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Text of © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The...


McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/IrwinMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-#1GlossaryA private exchange occurs when a specific firm (either buyer or seller) invites others to participate in online information exchanges and transactions.Return to slide 6-#B2B Marketing

Who is the end user? 6-#3Students must understand the distinction between B2B and B2C. If the women in the picture purchase lemons to make lemonade for themselves, they are engaging in a B2C transaction. If the boy buys them to make lemonade to sell to others, it is a B2B transaction. B2B Markets

U.S. Census Website 6-#4A wide range of businesses participate in B2B transactions. This weblink is to the census page which contains all the details on the North American Industry Classification System the governments method of classifying business activity. Manufacturers or Producers

Gear Expo News Clip 6-#5When a company like Burts Bees buys raw materials to make their products, it is a B2B purchase. When they sell the products to the retailer it is B2B, when the retailer sells to the end consumer it is B2C. This YouTube link (always check before class) is to a video clip previewing a gear tradeshow. Tradeshows are common for B2B selling and allows manufacturers to see new raw materials and for resellers to see new products. Ask students if they have attended any B2B tradeshows? If so, what typically happens, what is the environment, what did they learn at the show?

Resellers 6-#6Resellers perform an essential service: They aggregate goods from manufacturers and sell them to retailers or, in the case of retailers, they sell them to consumers. Thus, one reseller can represent many different manufacturers, which saves the manufacturers the trouble of finding retailers or consumers and gives retailers or consumers the ability to buy only the desired quantity from the reseller.

How is this B2B ad similar to B2C ads?6-7 6-#In many ways it is similar they are still showing benefits of the product and a need by the consumer. The ad still needs to be attractive and attention getting.7In what kind of publication might this appear?

6-8 6-#This type of ad would be in a trade magazine for institutional food buyers, restaurants or a convenience store trade publication8_________________ buy products from other businesses but do not significantly alter the form of the products they buy. ProducersConsumersResellersEnglish auctioneersGatekeepers 6-# 6-#9Ans.CExplanation: Resellers include wholesalers and distributors who coordinate assortment and volume needs between manufacturers and retailers.Chipwich Teaches Business

6-#Ask students: How are they representing the manufacturer? Are they resellers? Who are the retailers? Would you want to do this job?10InstitutionsSchools, Museums and Religious Organizations

London Museum News Clip

6-#11Group activity: Have students consider their university as a purchasing institution. What types of products and services must universities purchase? This YouTube video (check links before class) talks about a London museum buying Rolling Stones artwork.GovernmentUS Government spends $2.1 trillion procuring goodsState and local governments also make significant purchasesFirms specialize in selling to government

6-#12Many firms sell exclusively to government entities and therefore are adept at meeting the unique needs of governmental buyers. For example, firms in the defense industry generally sell exclusively to governments. Adding Value: Paris Runways

6-#Ask Students: How do runway shows create value? For the wholesale buyers, they get a preview of fashion trends. For the designer, they get to create buzz for their products with the end consumers. 13Identify the various types of B2B markets.What are NAICS codes and how are they used?

Check Yourself 6-#Manufacturers, resellers, institution, government.North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categorize all firms into a hierarchical set of six-digit codes. They are useful to B2B marketers for segmenting and targeting their markets.

B2B Buying Process

6-#Although B2B and B2C buying processes are similar, this chapter highlights some key differences.

15Compared to the B2C process, the information search and alternative evaluation steps in the B2B process are: central planned.subject to government regulation.more formal and structured.conducted before need recognition.all of the above. 6-# 6-#16Ans.C Explanation: Business buyers make purchase decisions based on the needs of their organizations. Business buying often involves RFPs, Requests for Proposals, that business marketers respond to in a formal written proposal.Stage 1: Need RecognitionCan be generated internally or externallySources for recognizing new needs:SuppliersSalespeopleCompetitors

6-#17Just like the consumer buying process, the B2B process begins with need recognition. Needs arise from a variety of sources. For example, a salesperson from firm A attends a trade show and visits firm Bs booth, which features a demonstration of a new sorting process. Although firm A had been looking for ways to improve its efficiency, it had not yet considered the possibility of sorting efficiencies. Stage 2: Product Specifications

Used by Suppliers to develop proposalsCan be done collaboratively with suppliers 6-#18Not only do RFPs enable the buyer to solicit pricing and other information from a variety of suppliers, but they also allow suppliers to learn about the buyer and its specific needs.

Federal Business Opportunities WebsiteStage 3: RFP Process (Request for Proposal)

6-#19RFPs enable the buyer to solicit pricing and other information from a variety of suppliers and they also allow suppliers to learn about the buyer and its specific needs. The web link on this page brings you to Fed BizOps site exists for any firm that wishes to bid on government contracts. Potential suppliers can view the products/services being sought. Step 4: Proposal Analysis, Vendor Negotiation and SelectionOften several vendors are negotiating against each otherConsiderations other than price play a role in final selection

6-#20Firms apply different strategies for vendor selection: Some always choose the lowest price, whereas others apply more complicated selection criteria. The government uses preferred contractor programs, designed to offer small and minority-owned firms greater opportunity. Step 5: Order Specification

Firm places the orderThe exact details of the purchase are specifiedAll terms are detailed including payment 6-#21After a vendor is chosen, terms of the contract still need to be negotiated. When these terms have been agreed upon, the contract can be signed. During the __________ stage of the buying process B2B buyers invite alternative suppliers to bid on supplying what is requested. information search need recognition RFP vendor analysisall of the above 6-# 6-#22Ans.C Explanation: During the RFP stage, suppliers bid on providing the materials, parts, or services the business buyer is requesting.Step 6: Vendor Analysis

6-#23After the vendor has performed the service or delivered the order, the buyer conducts a vendor analysis to judge whether the vendor should provide future purchases.Check YourselfIdentify the stages in the B2B buying process.How do you do a vendor analysis?

