*Do NowLook at the picture for 3 minutes. Then answer the questions
*AIM: How do we store memories?
*How does memory relate to learning?1. Memory is an indication that learning has persisted over time.2. Learning is acquisition, memory is retention
3. Memory is our ability to store and retrieve information.
*Flashbulb Memory-Results from unique or emotional moment -results in a clear, strong memory
Ruters/ CorbisHowever, this memory is not free from errors.
*A GD F B ZT M Y
*Sensory MemorySplit second storage for incoming stimuliIconic memoryfleeting perfect photograph of a sceneLasts about 1/10th of a secondEchoic memory- memory for soundsLasts about 3/10th of a second
*Stages of MemoryKeyboard(Encoding)Disk(Storage)Monitor(Retrieval)Sequential Process
*Three-stage Model (Information Processing)The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksBob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksFrank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis
*Sensory Memory: only some sensory input is encoded into short-term memory, most is lost.
Why do we encode certain sensory info into short-term?
*Short term memory lasts 10-30 seconds but can be expanded
Long term memory last minutes, days, hours, weeks, years
FeatureSensoryMemoryShort-term Working MemoryLTM
CapacityUnlimited7 +/- 2Very very large
Do Now: Fill in the table below
CapacityUnlimited72 ChunksVery LargeDuration0.20 sec.20 sec.Years
*Working MemoryAlan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing
AIM: How can we encode memories?*
*Encoding: Getting Information InHow We EncodeAutomatic Processing: Some information is automatically encoded SpaceTimeFrequency (how often things happen)
2. Effortful Processing: However, new or unusual information (friends new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.
Long lasting memoriesSpencer Grant/ Photo Edit Bananastock/ Alamy
How can we effortfully process memories?*
*1) RehearsalEffortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.
Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZHermann Ebbinghaus(1850-1909)http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de
*Rote or Maintenance Rehearsal (repeating to commit to memory)The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
*What We EncodeEncoding by meaning (semantic coding)Encoding by imagesEncoding by organization
*Levels of Processing Theory of MemoryQ: Did the word begin with a capital letter?StructuralEncodingQ: Did the word rhyme with the word weight?Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street.PhonemicEncodingSemanticEncodingWhaleCraik and Lockhart (1972)IntermediateDeepShallow
*Semantic Encoding: Encoding using meaning
*Visual EncodingMental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.Both photos: Ho/AP Photo
Do Now: Pass forward Psych SimWhat is MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL? How does it differ from ELABORATIVE ENCODING?
*Whole ReportThe exposure time for the stimulus is so smallthat items cannot be rehearsed.R G T F M Q L Z S50 ms (1/20 second)RecallR T M Z(44% recall)Sperling (1960)
*Partial ReportLow Tone
High ToneRecallJ R S(100% recall)Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.50 ms (1/20 second)S X T J R S P K Y
*Time DelayRecallN _ _(33% recall)TimeDelay50 ms (1/20 second)A D I N L V O G HLow Tone
*Sensory MemoryThe longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.
*Sensory MemoriesThe duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.
AIM: Why do we remember some information.
And forget the rest?
*Memory EffectsNext-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says
2. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.
3. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.a. primacy effect- beginningb. recency effect- later info
*Spacing EffectDistributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHTRobert Frost
I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light.
*Serial Position Effect
*MnemonicsMnemonic techniques are memory devicesMethod of LociPegword SystemChunkingHierarchy
*Method of LociList of Items
CharcoalPensBed SheetsHammer...RugImagined Locations
*Link MethodInvolves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.List of Items
*Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide themOrganizing Information for EncodingChunkingHierarchy
*GHA TUV SOW RRT
*MTV FBI WTF LOL
*ChunkingOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below.1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.
*ChunkingAcronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract
ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
*HierarchyComplex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
*Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy
*Storage: Retaining InformationStorage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:SensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingRetrievalEncodingEventsRetrieval
*Working MemoryWorking memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (72) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember upto 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.
*Working Memory Duration
AIM: How do we store memories?*
*Long-Term MemoryUnlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). The Clarks nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches ofburied pine seeds during winter and spring.R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers
FeatureSensoryMemoryWorking MemoryLTMEncodingExact CopyPhonemicSemanticCapacityUnlimited72 ChunksVery LargeDuration0.20 sec.20 sec.Years
*Storing Memories in the BrainThrough electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield concluded that old memories were etched into the brain.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.
*Synaptic ChangesIn Aplysia serotonin release from neurons increases after conditioning.Photo: Scientific American
Do Now: What is meant by the term Long Term Potentiation?
