User Experience and Trinity ModelJinsoo KimPh.D. in HCI
ContentsWhy User Experience?What is User Experience?Definition of UXUser vs. CustomerInterface vs. InteractionWhat constitutes interface?Trinity ModelHuman, Product and Finance
The importance of UXThe Diffusion of Innovation Graph. (Moore, 1991.)
WorldWideWeb for NeXT
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
Samsung VS. Apple
define de + finircompletely end= boundary
User Centered DesignA framework of processes in which the needs, wants, and limitations ofend usersof aproduct, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of thedesign process.
The chief difference from other product design philosophiesto optimize the product around how users can, want, or need to use the product, rather than forcing the users to change their behavior to accommodate the product.
User vs. Customer
memorable events --> experience
13HCI is an academic discipline to help human to use computer more easily
Interaction vs. InterfaceReference: Human-Computer Interaction by Alan Dix, et al
What makes the design hard?HumanSo many users who are different in one way or anotherDifferent goal, different behavior, and different preference ComputerDiverse computing environmentDifferent OS, different browser, and different network environment, different screen sizeHuman vs. ComputerDifferent characteristic in information processingExhaustive search vs. Heuristic searchConsciousness and Emotion
15Research can help narrow the gap between human and computer.
Common characteristics of Human (Information processing mechanism) Segmentation(Demographic, Behavior, Goal)
How to treat many usersThree layers Common characteristic as HumanInformation processing mechanismUsers shows similarities within a group of people according toBehavior, preference, demographyGoal directed approach such as personaPersona: fictional character whose goals and needs are representative of a particular group of people (http://www.cooper.com/)PersonalizationDifferent design for each individual
Cognitive OverloadParadox of Choice by Barry Schwartzfact that some choice is good doesn't necessarily mean that more choice is better. ... There is a cost to having an overload of choice.
2015-12-1821Magus is a personalization tool designed to improve the user experience. This tool will provide better insights on user interests and behavior.Now, we will know what a user wants to read by analyzing their click behavior.For example, if I like baseball, I am going to get more news on baseball as opposed to hockey.
Persona exampleHighlight Ned background41 years oldMarried with 2 childrenAccount manager for a large chemical companyAvid sports fan Takes care of family finances tactical and strategicWorks from home at nightInternet 10hours / week
Execution-Evaluation ModelThe manner in which humans interact with systems by Don Norman
Mistreatment of Visual Weight
Power of VisualizationReal Time TrackingFaster tracking for immediate actionContextual coupling between an article and its performance
2015-12-1825By using US platform, the Korea team localized the technology to fit the markets requirements.We showed this to Scott Moore and he was very impressed and I will tell you why.It shows number of clicks real time where as US is operating in a 15 minute delay.For news and FP, freshness is very important.By looking at the number of clicks, editors can make change immediately.For news, this was a key driver for our improvement.
YAHOO! CONFIDENTIALNews - Result
550650Apr06 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb MarM700750
576M661M News PV in May spiked over 905M PV, reached +78.5% against Apr 07Source: DYC
758M-2.5%575M540M504M549M497M486M507MApr07 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Source: Korean Click (Weekly)
21.69 min/week (No.3)34.27 min/week (No.1~2)Increasing 58.0%News Avg. Duration Time
Human-Computer Interaction?When a person is using a computer, he/she is trying to do something Human-work interaction with the computer as an intermediaryTerry Winograd at Standford UniversityProduct instead of workProduct is what a company makes and deliver to usersProduct is not any product but computer mediated interactive productWith which Interaction through computer still mattersProduct instead of Computer
30One of the reasons I changed work to product is that work is not something a company can deliver.
FinanceReturns on investment of HCIHelp decision making (research)Decrease Communication cost (ex, UML) Save development and maintenance costProvide good processes Reduce Customer Care costBy reducing bugs Increase key performance index(KPI)By directly increase traffic or revenue through better usabilityUnderlying assumptions for business contributionHCI make quality product enhance user experience Increase KPI (pvs, uvs, revenue)But HCIs perspective sometimes conflicts with finance in practice
31Of course, HCI can contribute to business in some way or another but it can not cover all the business issues within it.
HCI vs. FinanceProduct success vs. Financial successSuccessful communities failed in making money Iloveschool, freechal Financial decision ex) MMS mobile menu locationby # of clicks or amount of revenue?Business model vs. user experience ex) Often times ads are annoyingUsability vs. KPI ex) News list page for more PVsQuantity of content ex) user satisfaction vs. content cost
32HCI and Business do not always go together. More content may increase user satisfaction but it also increases cost.
Motivations for a new modelOften times product plan misses one or two critical elementsEither user or finance is not consideredNeed for an integrated framework to explain IB in a consistent mannerThere are many theories around IB but there is no framework to contain them Simple model is required for practical useTo solve UI problems, we need to memorize and internalize itInternet Business requires a complete, consistent and simple framework
Trinity Model (TM)
Computer MediatedInteractive ProductBy Jinsoo Kim
34Karen Holtzblatt (Contextual Design) vs. Donald Norman (The Psychology of Everyday Things, Emotional Design)
Trinity ModelConsists of three entitiesHuman, Product and Finance Each entity contains the other two in itHuman has needs that requires a product to meet his/her needs and willing to spend money for thatProduct should reflect user needs and have to contain business model either direct or indirectFinance must figure out how much money a user is willing to pay for the value a product giveThe Key entity is HumanResearch focus
Focus on People1933 World Fair motto of "science finds, industry applies, man conforms"1993 Normans person-centered motto for the 21st Century:People propose, science studies, technology conforms.The issue is not technology but people
Karen H. vs. Donald N.
Relation (H, P, F)By Jinsoo Kim
Make MoneyProfitLossCostBenefitAchieve GoalMediumValueResource Finance
38Engineering objective, Cyworld, Freechal
CEOs BG and StrategyBy Jinsoo Kim
HumanInterfaceCost reductionM & AExcellent ProductMarketing
39Bob Lutz: GM
Strategy (H, P, F)
ProfitableMore BenefitUnique orDifferentiatedBy Jinsoo KimInterface
40Michael Porter, Commodity
StrategyProduct: unique/differentiatedCompany should deliver unique/differentiated product or feature to win the users mindUniqueness/differentiation should be sought constantly because unique/differentiated thing at one time becomes commoditized soonHuman: valuable Unique product should help the users achieve their goal in a more valuable wayJust technically unique product disappears when it fails to provide any more value to users Finance: profitableThe product should also be considered in business perspectiveIf it takes too much resource or it brings too less profit it doesnt make sense to create it
41Unlike s/w product we make money by selling its copy, when we consider Internet product, we must think how to make money with the product.
Yahoo! StrategyInsightUser Data UtilizationUnderstand UsersOpenOpen PlatformInvolve Users in ProductionCustomize the ProductsPartner of ChoiceImportance of partnershipExpand Business Network
42Interpret with TM
Basic Quality: Back to BasicsContent Expansion: Openness, GlobalizationPersonalizationFPSearchNewsKidsContent Filtering: Editing, CommunityDifferentiated Y!KROverall Framework
43Strategy setting, plan review, UI review
Data not collected between Dec. 16th to Dec 2