory memory- split second holding for incoming sensory information (less than a second)Sperling- flashed a grid of nine letters, three rows and three columns to participants for 1/20th of a second. The participants in the styudy were directed to recall either the top, middle, or bottom row immediately after the grid was flashed at them.

    *-iconic memory= *OBJECTIVE 2| Describe Atkinson-Schiffrins classic three-stage model of memory and explain how contemporary model of working memory differs.The Atkinson-Shiffrin classic three-stage model of memory suggests that we (1) register fleeting sensory memories, some of which are (2) processed into on-screen short-term memories, a tiny fraction of which are (3) encoded for long-term memory and, possibly, later retrieval. In pointing out the limits of this model, contemporary memory researchers note that we register some information automatically, bypassing the first two stages. And they prefer the term working memory (rather than short-term memory) because it emphasizes a more active role in this second processing stage, where we rehearse and manipulate information, associating new stimuli with older stored memories. The working-memory model includes visual-spatial and auditory subsystems, coordinated by a central executive processor that focuses attention where needed. Why might information be lost from the sensory and the short term memory? (Not encoded)

    Why might information be lost from Long Term memory?

    (info lost from sensory and STM due to not being encoded, lost from LTM from retrieval failure)**In pointing out the limits of this model, contemporary memory researchers note that we register some information automatically, bypassing the first two stages. And they prefer the term working memory (rather than short-term memory) because it emphasizes a more active role in this second processing stage, where we rehearse and manipulate information, associating new stimuli with older stored memories. The working-memory model includes visual-spatial and auditory subsystems, coordinated by a central executive processor that focuses attention where needed. Why might information be lost from the sensory and the short term memory? (Not encoded)

    *Automatic processing space, time, frequency, where you put your coat, place on the page where info is, Ive seen you three times today

    Effortful- needs effort and processing (remembering names)

    *OBJECTIVE 4| Contrast effortful processing with automatic processing, and discuss the next-in-line effect, the spacing effect and the serial position effect.*How do you force yourself to memorize something?

    Made up nonsense syllables in memory, practiced saying them over and over againNext day times how long it took it turns, randomly selects a sample of syllables. The more frequently he repeats the list, the fewer repetiions hes required to relearn on Day 2.*In other words, practice makes perfect!

    a. rote or maintenance rehearsal- simple repetition (saying phone number over and over again)b. elaborative rehearsal- organization and understanding and relating to previous memoriesQ:Which is more likely to be encoded into LTM and be able to retrieved?

    Craik and Lockhart- Levels of processing theory of memory- information is more likely to be remembered when it is processed at a deep level- relate new info to old info- understand the context

    **OBJECTIVE 5| Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-referent effect.Fergus Craig and Endel Tulving flashed words at people, they asked a ursiton that required people to process the words 1) visualy, 2) acousitcally, and 3) semantically. *OBJECTIVE 6| Explain how encoding imagery aids effortful processing, and describes some memory-enhancing strategies that use visual encoding.Recall words:Recall sentence:*The next-in-line effect is our tendency to forget what the person ahead of us in line has said because we are focusing on what we will say in our upcoming turn to speak. The spacing effect is our tendency to retain information more easily if we practice it repeatedly than if we practice it in one long session. The serial position effect is our tendency to remember the last and first items in a long list (for example, a grocery list) better than the middle items.

    Practice serial position effect:

    Who is credited with operant conditioning?

    Who is credited with dsicvoering classical conditioning?*Rehearsal is distributed over time- phenomenon where you learn one verse at a time.

    When do you remember best?

    Learn material, review for an hour each day for three consecutive days prior to an exam, view three hours the night before the examReview an hour/week, 3 weeks before

    Review an hour/week 3 weeks before the exam. Which is better for lifelong retention?SPACED STUDYING BEATS CRAMMING*The remember the first and last items better than those in the middle, perhaps because the last items are still in working memory, people briefly recall them especially quickly and well. After a delay, shifting their attention from the last items, recall is best for the first items.*Mnemonic techniques usually rely on vivid imageryGeek scholars who reemembered lengthy assages and speeches, moving through familiar series of locations. Orator would mentally revisit each location

    **One is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door, five is a hive, six is sticks, seven is heaven, eight is gate, nine is swine, ten is henLinking an automatic processing with effortful processing- frequency and time*OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.Outlining is effectiveAsk what techniques students use for organizing information**OBJECTIVE 8| Contrast two types of sensory memory.*OBJECTIVE 9| Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory.*OBJECTIVE 10| Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory.Rajan Mahadevan- 10 digits from the first 30,000 digits of pi and he would pick up a series from there50 random digits backwards*Penfield- 1969. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. Electrically stimulates different cortical regions of brain patients, patients occasionally hear things from their childhood.

