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1-1 EE2030: Electromagnetics (I) Text Book: - Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University References: - William Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw Hill

# 1-1 EE2030: Electromagnetics (I) Text Book: - Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University References: - William Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics,

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1-1

EE2030: Electromagnetics (I)

Text Book: - Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University

References: - William Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw Hill

Part 1:

Vector Analysis

1-3

Associative Law:

Distributive Law:

1-4

Rectangular Coordinate System

1-5

Point Locations in Rectangular Coordinates

1-6

Differential Volume Element

1-7

Summary

1-8

Orthogonal Vector Components

1-9

Orthogonal Unit Vectors

1-10

Vector Representation in Terms of Orthogonal Rectangular Components

1-11

Summary

1-12

Vector Expressions in Rectangular Coordinates

General Vector, B:

Magnitude of B:

Unit Vector in the Direction of B:

1-13

Example

1-14

Vector Field

We are accustomed to thinking of a specific vector:

A vector field is a function defined in space that has magnitude and direction at all points:

where r = (x,y,z)

1-15

The Dot Product

Commutative Law:

1-16

Vector Projections Using the Dot Product

B • a gives the component of Bin the horizontal direction

(B • a) a gives the vector component of B in the horizontal direction

Projection of a vector on another vector

1-18

Operational Use of the Dot Product

Given

Find

where we have used:

Note also:

1-19

Cross Product

1-20

Operational Definition of the Cross Product in Rectangular Coordinates

Therefore:

Or…

Begin with:

where

Vector Product or Cross Product

1-22

Cylindrical Coordinate Systems

1-23

Cylindrical Coordinate Systems

1-24

Cylindrical Coordinate Systems

1-25

Cylindrical Coordinate Systems

1-26

Differential Volume in Cylindrical Coordinates

dV = dddz

1-27

Point Transformations in Cylindrical Coordinates

1-28

Dot Products of Unit Vectors in Cylindrical and Rectangular Coordinate Systems

1-29

Transform the vector, into cylindrical coordinates:

Example

Then:

Finally:

Example: cont.

1-31

Spherical Coordinates

1-32

Spherical Coordinates

1-33

Spherical Coordinates

1-34

Spherical Coordinates

1-35

Spherical Coordinates

1-36

Spherical Coordinates

Point P has coordinatesSpecified by P(r)

1-37

Differential Volume in Spherical Coordinates

dV = r2sindrdd

1-38

Dot Products of Unit Vectors in the Spherical and Rectangular Coordinate Systems

1-39

Example: Vector Component Transformation

Transform the field, , into spherical coordinates and components

Constant coordinate surfaces- Cartesian system

1-40

If we keep one of the coordinate variables constant and allow theother two to vary, constant coordinate surfaces are generated in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.

We can have infinite planes:

X=constant,

Y=constant,

Z=constant

These surfaces are perpendicular to x, y and z axes respectively.

1-41

Constant coordinate surfaces- cylindrical system

Orthogonal surfaces in cylindrical coordinate system can be generated as ρ=constnt Φ=constant z=constant ρ=constant is a circular cylinder, Φ=constant is a semi infinite plane with its edge along z axis z=constant is an infinite plane as in therectangular system.

1-42

Constant coordinate surfaces- Spherical system

Orthogonal surfaces in spherical coordinate system can be generated as r=constant θ=constant Φ=constant

θ =constant is a circular cone with z axis as its axis and origin at the vertex,

Φ =constant is a semi infinite plane as in the cylindrical system.

r=constant is a sphere with its centre at the origin,

Differential elements in rectangularcoordinate systems

1-43

1-44

Differential elements in Cylindricalcoordinate systems

1-45

Differential elements in Sphericalcoordinate systems

1-46

Line integrals

Line integral is defined as any integral that is to be evaluated along a line. A line indicates a path along a curve in space.

Surface integrals

1-47

Volume integrals

1-48

DEL Operator

1-49

DEL Operator in cylindrical coordinates:

DEL Operator in spherical coordinates:

1-50

The gradient of a scalar field V is a vector that represents themagnitude and direction of the maximum space rate of increase of V.

For Cartesian Coordinates

For Cylindrical Coordinates

For Spherical Coordinates

Divergence of a vector

1-51

In Cartesian Coordinates:

In Cylindrical Coordinates:

In Spherical Coordinates:

Gauss’s Divergence theorem

1-52

Curl of a vector

1-53

1-54

Curl of a vector In Cartesian Coordinates:

In Cylindrical Coordinates:

In Spherical Coordinates:

Stoke’s theorem

1-56

Laplacian of a scalar

1-57

Laplacian of a scalar

1-58

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