VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KULLU
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KULLUSubmitted by:Jagriti13622VERNACULAR ARCHITECTUREVERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE is a category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions.It tends toevolveover time to reflect theenvironmental,cultural,technological, economic, andhistoricalcontext in which it exists.The termvernacularis derived from theLatinvernaculus, meaning "native".In architecture, it refers to that type of architecture which isindigenousto a specific time or place.Introduction to VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KULLUIn Kullu, elements of nature shape the spatial order and man has to adapt himself to these forces.
Over the ages it has evolved unique traditions of art and architecture with foreign influences.
In the post independence period it has been marked by almost complete break from traditional and colonial style of architecture.
Geographical features OF KULLUAltitude : 1,278mLatitude : 3120Nto3225'NLongitude : 76 56E to77 52'EClimate : Cold Maximum Temperature : 38.8 CMinimum Temperature : 5.2 CAverage rainfall : 80 cmLOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALSAvailability of forests implies high preference to wood for construction purposes.Due to the Beas river passing through the district, mud is available easily.Since it is hilly area, stone is available in abundance.
Climatic influenceLow ceiling height for warmer interiors.Small size windows to prevent heat loss.Sloping roofs for efficient drainage in heavy rainfall and snowfall areas.Use of wood mainly for building purposes to keep the living warmer and comfortable.
ARCHITECTURE OF KULLU
Architecture of Kullu can broadly be divided into 4 categories:
Architecture of housesTemple ArchitectureArchitecture of MonasteriesArchitecture of Palaces
ARCHITECTURE of housesDouble storey houses with pitched roof, oriented towards South to reduce heat loss.Linear arrangement of rooms, connected by a verandah or balcony on both the floors.Timber and stone are used widely as both have high thermal capacity and low conductivity.Inner walls thickness is 4 inch and outer walls thickness is 9 inch.
SECTION OF A TYPICAL HOUSE
This style of layering and interlocking timber with stones in the walls provides strength, stability and flexibility.
Different types of Pitched RoofsTEMPLE ARCHITECTUREHimachal Pradesh is a land of the Gods.Hindu temples of many types are found in this spectacular land of the Himalayas.This valley of Kullu has 368 temples.There are three styles of temple architecture in the valley:Pagoda styleShikhara stylePahari style
PAGODA STYLEThese are rectangular stone and wood structures with successive roofs, placed one over the other making them in some cases look like multi-storey edifices. Hadimba Temple(Manali) ,Tripura Sundri Temple(Naggar) and Adi Brahma Temple (Khokhan) are examples of such architecture.
Interiors of the temple
Adi-brahma templeShikhara styleItrefers to the rising tower over thesanctum where the presiding deity is enshrined and is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India.
Bishweshwar temple(Bajaura), Shiv Temple (Naggar), Gauri Shankar Temple (Dashal), Shiv Temple (Jagatsukh) are built in this style.
Of these Bishweshwar temple, Bajaura is the largest stone temple in the valley.
Bishweshwar templePahari stylePahari style is a mixture of all other temple forms.
Bhuvneshwari Temple and Bijli Mahadev Temple in Kullu are excellent examples of this form of temple architecture.
Bijli mahadev templeDechen Choekhor Monastery
Naggar castleInterior view of naggar castle
Chehni kothiMain construction techniques Rammed earth technique Adobe construction
In the former style, the mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed into the place slowly building up the wall.
In the later style, sun dried mud blocks are used in the construction of the wall. The roof is kept flat and comprises a closely packed layer of sun twigs supported on wooden beams and joists and resting on the wooden columns.