    Psychologists have nonetheless tried to isolate a memory center- teach rats a maze and then cut out parts of brain- some memory always seems to remain*OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the synaptic changes that accompany memory formation and storage.

    Study in 1982, classically condition sea snails with electrical shock to reflexively withdraw its gills when squirted with water. Observe before and after, when learning occurs, the snail releases more of the neurotransmitter serotonin at certain synapses. This causes them to be more effective at transmitting signals*Receptors on on the receiving neuron Electron microscope images of neuron before and after long-term potentiation. More receptors indicates that the neuron is more sensitive for detecting the neurotransmitterCognitive enhancer= drugs currently in some phase od clinical trial development, such as CREB protein*OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory.

    Studies show that long-term exposure to stress shrinks the hippocampusSudden flow of stress hormones can block older memories

    Sudden stressful situation activates the sympathetic nervous sytem, causes more glucose to be available to fuel brain activity, allowing for better memory processing. Amygdala may also be activated by emotionally stressful situations.Chronic stress can damage the hippocampus and decrease memory capacity.

    *explicit (book calls it declarative)- deliberate conscious recall- trying to think about itex: when someone asks you about what you did over vacation, you are using explicit; episodic and semantic are explicitimplicit (book calls it nondeclarative ) unintentional recollection or prior experiences; procedural and conditioning are implicit*procedural- how to do something- a skill (riding a bike, tying a shoe-lace, your locker combo)Memories can be **episodic- memory of events personally experiencedsemantic- general world knowledgePeriod 3 end here**HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game.

    *Joseph Le Doux brain damaged patient whose amnesia left her unable tor ecognize her physician as, each day, he shook her hand. One day, after reaching for his hand, she yanks hers back because physcician has pricked her. Now uncomfortable with her doctor.*Emotionally charged events are remembered better Pleasant emotions are usually remembered better than unpleasant ones Positive memories contain more contextual details (which in turn, helps memory) Strong emotion can impair memory for less emotional events and information experienced at the same time It's the emotional arousal, not the importance of the information, that helps memory

    What would happen to someone with damage to their amygdala?

    They would not be able to properly process fear

    *OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.Recall is a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. Recognition is a measure in which a person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. Relearning is a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when relearning previously learned information. Tests of recognition and relearning reveal that we remember more than we recall. *OBJECTIVE 15| Explain how retrieval cues help us access stored memories, and describe the process of priming.We can think of a memory as held in storage by a web of associations. Retrieval cues are bits of related information we encode while encoding a target piece of information. They become part of the web. To retrieve a specific memory, we need to identify one of the strands that leads to it, a process called priming. Activating retrieval cues within our web of associations aids memory. Thetip of the tongue(TOTorTotorPresque vu, from the French for "almost seen") phenomenon is an instance of knowing something that cannot immediately be recalled. TOT is anexperiencewithmemoryrecollectioninvolving difficulty retrieving a well-knownwordor familiarname. When experiencing TOT, people feel that the blocked word is on the verge of being recovered. Despite failure in finding the word, people have the feeling that the blocked word is figuratively "on the tip of thetongue." Inaccessibility and the sense of imminence are two key features of an operational definition of TOTs (A.S. Brown, 1991). Period 9 End Here/ period 3**OBJECTIVE 16| Cite some ways that context can affect retrieval.Retrieval is sometimes aided by returning to the original context in which we experienced an event or encoded a thought. It can flood our memories with retrieval cues that lead to the target memory. Sometimes, being in a context similar to one weve been in before may trick us into unconsciously retrieving the target memory. The result is a feeling that we are reliving something that we have experienced beforea phenomenon known as dj vu. *Long-term potentiation- in response to increased activity in neural pathways, neural interconnections form or strengthen. In experiments we find that rapidly stimulating certain memory-circuit connections, such as in the aplysia, can increase the sensitivity and strengthen the connections.

    Drugs that block long term potentation can interfere with learning.

    Priming: To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.

    *OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval.

    Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.State-depednent memory: State-dependent memory is the tendency to recall information best in the same emotional or physiological state as when the information was learned. Memories are somewhat mood-congruent. While in a good or bad mood, we often retrieve memories consistent with that mood. Moods also prime us to interpret others behavior in ways consistent with our emotions. The angry rioter threw the rock at the window*OBJECTIVE 18| Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us.

    Period 6 end here*OBJECTIVE 19| Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting.*OBJECTIVE 20| Discuss the concept of storage decay, and describe Ebbinghaus forgetting curve.Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.

