Unit Three Reflective Paper

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<p> 1. Lauren Fowler-CarterReflective Paper Learning and Development Cognitive TheoryAccording to Cherry (n.d.), Jean Piaget has created the foundation that has allowed anumber of instructional strategies to be developed from his work. Critics have stated that thechildren that Piaget used in his studies were from families that were well-educated and of a highsocial class (Cherry). It is argued that since his subjects were of a high social class, that it isdifficult to generalize his findings to a larger population (Cherry). Another criticism that Cherry(n.d.) discusses is that children may not be as egocentric as Piaget once believed them to be.There has been children within the me stage of development that have shown a sophisticatedunderstanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people (Cherry).Another criticism toward Piagets stages of development is that Piaget states that childrenshow characteristics when they are in the specific stages, but there are children that may holdonto a trait past the categorized stage or not show a dominant characteristic in a current stage(Driscoll, 2005, p. 203). This critique shows how all the rules of development that Piagetdiscusses do not apply in every situation. Jerome Bruner has a different theory of the stages ofdevelopment for children. Bruners three modes of representation are enactive, iconic, andsymbolic. Bruner, in contrast to Piaget, believed in the invariant sequence of stage throughwhich children pass but not in their age dependency (Driscoll, 2005, p. 230). According toDriscoll (2005), adults may require practice with iconic forms before they can understand anduse a symbolic mode of representation; they needing certain amounts of motor skill and actionbefore they develop their actions. (p. 231). One of the main concepts that Vygotsky brought forthwas the zone of proximal development. He discovered this concept by presenting children withtasks that were beyond their capabilities (Driscoll, 2005, p. 253). By doing so, Vygotsky wasable to reveal the gap between the childs actual developmental level as determined by 2. Lauren Fowler-Carterindependent problem solving and the higher level of potential development as determinedthrough problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers(Driscoll, 2005, p. 253). 3. Lauren Fowler-CarterReferencesCherry, K. (n.d.). Support and Criticism of Piagets Stages Theory. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from About.Com: Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/piagetcriticism.htmDriscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.</p>