6-#Need recognition, Product specification, RFP process, Proposal analysis and supplier selection, Orders specification, Vendor/performance assessment using metricsVendor AnalysisThe buying team develops a list of issues that it believes are important to consider in the evaluation of the vendor.To determine how important each of these issues (in column 1) is, the buying team assigns an importance score to each (column 2). The more important the issue, the higher a score it will receive, but the importance scores must add up to . In the third column, the buying team assigns numbers that reflect its judgments about how well the vendor performs. To get the overall performance of the vendor, in the fourth column, the team combines the importance of each issue and the vendors performance scores by multiplying them together.

Factors Affecting the Buying Process 6-#This slide sets up the slides to follow.

The Buying Center

6-#26Group activity: Have the students diagram a purchase situation that involves all of these roles. The book uses the example of a doctor/patient relationship, but many similar examples also exist. Which of the following is NOT one of the roles typically played by one of the members of a buying center? resellerinitiatorinfluencerdecidergatekeeper 6-# 6-#27Ans.A Explanation: The buying center is a group of individuals in an organization that participate in the purchase decision. The buying center usually includes an initiator, influencer, decider, gatekeeper, user, and buyer. Many times, one person plays more than one role in the buying center.Wine Entrepreneur 6-#Ask students: How might they sell their product for distribution in Costco? Who might be in the buying center at Costco?28Organizational Culture

6-#29Different firms assign different ultimate responsibility for purchase decisions. Even within a firm, different buying groups have unique buying styles.Marketers must understand the dynamics of the buying center to succeed. Ask students: Assume your family or the household in which you live is a buying center. Is it an autocratic, consultative, or consensus when making group buying decisions such as planning a vacation or shopping for groceries.Buying Situations

6-#30As in B2C, different B2B buying situations require different levels of effort and the involvement of various parties. The effort required by each situation varies. Ask Students: Suppose you represented a private label manufacturer of womens apparel that was selling to Target. Think about the differences in the three buying situation? Which would be the easiest option for the apparel salesperson to accomplish? Which would be the hardest? Why? New BuyPurchasing for the first timeLikely to be quite involvedThe buying center will probably use all six steps in the buying process

6-#31In a new buy situation, a customer purchases a good or service for the first time, which means the buying decision is likely to be quite involved because the buyer or the buying organization does not have any experience with the item.Modified RebuyPurchasing a similar product but changing specificationsCurrent vendors have an advantage

6-#32In a modified rebuy, the buyer has purchased a similar product in the past but has decided to change some specifications, such as the desired price, quality level, customer service level, options, or so forth.Straight RebuysBuying additional units or products that have been previously purchasedMost B2B purchases fall into this category

6-#33Straight rebuys occur when the buyer or buying organization simply buys additional units of products that had previously been purchased.In a ___________ B2B buying situation, the buying decision is likely to be quite involved. new buymodified rebuystraight rebuyeither a new buy or a modified rebuyall of the above 6-# 6-#34Ans. A Explanation: When a business buyer is making a decision about a product or service they have not purchased in the past, the decision making process will likely involve all steps in the buying process, may include many members in the buying center, and involve extensive research and evaluation.Power of the InternetPutting Volkswagen Together

Realigned purchasingIntroduced iPAD (internal purchasing agent desk)Cut time per order from 60 to 20 minutesOnline connection to suppliers 6-#35By using technology, Volkswagen achieved dramatic improvements in its purchasing system. The system benefited buyers, customers, and suppliers. Thus, this Adding Value offers a great example of how technology can improve the B2B the buying process. Role of the Internet in Business-to-Business Marketing 6-#36Although the specific analysis of e-commerce appears later in the text, throughout the semester, you can ask students to consider how technology has changed marketing as a whole. How is this ad B2B and B2C?

6-37 6-#This ad appeals to the consumer as an individual for their personal life and a buyer considering future raw material trends37Check YourselfWhat factors affect the B2B buying process?What are the six different buying roles?What is the difference between new buy, rebuy, and modified rebuy?

6-#The buying center, the buying organizations philosophy or corporate culture, and the buying situation.Buying roles include:(1) initiator, the person who first suggests buying the particular product or service(2) influencer, person whose views influence other members of the buying center in making the final decision;(3) decider, the person who ultimately determines any part of or the entire buying decisionwhether to buy, what to buy, how to buy, or where to buy; (4) buyer, the person who handles the paperwork of the actual purchase; (5) user, the persons who consumes or uses the product or service; and (6) gatekeeper, the persons who controls information or access, or both, to decision makers and influencers.3. In a new buy situation, a customer purchases a good or service for the first time, the buying decision is likely to be quite involved The buying center is likely to proceed through all six steps in the buying process and involve many people in the buying decision. In a modified rebuy, the buyer has purchased a similar product in the past but has decided to change some specifications, such as the desired price, quality level, customer service level, options, or so forth. Straight rebuys occur when the buyer or buying organization simply buys additional units of products that had previously been purchased. GlossaryResellers are marketing intermediaries that resell manufactured products without significantly altering their form.Return to slide 6-#