    Level of Processing Model: memories are neither short nor long-term, they are deeply processed or shallowly processed. We remember things we spend more cognitive time and energy processing. This theory explains why we remember stories better than a asimple recitation of events.*Retrieval failure can occur if we have too few cues to summon information from long-term memory. It may also happen when old and new information compete for retrieval. Proactive interference= something we learned in the past interferes with ur ability to recall something we have recently learned. Retroactive interference- something we have recently learned interferes with something we learned in the past.*OBJECTIVE 21| Contrast proactive and retroactive interference, and explain how they can cause retrieval failure.Retrieval failure can occur if we have too few cues to summon information from long-term memory. It may also happen when old and new information compete for retrieval. In proactive interference, something we learned in the past interferes with our ability to recall something we have recently learned.*Write on board: What does this graph show us?Retroactive interference- something we just learned interferes with older information we are trying to recall*OBJECTIVE 22| Summarize Freud's concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research.FREUD- concept of repression, Freud proposes that memories are self-censoring. To protect our self concepts and minimize anxiety we may block painful memories from consciousness.

    Increasingly we believe that repression rarely, I ever occurs.*We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages.We automatically encode sensory information in great detail, but why is it that we can only retrieve limited amounts of information from our memory store?

    **OBJECTIVE 23| Explain how misinformation and imagination can distort our memory of an event.People witness an event, receive misleading information, and take a memory test.Collision versus crash

    Famous study were Loftus shows people a film of a traffic accident and then quizzes them about what they saw. Those who were asked How fast were the cars going when they smashed into eachother gave higher speed estimates than those asked How fast were the cars foinf whe they hit eachother? A week later, the researchers asked the viewers if they recalled seeing any broken glass. Compared with those asked the question with hit, those who had heard smashed were more than twice as likely to say that they had seen broken glass (even though there was no broken glass)*OBJECTIVE 24| Describe source amnesias contributions to false memories

    When we encode memories, we distribute different aspects of them to different parts of the brain.Our memory for the source of an event is particularly frail. In source amnesia, we attribute to thewrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Thus, wemay recognize someone but have no idea where we have seen the person. Or we imagine or dreaman event and later are uncertain whether it actually happened. Source amnesia is one of the maincomponents of false memories.

    *OBJECTIVE 25| List some differences and similarities between true and false memories.

    Unreal memories feel like real memories. Neither the sincerity nor the longevity of a memorysignifies that it is real. The most confident and consistent eyewitnesses are often not the mostaccurate.Memories of imagined experiences are usually limited to the gist of the supposed eventthemeanings and feelings we associate with it. True memories contain more details than imaginedones.

    **OBJECTIVE 26| Give arguments supporting and rejecting the position that very young children's reports are reliable.In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse.

    *OBJECTIVE 1| Define cognition.

    A global, all-inclusive definition of thought is dificult, but psychologists try to define types or categories o thoughts. In psychology, when we study cognition, we are referring to ConceptsProblem solvingDecision makingJudgment formation

    *OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the roles of categories, hierarchies, definitions, and prototypes in concept formation.

    There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of a chair.We each have cognitive rules we apply to stimuli from our environment that allow us to categorize and think about the objects, people, and ideas we encounter. These rules are concepts.

    PREPARE FOR NEXT ACTIVITY**For example, a robin is a prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not.

    Introducing PrototypesBetsy Decyk has devised an exercise for introducing prototypes. Tell your students that even though you have known most of them for only a short time, you already know much about what and how they think.Have them take out a piece of paper and respond to the categories you are about to list with the very first example that comes to mind.1. a bird2. a color3. a triangle (drawing a picture is just fine)4. a motor vehicle5. a sentence6. a hero7. a heroic action8. a game9. a philosopher10. a writerAfter students have finished, say that you will predict many, if not most, of their answers even beforethey reveal them. Give the following:1. a robin, sparrow, or eagle2. red or blue3. a picture of an equilateral triangle4. a car5. a short declarative statement, e.g., The boy ranhome.6. Superman, Batman, or possibly a fireman7. a single act by a male, e.g. a rescue by a fireman8. Socrates or Aristotle9. monopoly or some other board game10. Stephen King, or some other white male authorExplain that we tend to think in terms of the bestexample of a category, or prototype. Within a givenculture, there tends to be considerable agreement, infact near consensus, on some prototypes. However,they may vary across cultures. As Diane Halpernexplains, if you live in Australia, you might namekiwi as a bird, most Russians would probably namePushkin, Tolstoy, or Chekhov as an example of a write*A computer generated face that was 70 percentCaucasian led people to classify it as Caucasian.

    *Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms.

    *Humans and animals have insight.