*Synaptic ChangesLong-Term Potentiation (LTP)= synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors indicates strengthening of synapses.Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller
AIM: How are memories stored in the brain?
*Stress Hormones & MemoryHeightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
*Types of MemoryExplicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit (procedural) memory how to do something, a skill Example: Riding a bike
*Types of MemoryImplicit (procedural) memory how to do something, a skill Example: Riding a bike
*Explicit= DeclarativeImplicit= Procedural
*Types of Explicit MemoryEpisodic- autobiographical events personally experiencedExample: When is your birthday?
Semantic: Words, Ideas, Concepts Example: What is the capital of France?
*Classify each as implicit or explicit memory.If it is explicit, indicate if it is semantic or episodic.Knowing how to tie your shoe- The history of your grandparent-How to cook-Typing-Your last summer vacation- The causes of World War Two-What you ate during lunch-The sound of the school bell causing you to instinctively reach for your backpack:
Do Now: Quiz*
*AIM: How do we retrieve memories from our long-term storage?
*HippocampusHippocampus a neural center in the limbicsystem that processes explicit memories.Weidenfield & Nicolson archives
*No New MemoriesAnterograde AmnesiaAnterogradeAmnesia(HM)SurgeryAfter losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) suffered from anterograde amnesia: he remembers everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. Retrograde amnesia: lose old memories, can still form new onesMemory Intact
*Implicit MemoryHM is unable to make new memories that aredeclarative (explicit), but he can form newmemories that are procedural (implicit).
*CerebellumCerebellum a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.
*AmygdalaRecent studies show the amygdala is involved in processing emotional memories
Do Now: 1. What is long-term potentiation?2. How can stress have two different effects on memory?
AIM: Why do we forget?
*Retrieval: Getting Information OutRetrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store.Spankys Yearbook ArchiveSpankys Yearbook Archive
*Measures of MemoryIn recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.)Given prime: cueName the capital of France.
*Measures of MemoryIn recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.)The capital of France is ______.
*Measures of MemoryIn relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.ListJetDaggerTreeKiteSilkFrogRingIt took 10 trialsto learn this listListJetDaggerTreeKiteSilkFrogRingIt took 5 trialsto learn the list1 day laterSavingOriginalTrialsRelearningTrialsOriginalTrials1051050%X 100X 100
*Retrieval CuesMemories are held in storage by a semantic web of associations.Fire Trucktruckredfireheatsmokesmellwaterhose
*PrimingTo retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must prime it: activate one of the strands that leads to it.
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: instance of knowing something but being unable to place the word, due to a failure of retrieve
*Context EffectsScuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on landFred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers
*Context EffectsAfter learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different contextCourtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University
*December 18, 2009Do Now:What is long-term potentiation?How can stress have two different effects on memory?What is priming?
*Moods and StatesMood-congruent memory: We recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. State-dependent Memory: We recall events while in certain states of consciousnessJorgen Schytte/ Still PicturesBoth moods and states serve as retrieval cues.
Why do we forget?
*ForgettingAn inability to retrieve information due to:Poor encoding- not semantically encoded (no meaning)Poor storagePoor retrieval- unable to bring into working memory
*Encoding FailureWe cannot remember what we do not encode.
*Which penny is real?
*Storage DecayPoor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. (Level of Processing Model)- we tend to store deeply processed memories
*Retrieval FailureAlthough the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed.Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).
*InterferenceLearning some new information may disruptretrieval of other information.Proactive Interference: earlier information will interfere with later learned informationRetroactive Interference: recently learned information interferes with earlier information
*Retroactive InterferenceSleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, itleads to better recall.
Do Now:Contrast retroactive and proactive interference
AIM: Can we intentionally forget?*
*Motivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories.
Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.Sigmund FreudCulver Pictures
*Why do we forget?Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
*Memory ConstructionWhile tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
*Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.Misinformation and Imagination Effects Depiction of the actual accident.
*MisinformationGroup A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?
Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
*Memory ConstructionA week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).
Broken Glass? (%)
Broken Glass? (%)
*Source AmnesiaSource Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution).
*Discerning True & False MemoriesJust like true perception and illusion, real memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern.When students formed a happy or angry memory ofmorphed (computer blended) faces, they made the (computer assisted) faces (a), either happier or (b) angrier. Simon Niedsenthal
*Repressed or Constructed?Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse.
False Memory SyndromeA condition in which a persons identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believ...