    (The time between not knowing the solution and realizing it is 0.3 seconds.)**Representative HeuristicsAvailability HeuristicsIvy league professor problem- 10 Ivy Leaues, about 4 classic professors at each ivy league school for s total of 40 ivy league classics professsors. Lets estimate that about are short and slim and of these 20 about 10 professors like to read poetryTruck drivers- 400,000, about 1 in 8 are short and slim= 50,000 and maybe 1 in 1000 like t read poetrry, leading to 500Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her mind. For example, a person might judge a young person more liekly to commit suicide because of a protoype of the depressed adolescent when, in fact, suicide rates are not higher in younder populations*Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind intiially. This heuristic might lead to incorrect conclusions due to variability in personal experience. For expample, a person may judge his or her neighborhood to be more dangerous than other sin the city simply because that prson is more familiar with violence in his or her neighborhood than other neighborhoods

    Memorable case often wins- mass killing of civilians may seem to have icncreased when actually it has declined significantly**Intuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and the inclination to explain failures increase our overconfidence.

    both the seller and the buyer may be confident about their decisions on a stock.

    Overconfidencecan have adaptive value. People who err on the side of overconfidence live more happily and find it easier to make tough decisions. At the same time, failing to appreciate ones potential for error when making military, economic, or political judgments can have devastating consequences.


    The 9/11 attacks led to a decline in air travel due to fear.After 9/11 a survey revealed that many people feared flying moer than driving*OBJECTIVE 7| Describe how others can use framing to elicit from us the answers they want.

    The same issue presented in two different but logically equivalent ways can elicit quite different answers. This framing effect suggests that our judgments and decisions may not be well reasoned, and that those who understand the power of framing can use it to influence important decisionsfor example, by wording survey questions to support or reject a particular viewpoint.

    Framing Decisions:*OBJECTIVE 8| Explain how our preexisting beliefs can distort our logic.

    We exhibit belief perseverance, clinging to our ideas in the face of contrary evidence because the explanation we accepted as valid lingers in our minds. Once beliefs are formed and justified, it takes more compelling evidence to change them than it did to create them. The best remedy for this form of bias is to make a deliberate effort to consider evidence supporting the opposite position

    Think to yourself of a belief you hold strongly. Would contrary evidence cause you to change this view?*OBJECTIVE 9| Describe the remedy for belief perseverance phenomenon.

    Charles and Lord- two new research findings, one supporting and the other refuting the claim that the death penalty deters crime. Each side was more impressed by the study that supported its own beliefs, and each readily disupted the other study.

    Once we believe something is true, we tend to ignore evidence to the contrary.

    Charles Lord and his colleagues repeated the capital punishement study, they asked some participants to be as objective and unbiased as possible. Doees NOT reduce biasHowever, when considering whether you would have made the same hgih or low evaluations had exactly the same study produced results on the other side of the issue, imagined and pondered opposite findings, these people became much less biasedDefine intelligence*OBJECTIVE 11| Describe the basic structural units of language.44 phonemes in the English language***syntactical rule says that adjectives come before nouns;*Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2.

    *Around four months of age, all babies enter the babbling stage, a stage of speech development where the infantspontaneously utters sounds that bear no resemblance to human speech.Even deaf babies will go through the babbling stage, suggesting it is innate. Experimentation with phonemes, babies in this stage are capable of producing any phoneme from any languageWe will retain the phonemes from our primary language and lose those from other languages

    *Babbling will progress into utterances of words (one-word stage)If a child is deprived of language completely up until the age of 7, he will never learn any language.In a study conducted at the University of Columbia, eight month old babies were played two different phonemes, or sound units, with subtle distinctions virtually undetectable by the American ear. Using positive reinforcement, young babies were trained to distinguish between the two sounds. When they conducted the same studies on twelve-month old toddlers, however, the infants were unable to identify a difference between the sounds. The reason that the eight month old infants could distinguish between the sounds and the twelve month old infants could not is due to what cognitive psychologists refer to as a critical period.*Babies meaningful use of words is a result of shaping that is done by parents*Our brains are prewired for a universal gframmar of bnouns, verbs, subjects, objects, negations and questions

    Critical Period for language developmentPeriod 6 for today*OBJECTIVE 14| Summarize Whorfs linguistic determinism hypothesis, and comment on its standing in contemporary psychology.Different languages cause us to view the world differentlyFor example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past.

    . It is easier to think about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) (zgen, 2004).

    After age 7 we can learn a second language, but we will never learn it like a native speaker. Older age of immigration, worse the grammar.*Who here speaks more than one language?**OBJECTIVE 17| Outline the arguments for and against the idea that animals and humans share the capacity for language.


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